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Can Diabetes Cause Kidney Stones

Learn Why High Blood Glucose Also Means You Have Excess Acid In Your Blood Which Often Leads To Acid Crystallization Aka Stones

Are there any long term consequences of having a Kidney Stone?- Dr. Santosh Bethur

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High blood sugar levels affect nearly every part of your body because every part of your body relies on the ingredients in your blood water, salt, iron, glucose, oxygen, platelets the list goes on and on!

But high blood sugar levels mean every part of your body is getting far more glucose than it needs. And along with excess sugar, high blood sugar levels can also mean excess acid.

That excess acid is the primary reason that people with diabetes are more likely to develop kidney stones.

The Possible Link Between Diabetes And Kidney Stones

The link between diabetes and kidney stones may not be immediately obvious but it’s quite logical.

As previously mentioned, polyuria is passing larger than normal quantity of urine.; In most cases, this is caused by a high concentration of glucose in the renal tubule.; Glucose reduces the re-absorption of water into the body, so more water is passed into urine. If not treated, this can cause severe dehydration.

Dehydration;is one of the major risk factors for kidney stones formation.; Dehydration, caused by diabetes, is quite possibly one of the links between kidney stones and diabetes.; A lack of fluids increases the concentration of minerals in the kidneys.; This increases the chances of these minerals crystallizing and clumping together, and eventually forming stones.

In one study, a group of researchers looked at the a number of patients with kidney stones in order to determine whether there was link between diabetes and kidney stones.

After studying a randomly selected group of 3,561 patients with kidney stones and taking into account the effects of age, time of year, high blood pressure and obesity, they found that;diabetes was significantly associated with diagnosis of kidney stones.; The prevalence of diabetes was 40% among individuals with uric acid stones, versus 9% with calcium stones.

After taking into account the patients’ body mass index , patients with uric acid stones had five times the risk of diabetes.

Eat More Vegetables And Fruit

Low pH and high acidity levels in your urine can be easily improved by eating more vegetables and fruits. These wholesome real foods are critical to maintaining a healthy balance of pH and acidity in your bloodstream and your urine. As if you need another reason to eat more veggies.

Dark green vegetables also contain a great deal of calcium which helps to prevent the calcium oxalate type of stones.

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Diabetes And Kidney Disease: What To Eat

One meal plan for diabetes, another for chronic kidney disease . Find out how you can eat well for both.

If you have diabetes and CKD, youre definitely not aloneabout 1 in 3 American adults with diabetes also has CKD. The right diet helps your body function at its best, but figuring out what to eat can be a major challenge. Whats good for you on one meal plan may not be good on the other.

Your first step: meet with a registered dietitianexternal icon whos trained in both diabetes and CKD nutrition. Together youll create a diet plan to keep blood sugar levels steady and reduce how much waste and fluid your kidneys have to handle.

Medicare and many private insurance plans may pay for your appointment. Ask if your policy covers medical nutrition therapy . MNT includes a nutrition plan designed just for you, which the dietitian will help you learn to follow.

Diabetes and CKD diets share a lot of the same foods, but there are some important differences. Read on for the basics.

What Are The Late Signs Of Kidney Disease In Patients With Diabetes

Pin on Kidney Disease

As your kidneys fail, your blood urea nitrogen levels will rise as well as the level of creatinine in your blood. You may also experience nausea, vomiting, a loss of appetite, weakness, increasing fatigue, itching, muscle cramps and anemia . You may find you need less insulin. This is because diseased kidneys cause less breakdown of insulin. If you develop any of these signs, call your doctor.

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Will You Have Kidney Stones With Metformin Hydrochloride

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Metabolic Changes Make Kidney Stones

Stress changes the chemistry in your body. Stress can cause your body to make many hormones including adrenocorticotrophic hormone and parathyroid hormone . These hormones can impact your health in many ways.

Specifically, these hormones change the chemistry in your urine, which is one way stress can cause kidney stones. Research has shown that stress related hormones increase urine calcium, oxalate and uric acid. High levels of calcium, oxalate or uric acid in your urine make kidney stones more likely.

Stress hormones can also decrease how much urine your kidneys make. This makes your urine more concentrated and kidney stones more likely.

