What Is A Kidney Stone
A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. There are four types of kidney stones: calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. A kidney stone may be treated with shockwave lithotripsy, uteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithomy or nephrolithotripsy. Common symptoms include severe pain in lower back, blood in your urine, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills, or urine that smells bad or looks cloudy.
Urine has various wastes dissolved in it. When there is too much waste in too little liquid, crystals begin to form. The crystals attract other elements and join together to form a solid that will get larger unless it is passed out of the body with the urine. Usually, these chemicals are eliminated in the urine by the body’s master chemist: the kidney. In most people, having enough liquid washes them out or other chemicals in urine stop a stone from forming. The stone-forming chemicals are calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate.
After it is formed, the stone may stay in the kidney or travel down the urinary tract into the ureter. Sometimes, tiny stones move out of the body in the urine without causing too much pain. But stones that don’t move may cause a back-up of urine in the kidney, ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. This is what causes the pain.
What Is Dry Weight
What is dry weight?
Your normal weight without any extra fluid in your body is called “dry weight.” Extra fluid can be dangerous and cause extra strain on your body, including your heart and lungs.
When you have kidney failure, your body depends on dialysis to get rid of the extra fluid and wastes that build up in your body between treatments.;
When first starting dialysis, finding your dry weight may take a few treatments. Be sure to tell your dialysis care team if you experience cramping, dizziness, or nausea during or after treatment. These symptoms may happen if ;too much fluid is removed, or if fluid is removed too fast.
If you have too much extra fluid in your body, you may need longer or more frequent hemodialysis treatments. There is a limit to how much fluid can safely be removed during each dialysis treatment.;;
How is my dry weight calculated?
Your dry weight is measured in kilograms. One kilogram is 2.2 pounds.; Most hemodialysis patients are advised to limit their weight gain per treatment to no more than 1 kilogram per day between dialysis sessions. 1 kilogram may not sound like a lot.; However, when you think of it as almost 4-7 pounds of fluid that needs to be removed, you can start to see how important it is to limit how much fluid you take in ;between treatments.
How do I know if I am at my dry weight?
How do I maintain dry weight after dialysis?
What happens if I lose or gain weight?;
COVID-19 patients can become kidney patients.
Reducing Kidney Stone Risk
Drinking enough fluid will help keep your urine less concentrated with waste products. Darker urine is more concentrated, so your urine should appear very light yellow to clear if you are well hydrated. Most of the fluid you drink should be water. Most people should drink more than 12 glasses of water a day. Speak with a healthcare professional about the right amount of water that’s best for you. Water is better than soda, sports drinks or coffee/tea. lf you exercise or if it is hot outside, you should drink more. Sugar and high-fructose corn syrup should be limited to small quantities.
Eat more fruits and vegetables, which make the urine less acid. When the urine is less acid, then stones may be less able to form. Animal protein produces urine that has more acid, which can then increase your risk for kidney stones.
You can reduce excess salt in your diet. What foods are high in salt? Everyone thinks of salty potato chips and French fries. Those should be rarely eaten. There are other products that are salty: sandwich meats, canned soups, packaged meals, and even sports drinks.
Some herbal substances are promoted as helping prevent stones. You should know that there is insufficient published medical evidence to support the use of any herb or supplement in preventing stones.
- What food may cause a kidney stone?
- Should l take vitamin and mineral supplements?
- What beverages are good choices for me?
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How Much Does A Cell Weigh
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If you had to estimate the mass of the average human cell, you could cheat and look it up on Wikipedia, or do a back-of-the-envelope calculation with a few assumptions about the mass and volume of a person and the size of cells . But researchers need more precise measures of a cells mass so they can detect small changes as it grows or responds to its environment. In Physical Review Letters, Kevin Phillips and colleagues at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland report a simple way to measure the mass of individual red blood cells with a commercial microscope.
What Are Clinical Trials And Are They Right For You
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.
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We Vary Quite A Lot On The Inside And That Can Be A Blessing For Instance If You Have A Large Liver You Can Save More Than One Life
How significant are the individual differences inside us? We have different noses and the size and colour of our eyes vary. But do our intestines, kidneys, hearts and livers look alike? Or do their sizes, weight and colours differ from one person to another?
We asked Inge Morild, a pathologist and professor at the University of Bergen.
