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How Do You Diagnose Kidney Disease

How Is A Renal Panel Different From A Comprehensive Or Basic Metabolic Panel

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There is considerable overlap between the measurements on a renal panel, basic metabolic panel , and comprehensive metabolic panel .

The BMP has 8 components, all of which are included in the CMP, which has a total of 14 measurements. The components of the BMP and CMP are more standardized than the renal panel, which can vary between laboratories.

The BMP, CMP, and most renal panels include measurements of glucose, electrolytes, calcium, and the waste products creatinine and urea nitrogen. The CMP and many renal panels also include measurement of albumin.

An important difference for the comprehensive metabolic panel is its inclusion of tests that help assess the condition of the liver. These are tests found on a typical liver panel test.

Because it is not as standardized, a renal panel test may include measurements, such as phosphorus or the anion gap, that are not found on the BMP or CMP.

Are All Renal Panel Tests The Same

It is common for there to be some variation in the individual components of a renal panel based on the specific laboratory that performs your test. However, some test elements, such as the electrolytes, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, and albumin are found on the most common renal panel tests offered by major laboratories.

In addition, your doctor can request that other specific measurements be included with your renal panel. You will see a line item for each component when you review your test report, and your doctor can explain the significance of each component and the results in the context of your health situation.

When To See A Doctor With Stage 3 Ckd

Its important to see a doctor right away if you experience any of the above symptoms. While certain symptoms arent exclusive to CKD, having any combination of these symptoms is concerning.

You should follow up with your doctor if youve previously been diagnosed with stage 1 or stage 2 CKD.

Still, its possible to not have any previous history of CKD before getting diagnosed with stage 3. This could be due to the fact that stages 1 and 2 dont typically cause any noticeable symptoms.

To diagnose CKD stage 3, a doctor will conduct these tests:

  • blood pressure readings

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How Much Does The Test Cost

There is no universal fixed price for a renal panel test.

Different charges that can figure into the total price include office visits, fees related to the blood draw procedure, and costs of laboratory analysis. How much is billed for these charges can depend on several factors including:

  • Where the blood draw is performed
  • The laboratory that performs the testing
  • The specific measurements included in the renal panel
  • Whether you have health insurance

Many health insurance plans will cover some or all of the costs of a renal panel if the test is prescribed by your doctor, but some costs, such as for a deductible or copays, may still have to be paid out of pocket.

For more detailed information about what will be covered and your expected costs, talk directly with your doctors office and your health insurance company.

Stage 3 Kidney Disease Diet

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Processed foods are extremely hard on the body. Since your kidneys are responsible for removing wastes and balancing electrolytes, eating too many of the wrong foods can overload your kidneys.

Its important to eat more whole foods like produce and grains, and to eat fewer processed foods and less of the saturated fats found in animal products.

A doctor may recommend decreasing your protein intake. If your potassium levels are too high from CKD, they may also recommend that you avoid certain high-potassium foods like bananas, potatoes, and tomatoes.

The same principle pertains to sodium. You may need to cut down on salty foods if your sodium levels are too high.

Weight loss is common in more advanced stages of CKD because of appetite loss. This can also put you at risk of malnutrition.

If youre experiencing appetite loss, consider eating smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day to make sure youre getting enough calories and nutrients.

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What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Kidney Failure Can It Be Prevented

The outlook for kidney failure depends upon the underlying condition that caused it. Kidney function may return to normal, especially if it is due to an acute obstruction and that obstruction is relieved. Other causes of decreased kidney function leading to kidney failure are due to underlying disease and occur slowly over time.

Prevention is the best chance to maintain kidney function, and controlling high blood pressure and diabetes over a lifetime can decrease the potential for progressive kidney damage. Chronic kidney failure may be managed to help monitor electrolyte and waste product levels in the bloodstream. Major abnormalities can be life-threatening, and treatment options may be limited to dialysis or transplant.

What Causes Kidney Disease

Kidney diseases happen when your kidneys are damaged and cant filter your blood. The damage can happen quickly when its caused by injury or toxins or, more commonly, over months or years.

High blood pressure and diabetes are the two most common causes of chronic kidney disease. Other causes and conditions that affect kidney function and can cause chronic kidney disease include:

  • Glomerulonephritis. This type of kidney disease involves damage to the glomeruli, which are the filtering units inside your kidneys.
  • Polycystic kidney disease. This is a genetic disorder that causes many fluid-filled cysts to grow in your kidneys, reducing the ability of your kidneys to function.
  • Hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Kidney damage caused by chronic, poorly controlled hypertension.
  • Membranous nephropathy. This is a disorder where your bodys immune system attacks the waste-filtering membranes in your kidney.
  • Obstructions of the urinary tract from kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or cancer.
  • Vesicourethral reflux. This is a condition in which urine flows backward refluxes back up the ureters to the kidneys
  • Nephrotic syndrome. This is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage.