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High Blood Sugars Lead To Higher Acidity In Your Urine

The higher your blood sugars are, the more acidic your blood and urine become. This acid leads to the development of uric acid stones.

Research from European Urologyfound that patients with type 2 diabetes whose HbA1c levels were over 6.5 percent had a 92 percent higher risk of developing kidney stones.;

Additionally, patients with type 2 diabetes taking insulin with an HbA1c between 5.7 and 6.4 percent faced a 34 percent higher risk of kidney stones.;

In general, patients in the study with fasting blood sugar levels consistently over 126 mg/dL, were 28 percent more likely to develop kidney stones compared to patients with normal fasting blood sugar levels.

The study also reported a significant finding that the main ingredient in kidney stones of people with type 2 diabetes was uric acid compared to the most common type of stone in the non-diabetic population, calcium oxalate.

Respective Influence Of Diabetes And Body Size

How can diabetics avoid kidney stones? / Kidney Stone Diet Podcast with Jill Harris

depicts the distribution of Ca and UA stones in the three BMI classes among patients with and without type 2 diabetes, together with the age of patients in the respective groups, both genders being considered together. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, the proportion of UA calculi rose gradually with BMI, from 27.8% in the normal-BMI group to 40.3% in the obese group. The same was true among patients without type 2 diabetes, with the proportion of UA stones rising from 8.1% in the normal-BMI group to 25.2% in the obese group. Thus, the relative proportion of UA stones rose with BMI both in patients with and without type 2 diabetes but was consistently higher in the former than in the latter. Of note, the influence of diabetes was the more marked in patients with normal BMI and was less apparent as BMI rose. Indeed, UA stones were 3.4 times more frequent in patients who both did and did not have type 2 diabetes and whose BMI was <25 kg/m2 and only 1.6 times in patients whose BMI was 30 kg/m2.

Distribution of Ca and UA stones with respect to BMI in stone formers with and without diabetesa

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Insulin Resistance Increases The Likelihood Of Kidney Stones

Other research has found a direct relationship between insulin resistance and kidney stones.;

Insulin resistance plays a key role in type 2 diabetes mellitus, explains a study published in Reviews in Urology, and it has been linked to uric acid stone formation. Insulin resistance might result in a deficit in ammonium production in the kidney, which lowers urinary pH, thus generating a favorable milieu for uric acid stone formation.

Another study, published Advanced Biomedical Research, came to the same conclusion.

Insulin resistance, characteristic of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, results in lower urine pH through impaired kidney ammoniagenesis, explains the study.;

Insulin resistance and high blood sugars seem to significantly lower the pH in the urine, which is the main influencer of the development of a uric acid stone. This makes the urine in some people with type 2 diabetes an ideal environment for the formation of kidney stones.

Take Fish Oil To Make Dialysis Work Better

A;study published in June 2013 in;Kidney International;reported that omega-3 fatty acids, like those found in fish oil, may protect dialysis patients from;sudden cardiac death. The researchers looked at blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids in 400 dialysis patients, 100 of whom died within their first year of treatment. The risk of sudden cardiac death is highest during the first year of dialysis.

The researchers observed in their paper that, during the first year of beginning;hemodialysis, those participants who had higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids which are found in fatty fish, like salmon and tuna, as well as flaxseed and walnuts had a lower risk of sudden cardiac death. The study may offer clues for new treatments against sudden cardiac death in people with kidney disease who are undergoing dialysis.

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Kidney Stones In Relation To Obesity And Diabetes

A kidney stone is a solid mass developed from crystals that separate from the urine within the urinary tract.

Kidney stones can contain various components. The most common type of stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. A less common type of stone is caused by an infection in the urinary tract. This type of stone is called a struvite or infection stone. Another type of stone, uric acid stones, are less common, and cystine stones are rare.

It is not completely understood as to why kidney stones form. The single biggest factor in the formation of kidney stones is diet. Certain foods may promote stone formation in people who are susceptible, and a person with a family history of kidney stones may be more likely to develop them. Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders such as cystic kidney diseases, and certain metabolic disorders are also linked to stone formation.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for developing kidney stones in general, and have a particular risk for uric acid stones. Researchers at the Mayo Clinic followed 3,500 patients over a 20-year span and concluded that those with diabetes developed 40% more uric acid kidney stones than those without diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes have highly acidic urine, and this metabolic feature helps to explain their greater risk for developing uric acid stones. It was found that obesity and a diet rich in animal protein are related to abnormally acidic urine.


