Not All Stones Are Created Equal
In addition to calcium oxalate stones, another common type of kidney stones is uric acid stones. Red meat, organ meats, and shellfish have high concentrations of a natural chemical compound known as purines. âHigh purine intake leads to a higher production of uric acid and produces a larger acid load for the kidneys to excrete,â said Dr. Jhagroo. Higher uric acid excretion leads to lower overall urine pH, which means the urine is more acidic. The high acid concentration of the urine makes it easier for uric acid stones to form.
To prevent uric acid stones, cut down on high-purine foods such as red meat, organ meats, and shellfish, and follow a healthy diet that contains mostly vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and low fat dairy products. Limit sugar-sweetened foods and drinks, especially those that contain high fructose corn syrup. Limit alcohol because it can increase uric acid levels in the blood and avoid crash diets for the same reason. Eating less animal-based protein and eating more fruits and vegetables will help decrease urine acidity and this will help reduce the chance for stone formation.
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Kidney Stones A Painful Experience
In order to diagnose or rule out a potential case of kidney stones, the NKF explains, your doctor may ask you about your family history and proceed to physical examination. Urine and blood testing may also be required to check the levels of certain chemicals, and this means you may be asked to collect urine for 24 hours.
Additionally, your doctor may use ultrasound to locate the stone in your body. This technology is enabled by a devise which emits painless sound waves that draw an imaging of your organs. Another option is computerized tomography, which uses X-Rays to achieve the same goal.
If you are able to expel a stone, this can be analyzed for further information about its type and origin, which will be helpful when devising a prevention strategy.
National Kidney Foundation & Moonstone Nutrition
This partnership will focus on providing valuable information to both patients and healthcare professionals regarding risk factors, symptoms, prevention and treatment options, and include the development of new, educational resources, as well as a series of virtual events. To learn more about this partnership, click below.
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Will It Help Or Hurt To Take A Vitamin Or Mineral Supplement
The B vitamins which include thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B6 and B12 have not been shown to be harmful to people with kidney stones. In fact, some studies have shown that B6 may actually help people with high urine oxalate. However, it is best to check with your healthcare professional or dietitian for advice on the use of vitamin C, vitamin D, fish liver oils or other mineral supplements containing calcium since some supplements can increase the chances of stone formation in some individuals.
Potassium Citrate And Kidney Stones: How Potassium Citrate Diet Is Helpful
Potassium Citrate and Kidney Stones
Crystallization of chemical materials normally found suspended in urine at the end of the bodys metabolic process result in kidney stones. These stones get formed generally when the urine is highly concentrated occurring from lack of proper fluid intake, and can also form when the urine is either increasingly acidic or alkaline though the type of kidney stone formed differs.
Very small stones formed are capable of being expelled out of the body via urine painlessly. It is only when these stones cluster together to form bigger ones do they obstruct the normal flow of urine and cause a lot of pain in the individual. These stones commonly obstruct at the upper ureters where it meets the kidneys or lower end where it enters into the bladder, or even in mid-portion of the ureters.
Read Testimonials of Successfully Dissolving & Passing Kidney Stones at Home.
General symptoms that the individual may experience when stones get formed in the kidney are pain around the lower back and abdominal area, either sides or around the pelvic area that can either be excruciating in nature or a dull achiness.
When these edges brush against the urinary tract walls during its movement, blood may ooze out from the abraded areas of tissue that further tinges the urine.
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Calcium Oxalate And Calcium Phosphate Stones
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones, and can be either calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. As mentioned, good hydration is important to prevent calcium stones. It may be surprising, but results of a randomized clinical trial show that people with calcium kidney stones should not cut back on dietary calcium. In fact, they should consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium . Why? Calcium binds to oxalate in the intestine and prevents its absorption through the gut, so there is less in the urine to form stones. Ideally, calcium should come from food. Talk with your doctor before taking calcium supplements, and increasing fluid intake might be beneficial depending on how much calcium you take.
Foods high in oxalates can increase the amount of oxalate in the urine. Consume these in moderation.
Calcium phosphate stones are less common than calcium oxalate stones. Causes include hyperparathyroidism , renal tubular acidosis , and urinary tract infections. It is important to understand if one of these conditions is behind the formation of calcium phosphate stones.
Good hydration can help prevent recurrence of calcium stones. In addition, thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide can help the kidney absorb more calcium, leaving less of it in the urine where it can form stones. Potassium citrate is another medication that can bind to calcium and help keep calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in the urine from forming into stones.
What Have I Added
In a crude observational study whose only virtue lies in large numbers of samples , one finds some reduction of ammonia in UA stone formers. This is true for concentration based analysis more than excretion. Slim as it is, my mote supports the idea that something is really wrong with ammonia in UA stone formers compared here not to normals but to CaOx and CaP SF.
Clinicians need not bother to look for low urine ammonia excretion in their UA SF as crude simple lab testing cannot reveal it. It is too pH sensitive, for example. The effect something wrong with UA SF certainly exists. I Found traces of it. Perhaps my colleagues in Dallas will one day identify it more completely.
So take this as my homage to my friends in Dallas.
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Low In Relation To Urine Ph
Urine NH4+ vertical axis should rise as urine pH falls. But for uric acid stone formers , if anything, it fell. Startlingly enough, values at low pH matched those at high pH when trapping is poor and low NH4+ is expected. As well, points from mixed uric acid/calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formers matched.
But a few normals and calcium oxalate stone formers had about the same NH4+ excretions at pH around 5.5. This obscures any unique claim for uric acid stone formers.
Even so, one suspects trouble with ammonia production when NH4+ fails to soar upwards as pH falls so low as 5. For example, the reference links to a an old research by Schwartz and Relman. When they lowered urine pH very rapidly in humans without changing blood pH. urine NH4+ rose remarkably. Why not observe that in uric acid stone formers?