Different on the inside
Internal differences are just as big as external ones, both in shape and size. There are also a variety of colours, says Morild.;
Most of us have the same basic gear and everything is placed in the same internal spots. But already at birth this body equipment differs individually.
The size, shape and colour of internal organs can vary.
Twice the size
Consider two new-born boys crying out as they take their first breaths. They both might weigh 3,500 grams. Their inner organs are probably the same size too.
These tiny bodies will become adults with much greater differences on the inside as well as they outside.
If one grows up to be a skinny 60 kilo wimp and the other becomes a 120 kilo bruiser, their inner organs will grow correspondingly, explains Morild.
A large heart
The big man can have a heart that is twice the size of the smaller guy, he continues.
Several of our organs are adapted to the size of our bodies in this way. The brain is the organ that is most alike in all of us.
The male human brain weighs an average of 1,450 grams and womens brains average 1,300 grams.;
Colours on the inside
Its a light grey.
How Much Do Human Organs Weigh
Some average weights of human organs include 1.5 ounces for the bladder, 9.6 ounces for the heart, 47 ounces for a brain and 55 ounces for the liver, according to Ohio State University’s Department of Pathology. Weights of organs vary from males to females, and the weights of larger organs can differ among individuals by several ounces.
The typical weight range for the bladder is 1 to 2 ounces. A male’s heart normally weighs between 9.5 and 9.9 ounces, whereas a woman’s heart averages 8.8 to 9.9 ounces. Ohio State University explains a man’s brain is from 48 to 51.1 ounces, and a woman’s ranges from 44 to 45 ounces. The liver usually weighs between 50.8 and 59.3 ounces.
InfoPlease explains that human skin weighs between 8 to 10 pounds in normal adults, with around 22 square feet of area. The skin is the largest organ in the body in terms of weight and area. One of the smallest organs in the body, the pineal gland, weighs around 0.2 gram, or 0.007 ounce. The pineal gland is in the center of the brain, according to Kids Discover. The parathyroid is between 0.004 and 0.006 ounce, or 0.12 to 0.18 gram.
An organ is defined as a collection of tissue, in animals and plants, that performs a specific function. For instance, the heart performs a vital function that pumps blood throughout the body of a vertebrate animal.
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What Are The Advantages Of Living Donation Over Deceased Donation
Kidney transplants performed from living donors may have several advantages compared to transplants performed from deceased donors:
Normal Kidney Size Of A Human Kidney
Normal kidney size is expressed as an average, since actual sizes vary from person to person.; In fact, an individual’s two kidneys are normally not identical in size.
Some;studies;indicate that kidney size is positively correlated to age and body size . ;The greater the body size, the larger the kidneys tend to be.
As young children mature and their kidneys develop, they increase in size. ;The kidneys become fully developed in the early stages of adulthood, and tend to decrease in later years…
Typically, renal size decreases in senior citizens.
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Swollen Or Puffy Face
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the face.
What patients said:
My sister, her hair started to fall out, she was losing weight, but her face was really puffy, you know, and everything like that, before she found out what was going on with her.
My checks were always puffy and tight. Sometimes they would even hurt.
What Happens If You Have Kidney Disease
Kidney disease can be treated. The sooner you know you have kidney disease, the sooner you can get treatment to help delay or prevent kidney failure. Treating kidney disease may also help prevent heart disease.
Treatment goals are to:
- If you smoke, take steps to quit.
- Take medicines the way your provider tells you to.
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The Tubule Returns Needed Substances To Your Blood And Removes Wastes
A blood vessel runs alongside the tubule. As the filtered fluid moves along the tubule, the blood vessel reabsorbs almost all of the water, along with minerals and nutrients your body needs. The tubule helps remove excess acid from the blood. The remaining fluid and wastes in the tubule become urine.
Breasts Are Changing Shapes Constantly
- A Cups Breasts = 230 g
- B Cups Breasts = 460 g
- C Cups Breasts = 690 g
- D Cups Breasts = 920 g
- DD Cups Breasts = 1150 g
- E Cups Breasts = 1380 g
- F Cups Breasts = 1610 g
- FF Cups Breasts = 1840 g
- G Cups Breasts = 2070 g
- GG Cups = 2300 g
- H Cups Breasts= 2530 g
- HH Cups Breasts = 2760 g
- J Cups Breasts= 2990 g
- JJ Cups Breasts = 3220 g
- K Cups Breasts= 3450 g
Breast size in different countriesImpact of bigger breasts on your healthCheck your breast size at homeHow to relieve pain caused by heavy breastsWrapping up
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Swelling In Hands Or Feet
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, and/or hands.