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    How Is A Renal Panel Test Different From A Creatinine Clearance Test

    A creatinine clearance test includes both a blood and urine sample. The amount of creatinine is measured in each sample, and then the two figures are compared. This comparison provides a method for estimating the glomerular filtration rate and evaluating kidney function.

    In contrast, a renal panel uses only a blood sample. While a standard renal panel measures creatinine in the blood, it does not include a urine collection or comparative measurement.

    The renal panel also includes a more diverse set of measurements, including proteins, minerals, and electrolytes, than a creatinine clearance test.

    Find It Early Treat It Early

    Kidney Disease Diagnosis (CKD Tests & Diagnosis)

    If youre at risk for kidney disease, get your kidneys checked regularly, which is done by your doctor with simple blood and urine tests. Regular testing is your best chance for identifying CKD early if you do develop it. Early treatment is most effective and can help prevent additional health problems.

    Your treatment and management plan may include taking medications and making lifestyle changesincluding choosing healthy foods and getting physically activeas well as working to keep your blood sugar and blood pressure numbers as close to target as you can.

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    Acute Kidney Injury: A Guide To Diagnosis And Management

    MAHBOOB RAHMAN, MD, MS, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

    FARIHA SHAD, MD, Kaiser Permanente, Cleveland, Ohio

    MICHAEL C. SMITH, MD, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio

    Am Fam Physician. 2012 Oct 1 86:631-639.

    The incidence of acute kidney injury has increased in recent years, both in the community and in hospital settings.1,2 The estimated incidence of acute kidney injury is two to three cases per 1,000 persons.3 Seven percent of hospitalized patients and about two-thirds of patients in intensive care units develop acute kidney injury,2 often as part of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.4

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    The diagnosis of acute kidney injury is based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and the need for renal replacement therapy.

    A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to .

    SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

    The diagnosis of acute kidney injury is based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and the need for renal replacement therapy.

    Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3

    Stage 3 of CKD is diagnosed based on estimated glomerular filtration rate readings. This is a blood test that measures creatine levels. An eGFR is used to determine how well your kidneys are working at filtering wastes.

    An optimal eGFR is higher than 90, while stage 5 CKD presents itself in an eGFR of less than 15. So the higher your eGFR, the better your estimated kidney function.

    Stage 3 CKD has two subtypes based on eGFR readings. You may be diagnosed with stage 3a if your eGFR is between 45 and 59. Stage 3b means your eGFR is between 30 and 44.

    The goal with stage 3 CKD is to prevent further kidney function loss. In clinical terms, this can mean preventing an eGFR of between 29 and 15, which indicates stage 4 CKD.

    You may not notice symptoms of chronic kidney problems in stages 1 and 2, but the signs start to become more noticeable in stage 3.

    Some of the symptoms of CKD stage 3 may include:

    • dark yellow, orange, or red urine
    • urinating more or less frequently than normal

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    How Is A Renal Panel Test Different From An Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Test

    The renal panel is a broader test than an estimated glomerular filtration rate test, and in some cases, a renal panel involves eGFR.

    The estimated glomerular filtration rate is a common method of evaluating kidney function. It can be calculated in several different ways and reflects how much blood is being filtered by the kidneys every minute.

    The eGFR is usually determined with a mathematical formula based primarily on the amount of creatinine in the blood. Because creatinine is measured in most renal panels, the test report may also list eGFR. However, the renal panel also measures electrolytes, minerals, and other substances that can reflect the status of the kidneys.

    Living With Stage 3 Kidney Disease

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    Aside from taking your prescribed medications and eating a healthy diet, adopting other lifestyle changes can help you manage CKD stage 3. Talk to your doctor about the following:

    • Exercise. Aim for a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate activity per day on most days of the week. A doctor can help you begin an exercise program safely.
    • Blood pressure management. High blood pressure can be a precursor for CKD, and it can make your condition worse. Aim for a blood pressure of 140/90 and below.
    • Stress management. Techniques can include exercise, getting better sleep, and meditation.
    • Smoking cessation. Talk to a doctor about the right methods of quitting smoking for you.

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    Shortness Of Breath After Very Little Effort

    Why this happens:

    Being short of breath can be related to the kidneys in two ways. First, extra fluid in the body can build up in the lungs. And second, anemia can leave your body oxygen-starved and short of breath.

    What patients said:

    At the times when I get the shortness of breath, it’s alarming to me. It just fears me. I think maybe I might fall or something so I usually go sit down for awhile.

    I couldn’t sleep at night. I couldn’t catch my breath, like I was drowning or something. And, the bloating, can’t breathe, can’t walk anywhere. It was bad.

    Fatigue Being Tired All Of The Time

    Why this happens:

    Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin , or EPO, that tells your body to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they make less EPO. With fewer red blood cells to carry oxygen, your muscles and brain tire very quickly. This is anemia, and it can be treated.

    What patients said:

    I was constantly exhausted and didn’t have any pep or anything.

    I would sleep a lot. I’d come home from work and get right in that bed.