What Is A Kidney Stone

Kidney Stones Cause High Blood Sugar

A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. There are four types of kidney stones: calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. A kidney stone may be treated with shockwave lithotripsy, uteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithomy or nephrolithotripsy. Common symptoms include severe pain in lower back, blood in your urine, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills, or urine that smells bad or looks cloudy.

Urine has various wastes dissolved in it. When there is too much waste in too little liquid, crystals begin to form. The crystals attract other elements and join together to form a solid that will get larger unless it is passed out of the body with the urine. Usually, these chemicals are eliminated in the urine by the body’s master chemist: the kidney. In most people, having enough liquid washes them out or other chemicals in urine stop a stone from forming. The stone-forming chemicals are calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate.

After it is formed, the stone may stay in the kidney or travel down the urinary tract into the ureter. Sometimes, tiny stones move out of the body in the urine without causing too much pain. But stones that don’t move may cause a back-up of urine in the kidney, ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. This is what causes the pain.

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Can Metformin Cause Kidney Stones

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Kidney Stones And Diabetes: The Relationship

It has been well established that people who have diabetes are more likely to have kidney stones. A large study using information from the National Health and Examination Survey found that people with diabetes were up to 59% more likely to have kidney stones compared to people without diabetes.

In addition, the more poorly controlled diabetes is, the higher the risk of kidney stones becomes.

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What Are Kidney Stones

Kidney stones form when you have high concentrations of certain substances in your urine. Some kidney stones form from excess calcium oxalate. Others form from struvite, uric acid, or cystine.

The stones can travel from your kidney through your urinary tract. Small stones may pass through your body and out in your urine with little or no pain.

Larger stones may cause a great deal of pain. They can even get lodged in your urinary tract. That can block urine flow and cause infection or bleeding.

Other symptoms of kidney stones include:

  • back or abdominal pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting

If you experience severe symptoms of kidney stones, see your doctor. Your doctor may suspect kidney stones based on your symptoms. Urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis.

Anyone can form a kidney stone. In the United States, almost 9 percent of people have had at least one kidney stone, according to the National Kidney Institute.

In addition to diabetes, other risk factors for kidney stones include:

  • obesity
  • diet high in animal protein
  • family history of kidney stones
  • diseases and conditions that affect the kidneys
  • diseases and conditions that affect the amount of calcium and certain acids in your body
  • urinary tract disorders
  • chronic inflammation of the bowel

Certain medications can also put you at higher risk of developing kidney stones. Among them are:

  • diuretics
  • topiramate , an anti-seizure medication
  • indinavir , a drug used in treating HIV infection

Prevention Of Future Stones

How does diabetes cause kidney disease?

Once your health care provider finds out why you are forming stones, he or she will give you tips on how to prevent them. This may include changing your diet and taking certain medications. There is no “one-size-fits-all” diet for preventing kidney stones. Everyone is different. Your diet may not be causing your stones to form. But there are dietary changes that you can make to stop stones from continuing to form.

Diet Changes

Drink enough fluids each day.

If you are not producing enough urine, your health care provider will recommend you drink at least 3 liters of liquid each day. This equals about 3 quarts . This is a great way to lower your risk of forming new stones. Remember to drink more to replace fluids lost when you sweat from exercise or in hot weather. All fluids count toward your fluid intake. But it’s best to drink mostly no-calorie or low-calorie drinks. This may mean limiting sugar-sweetened or alcoholic drinks.

Knowing how much you drink during the day can help you understand how much you need to drink to produce 2.5 liters of urine. Use a household measuring cup to measure how much liquid you drink for a day or two. Drink from bottles or cans with the fluid ounces listed on the label. Keep a log, and add up the ounces at the end of the day or 24-hour period. Use this total to be sure you are reaching your daily target urine amount of at least 85 ounces of urine daily.

Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
Eat the recommended amount of calcium.

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