How The Kidneys Work
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs. They are each about the size of a fist. You can find them below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine. Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute.
They remove wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters. You can find one on each side of your bladder. The kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, one on each side of your spine, picture by Freepik
After the body uses food for energy and self-repair, the waste goes to the blood. The most common waste products are urea and creatinine.
But there are also other substances that the kidneys remove. They also return vitamins, amino acids, glucose, hormones, and nutrients into the blood.
Your kidneys filter your blood with nephrons.
Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma
Chromophobe RCC is a rare form of kidney cancer that makes up approximately 5% of all cases. It is a non-clear cell renal carcinoma that starts in the cells that line the tubes in the kidney that help filter waste from blood. Chromophobe RCC can be The passing of genetic information from parent to child through parental genes.hereditary or non-hereditary.
What Is The Outlook For People With Kidney Cancer
The chance of recovery depends on the type and stage of cancer . The chance of recovery also depends on the patient’s general state of health.
Like most cancers, kidney cancer is most able to be treated if it is found in its early stages. In general, if the cancer is detected early, before it breaks through the outer covering of the kidney, kidney cancer is often curable.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/08/2016.
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Other Possible Risk Factors
There are also a number of other possible risk factors for developing kidney cancer, including:
- mild painkillers some mild painkillers have been linked to an increased risk of developing kidney cancer NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, may slightly increase the risk, although occasional use or low doses are unlikely to be harmful
- kidney disease if you have kidney failure and need to have regular dialysis , your risk of developing kidney cysts and kidney cancer is increased
- high blood pressure high blood pressure is a known risk factor for kidney disease, and you’re up to twice as likely to develop kidney cancer if you have raised blood pressure
Stages Of Kidney Cancer
- Stage I: The tumor is 7 cm across or smaller and is only in the kidney. It has not spread to lymph nodes or other tissue. .
- Stage II: The tumor is larger than 7 cm across but is still only in the kidney. It has not spread to lymph nodes or other tissue.
- Stage III: The tumor has spread to the major blood vessels the renal vein and inferior vena cava or into the tissue surrounding the kidney, or to nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage IV: The tumor has spread outside of the kidney to the adrenal gland , or to distant lymph nodes, or to other organs.
Tumors are also graded, which is a way of rating a tumor based on how abnormal its cells look. Tumor grading can also tell the doctor how fast the tumor is likely to grow. Tumors whose cells do not look like normal cells and divide rapidly are called high-grade tumors. High-grade tumors tend to grow and spread more quickly than low-grade tumors.
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Types Of Kidney Cancer
Many different types of cancer can affect the kidneys. The most common type is renal cell carcinoma , which accounts for more than 80% of all kidney cancers.
Rarer types of kidney cancer include:
- transitional cell cancer develops in the lining of the kidneys and usually affects men who are 50 years of age or over
- Wilms tumour a rare type of kidney cancer that affects children
What Causes An Enlarged Kidney
Hydronephrosis: This is the blockage of urine flow, leading to kidney distension. The condition can be caused by a kidney stone, blood clot, prostate enlargement, fecal impaction, injury, infection, radiation, or even a tumor. Pregnant women may also develop hydronephrosis, as an enlarged uterus can create pressure leading to a blockage of urinary output. Symptoms of this condition include excruciating, intermittent flank pain, with chronic forms of hydronephrosis possibly not exhibiting any symptoms at all. Treatment often involves relieving the source of the blockage.
Polycystic kidney disease: A disorder that is characterized by clusters of fluid-filled sacs called cysts within the kidney. Cysts may also be found elsewhere in the body. Complications of polycystic kidney disease include high blood pressure, pain, urinary tract infections, liver cysts, and kidney failure due to progressive function loss. Treatment of this disorder often involves managing the complications.
Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that originally stems from a bladder infection or from an infection originating in the blood. Diabetics, pregnant women, and immunocompromised individuals are considered high risk. Signs and symptoms may include enlarged kidneys, tenderness on one or both sides of the lower back, chills, fever, painful and frequent urination, foul-smelling urine, cloudy urine, and spasms causing intense pain. Treatment involves the use of antibiotics to eradicate the infection
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Rare Types Of Kidney Cancer
Rare kidney cancers occur most frequently in children, teenagers, and young adults.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma
- 15% of all renal cell carcinomas
- Tumor located in the kidney tubes
- Type 1 PRCC is more common and grows slowly
- Type 2 PRCC is more aggressive and grows more quickly
Translocation renal cell carcinoma
- Accounts for 1% to 5% of all renal cell carcinomas and 20% of childhood caces
- Tumor located in the kidney
- In children, TRCC usually grows slowly often without any symptoms
- In adults, TRCC tends to be agressive and fast-growing
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What’s The Purpose Of Kidney Collecting Tubules
The kidney collecting tubules collect urine produced in the kidney parenchyma. Your urine then goes to the renal pelvis. From there, the urine passes into the ureters, bladder, and urethra for excretion.
Urine consists of about 95% water. The rest is electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. Urine can also contain uric substances such as uric acid, urea, and creatinine.
Kidney collecting tubule, picture by Freepik
The kidneys filter about 39.5 gallons of blood every day. However, the kidney tubule reabsorbs 99% of the filtrate and returns it to the bloodstream. The rest becomes urine, between 53-40 fl oz .
The kidney collecting tubules are the oldest tissue of the kidneys. Their physiological function is to absorb or keep nutrients.
Let’s find out their emotional causes.
Treatment Of Kidney Cancer
When the cancer has not spread beyond the kidney, surgically removing the affected kidney provides a reasonable chance of cure. Alternatively, surgeons may remove only the tumor with a rim of adjacent normal tissue, which spares the remainder of the kidney. Although some nonsurgical means of destroying cancer cells are being studied, surgery is usually preferred.
If the cancer has spread into adjacent sites such as the renal vein or even the large vein that carries blood to the heart but has not spread to lymph nodes or distant sites, surgery may still provide a chance for cure. However, kidney cancer has a tendency to spread early, especially to the lungs, sometimes before symptoms develop. Because kidney cancer that has spread to distant sites may escape early diagnosis, metastasis sometimes becomes apparent only after doctors have surgically removed all of the kidney cancer that could be found.
If surgical cure seems unlikely, other treatments can be used, although cure rarely results. Treating the cancer by enhancing the immune systemâs ability to destroy it causes some cancers to shrink and may prolong survival . Such treatments sometimes used for kidney cancer include interleukin-2 and interferon alfa-2b. Other drugs sometimes used include sunitinib, sorafenib, cabozantinib, axitinib, bevacizumab, pazopanib, lenvatinib, temsirolimus, and everolimus. These drugs alter molecular pathways that affect the tumor and are thus called targeted therapies.
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Will These Measures Assure That Your Dog Will Never Suffer From Kidney Disease
I will not lie to you: no. But they will give the maximum chance to your dog and will ensure a healthy lifestyle and a better overall health. The healthier and stronger our dogs are, the less likely they are to develop diseases.
However, genetics and circumstances in life mean that it could still happen. So, how do you properly diagnose the disease? What are the examinations that your dog will have to undergo? Personally, it worried me a little when I had to take my dog for some of these examinations, but remind yourself that its always better to do it than to miss something.
What Causes Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer is caused when DNA in cells in one or both kidneys mutate, which may lead to uncontrolled cell division and growth. While the exact cause of a persons kidney cancer may not be known, certain risk factors are strongly linked to the disease, including smoking tobacco and obesity. Also, people with certain hereditary cancer syndromes or a family history of kidney cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.
Known risk factors for kidney cancer include:
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After Renal Cell Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Kidney Or To Other Parts Of The Body
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the kidney or to otherparts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from thestaging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to knowthe stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests andprocedures may be used in the staging process:
- CT scan : A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the chest or brain, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- MRI : A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the brain. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging .
- Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
- Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones with cancer and is detected by a scanner.
How Is Kidney Cancer Diagnosed And Assessed
A doctor may suspect that you have kidney cancer from the symptoms and signs listed above and then arrange tests to confirm the diagnosis. However, in developed countries, about half of kidney cancers are diagnosed before any symptoms develop. They are usually seen by chance when a scan or other investigation is done for another reason.
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Treatment Of Stage Iii Renal Cell Cancer
For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
- Surgery . Blood vessels of the kidney and some lymph nodes may also be removed.
- Arterial embolization followed by surgery .
- Arterial embolization as palliative therapy.
- Surgery as palliative therapy.
- Radiation therapy before or after surgery .
- A clinical trial of biologic therapy following surgery.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.
Symptoms Of Kidney Disease
When the kidneys are not working, harmful toxins and excess fluids build up in the body. Some symptoms of kidney imbalance include:
- High blood pressure,
- Foul or metallic taste
- Leg pain
There are many causes of chronic kidney disease. Diabetes is an illness in which your body does not make enough insulin or does not use it. This disease results in a high blood sugar level, which can cause problems in many parts of your body.
Diabetes can cause a high blood sugar level, which can affect the kidneys
High blood pressure is another common cause of kidney disease.It occurs when the blood force increases against your artery walls.
Kidney stones are common, and when they get stuck in the ureter, they may cause severe pain in your back and side.
Another severe disease of the kidneys is cancer.
Causes Of Vomiting And Diarrhea At The Same Time
Vomiting and diarrhea can happen at the same time for a number of reasons. A stomach virus or bacterial gastrointestinal infection is the most likely cause in children. The gastrointestinal tract is part of the digestive system.
These infections can affect adults as well, but there are a number of other reasons why an adult may experience these symptoms simultaneously, such as drinking too much alcohol or being pregnant.
Body Weight And Height
Being overweight or very overweight increases the risk of getting kidney cancer. This causes 24 out of every 100 kidney cancers . So around a quarter of kidney cancers.
Overweight means that your body mass index is between 25 and 39.9 and obese means that your BMI is 30 or higher. Your BMI is worked out by using your height and weight.
Being overweight causes changes in hormones in the body, particularly for women. It could be this change in the bodys hormone balance that increases the risk of kidney cancer.
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Investigating The Underlying Cause
Urine can be tested for protein, blood cells, sugar and waste products, which may give clues to the underlying cause.
Doctors also need to know about:
- any other symptoms, such as signs of sepsis or signs of heart failure
- any other medical conditions
- any medication thats been taken in the past week, as some medicines can cause AKI
An ultrasound scan should reveal if the cause is a blockage in the urinary system, such as an enlarged prostate or bladder tumour.
Our Kidneys Secrete Vital Hormones
The kidneys secrete many hormones essential for the normal functioning of the body. One such hormone is renin, which keeps blood pressure regular.
When blood pressure falls, renin from the kidneys constricts the small blood vessels. If the kidneys produce too much renin, the result is high blood pressure.
The kidneys and the liver help activate vitamin D3, picture by MDPI
Erythropoietin is another hormone secreted by the kidneys. It helps the bone marrow increase the production of red blood cells. If the number of red blood cells falls, the result is anemia.
The kidneys are also essential when we want to use vitamin D. Vitamin D comes from the sun. The skin produces an inactive form of vitamin D3. Before the body can use it, the kidneys and liver need to activate it.
Functions Of The Kidneys
- Produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
- Remove waste products from the body
- Eliminate drugs from the body
- Balance the body’s fluids
- Release hormones that regulate blood pressure
Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium by the intestine. You need calcium to create strong bones and effective muscles. In patients with impaired kidney function, there is often low blood calcium and vitamin D. The result is weak muscles and bones.
When your kidneys become unbalanced, they cause certain diseases.
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