What patients said:
I remember a lot of swelling in my ankles. My ankles were so big I couldn’t get my shoes on.
Going to work one morning, my left ankle was swollen, real swollen, and I was very exhausted just walking to the bus stop. And I knew then that I had to see a doctor.
Height Weight Lean Body Mass & Bmi
Research shows that people who are taller, weigh more , and have more lean body mass may have heavier organs.
Of these factors, some research suggests that height may best correlate with most organ weights; taller people have organs that weigh more and are proportionately bigger.
Heart weight can be majorly affected by BMI, with obese people having heavier hearts.
Interestingly, female thyroid weight has little to do with height, weight, and lean body mass. Instead, female thyroid weight may be most influenced by iodine intake. In areas where the vast majority of women consume enough iodine in their diets, thyroid weights typically fall within a uniform range for all women.
Age and sex also affect organ weight. On average, women tend to have lighter organs than men do. Furthermore, as with lean body mass, organ weights tend to decrease with age.
Age-related decreases in organ weight are particularly noticeable in brain mass. In other words, a persons brain will become smaller as they age, which is a natural process. On a related note, brain mass has nothing to do with intelligence; having a bigger brain doesnt make someone smarter.
Results from a 1994 study published in Der Pathologeand based on more than 8000 autopsiessuggest that the average brain weight in men without brain disease is 1336 grams and the average brain weight in women without brain disease is 1198 grams.
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Why Do Doctors Examine The Contents Of The Stone
There are four types of stones. Studying the stone can help understand why you have it and how to reduce the risk of further stones. The most common type of stone contains calcium. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet. The kidney usually removes extra calcium that the body doesn’t need. Often people with stones keep too much calcium. This calcium combines with waste products like oxalate to form a stone. The most common combination is called calcium oxalate.
Less common types of stones are: Infection-related stones, containing magnesium and ammonia called struvite stones and stones formed from monosodium urate crystals, called uric acid stones, which might be related to obesity and dietary factors. The rarest type of stone is a cvstine stone that tends to run in families.
Normal Kidney Size Of Children
Determining the normal size of children’s kidneys can be quite challenging, given the wide variation in children’s sizes and rate of development.; Some studies have compared renal length with children’s ages, to determine the typical kidney size of children.;
The results show the following average renal lengths, based on children’s ages:
Two months and younger – 4.9 cm ;
Three months to one year – 6.2 cm ;
One to five years – 7.3 cm ;
Five to ten years – 8.5 cm ;
Ten to fifteen years – 9.8 cm ; and
Fifteen to nineteen years – 10.6 cm .
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What Is Living Donation
Living donation takes place when a living person donates an organ for transplantation to another person. The living donor can be a family member, such as a parent, child, brother or sister .
Living donation can also come from someone who is emotionally related to the recipient, such as a good friend, spouse or an in-law . Thanks to improved medications, a genetic link between the donor and recipient is no longer required to ensure a successful transplant.
In some cases, living donation may even be from a stranger, which is called anonymous or non-directed donation.
How Much Is Enough Protein
What is the best kind of protein, and how much should we be eating?;
Welcome to Nutrition Facts. Im your host, Dr. Michael Greger, and Im here to ask you: What is the most important decision youll make today? Is it how youll get to work, who youll set up a meeting with, what friend youll call for lunch? Well, as it turns out, probably the most important decision youll make today is what to eat. What we eat on a day-to-day basis is the number one determinant of our health and longevityliterally. Most premature deaths in the United States are preventable and related to nutrition. So, were going to explore some smart nutrition choices based, naturally, on facts. Here, we refer to the science, the research, the available data published in the peer-reviewed medical literature right now. Thats why I wrote my book, How Not to Die, and why I created my nonprofit site NutritionFacts.org and, now, this podcast.
Today, well look into the science on the right kinds and amounts of protein in our diets.;As pointed out by the Chair of Harvards Nutrition Department, plant protein is preferable to animal protein because food is a package deal. Unlike protein from animal sources, protein from plants has been associated with lower rates of chronic disease.
But, in the 1950s, the field of nutrition got human protein requirements spectacularly wrong, leading to a massive recalculation. Heres the story.
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