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    Stage 3 Kidney Disease Life Expectancy

    When diagnosed and managed early, stage 3 CKD has a longer life expectancy than more advanced stages of kidney disease. Estimates can vary based on age and lifestyle.

    One such estimate says that the average life expectancy is 24 years in men who are 40, and 28 in women of the same age group.

    Aside from overall life expectancy, its important to consider your risk of disease progression. One 10-year study of stage 3 CKD patients found that about half progressed to more advanced stages of kidney disease.

    Its also possible to experience complications from CKD, such as cardiovascular disease, which can affect your overall life expectancy.

    What Medications Are Prescribed For People With Chronic Kidney Disease

    Testing and Treatment for Kidney Disease

    Depending on the cause of your kidney disease, you may be prescribed one or more medications. Medications your nephrologist may prescribe include:

    • An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker to lower your blood pressure.
    • A diuretic to help your body eliminate extra fluid.
    • Medications to lower cholesterol levels.
    • Erythropoetin, to build red blood cells if you are anemic.
    • Vitamin D and calcitrol to prevent bone loss.
    • Phosphate binder if your kidneys cant eliminate phosphate.

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    Biopsy For Kidney Disease

    A biopsy means that a small piece of tissue is taken for testing in a laboratory. Biopsies used in the investigation of kidney disease may include:

    • kidney biopsy the doctor inserts a special needle into the back, under local anaesthesia, to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. A kidney biopsy can confirm a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.
    • bladder biopsy the doctor inserts a thin tube into the bladder via the urethra. This allows the doctor to view the inside of the bladder and check for abnormalities. This procedure is called a cystoscopy. The doctor may take a biopsy of bladder tissue for examination in a laboratory.

    Your doctor may arrange other tests, depending on the suspected cause of your kidney disorder.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Failure

    In early stages of kidney disease, many people experience few or no symptoms. Its important to note that chronic kidney disease can still cause damage even though you feel fine.

    Chronic kidney disease and kidney failure can cause different symptoms for different people. If your kidneys arent working properly, you may notice one or more of the following signs:

    • Fatigue
    • Poor appetite or metallic taste of food

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    What Are The Kidneys Where Are They Located

    The kidneys play key roles in body function, not only by filtering the blood and getting rid of waste products, but also by balancing the electrolyte levels in the body, controlling blood pressure, and stimulating the production of red blood cells.

    The kidneys are located in the abdomen toward the back, normally one on each side of the spine. They get their blood supply through the renal arteries directly from the aorta and send blood back to the heart via the renal veins to the vena cava.

    What Is Chronic Kidney Disease

    Kidney Disease  Symptoms to Watch

    Chronic kidney disease, sometimes called CKD, is an umbrella term for several conditions that affect the kidneys, but it generally means permanent and usually progressive damage to the kidneys caused by a variety of conditions.

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    Johns Hopkins nephrologists Drs. Sumeska Thavarajah and Daphne Knicely offer a free educational class most months, from 5 6 p.m. at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. For more information, call .

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    How Is Kidney Disease Diagnosed

    First your healthcare provider will take your medical history, conduct a physical exam, ask about any medication you are currently taking, ask about any symptoms you have noticed, and inquire if any of your family members have kidney disease.

    Your healthcare provider will order blood tests, a urine test and will also check your blood pressure.

    The blood tests will check:

    • Your glomerulofiltration rate . This describes how efficiently your kidneys are filtering blood how many milliliters per minute your kidneys are filtering. Your GFR is used to determine the stage of your kidney disease.
    • Your serum creatinine level, which tells how well your kidneys are removing this waste product. Creatinine is a waste product from muscle metabolism and is normally excreted in your urine. A high creatinine level in your blood means that your kidneys are not functioning well enough to get rid it in your urine.

    A urine protein test will look for the presence of protein and blood in your urine. Well-functioning kidneys should not have blood or proteins in your urine. If you do, this means your kidneys are damaged.

    Blood Tests For Diagnosing Kidney Disease

    Following are a variety of blood tests that help determine whether or not you have kidney disease:

    • CBC complete blood count of your red blood cells, white blood cells, and plateletslow CBC level can mean kidney function is reduced.
    • Creatinine waste product of muscles that is normally eliminated by the kidneys, may be elevated when kidney function is reduced.
    • Creatinine clearance measure of how well creatinine is removed by the kidneys over a 24-hour period of urine collection. When kidney function is reduced, clearance may be low.
    • Blood electrolyte tests also known as chemistries. Electrolytes are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. Abnormal levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
    • Hemoglobin A1C measures how well blood sugar is controlled during three months before testing. Elevation indicates blood sugar is not well-controlled and may be causing reduced kidney function.
    • Blood urea nitrogen also a waste product that is eliminated by the kidneys. BUN is elevated when kidney function is reduced.
    • Glomerular filtration rate the best measure of kidney function and also determines the stage or progression of the disease. The higher the numbers of the GFR, the better the kidneys are working.

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