Symptoms Of Kidney Stones
Many people with kidney stones have no symptoms. However, some people do get symptoms, which may include:
- a gripping pain in the back usually just below the ribs on one side, radiating around to the front and sometimes towards the groin. The pain may be severe enough to cause nausea and vomiting
- blood in the urine
- cloudy or bad smelling urine
- shivers, sweating and fever if the urine becomes infected
- small stones, like gravel, passing out in the urine, often caused by uric acid stones
- an urgent feeling of needing to urinate, due to a stone at the bladder outlet.
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Diet And Fluid Intake
High meat intake increases the urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate, and uric acid and decreases urinary pH and citric excretion. The use of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss has led to concern about increased risk of stone formation, as these diets have been shown to be associated with decreased urinary citrate and pH levels and increased urine calcium and sodium levels in the induction and maintenance phases.
Excessive dietary sodium can also result in hypocitraturia, leading to increased stone formation.
What Causes Recurrent Kidney Stones
If youre suffering from recurrent kidney stones, talk to a specialist like Dr. Weintraub at Urological Associates Medical Group. Different factors can trigger a recurrence, and its important to rule out certain conditions to better understand whats causing your stones.
For most people, lifestyle factors are the reasons kidney stones keep developing. For example, eating too much animal protein, especially from red and organ meat, increases uric acid levels while decreasing the chemical needed to stop minerals from crystallizing.
Being overweight or obese has also been linked to high levels of uric acid and an increased risk of recurrent kidney stones, as has consumption of high levels of sodium and not drinking adequate amounts of water.
If youve had recurrent kidney stones or are worried about more stones developing, lower your risk by making simple lifestyle changes like losing weight, drinking plenty of water, avoiding sodium, and eating more fruits and veggies and less animal protein.
But for some people, certain hereditary or genetic conditions may cause recurrent stones. These include:
At Urology Associates Medical Group, were experienced at identifying causes of recurrent kidney stones so you can get the help you need and keep the pain away.
If youve had recurrent kidney stones or want to learn about preventing a recurrence, our office or request an appointment online. Were also pleased to offer telemedicine appointments for your convenience.
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Diagnosis Of Kidney Stones
Many kidney stones are discovered by chance during examinations for other conditions. Urine and blood tests can help with finding out the cause of the stone. Further tests may include:
- CT scans
- x-rays, including an intravenous pyelogram , where dye is injected into the bloodstream before the x-rays are taken.
How Else Can I Prevent Uric Acid Stones
You can take other steps to prevent uric acid stones:
- Drink at least 12 cups of fluids every day, preferably water.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, which can reduce both high blood pressure and the risk of kidney stones.
- Take any medications your provider prescribed to prevent uric acid stones from forming.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Uric Acid Stones
A stone that is small enough can pass through with no symptoms. However, a stone that is too large to pass through may cause significant pain, back-up of urine, infection and other health problems. Speak with a healthcare professional if you feel any of these symptoms:
- Severe pain on either side of your lower back
- Vague flank pain or stomach ache that doesnt go away
- Blood in the urine
What Are Uric Acid Stone Symptoms
Almost all types of kidney stones have similar symptoms, including one or more of the following:
- Pain in the lower back, sides, abdomen or groin because of the result of irritation or blockage inside the kidneys or urinary system
- Frequent but small amount of urination
- Urine that smells bad or is cloudy during a urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection also causes pain in same areas as uric acid stone does. You should meet your doctor to rule out any confusion if you feel pain in those areas as described above.
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Toxicity And Side Effect Management
Treatment with alkalinizing agents like sodium bicarbonate can increase sodium levels and cause fluid overload, which can be life-threatening in patients with high blood pressure, congestive cardiac failure, and liver cirrhosis. High sodium can also increase the risk of calcium oxalate calculi by promoting calcium and sodium excretion. Side effects from sodium bicarbonate can be controlled with the simultaneous use of acetazolamide, which also increases urinary alkalinization.
Potassium citrate is the primary urinary alkalinizing agent, but there can be problems in patients with renal failure who have hyperkalemia or who cannot swallow larger tablets. It may also be costly for those without insurance, especially since there are no current pharmaceutical industry indigent programs providing potassium citrate. “Litholyte” is a commercially available citrate supplement and urinary alkalinizer. It is composed of potassium citrate, magnesium citrate, and sodium bicarbonate. Each packet of dissolvable crystals has 10 mEq of citrate but only half the potassium of standard potassium citrate preparations. It is tasteless, available by mail, and relatively inexpensive. It can be ordered online and is available without a prescription as it is officially classified as a “food”.
Medication For Kidney Stones
For most people with recurrent calcium stones, a combination of drinking enough fluids, avoiding urinary infections, and specific treatment with medications will significantly reduce or stop new stone formation.
Certain medications such as thiazide diuretics or indapamide reduce calcium excretion and decrease the chance of another calcium stone. Potassium citrate or citric juices are used to supplement thiazide treatment and are used by themselves for some conditions where the urine is too acidic.
For people who have a high level of uric acid in their urine, or who make uric acid stones, the medication allopurinol will usually stop the formation of new stones.
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Does Potassium Citrate Reduce Kidney Stones
The surgeon can remove the stone through this tunnel. Potassium citrate. Your healthcare provider.
Take medicines prescribed to prevent calcium and uric acid stones from forming. A kidney stone is.
How Long Does It Take For A Kidney Stone To Pass The small Chibuzor entered and like the proverbial rejected stone that became the chief corner. this stubborn boy what is he going there to do? All the humble children of
Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis. It is also used to prevent kidney stones that may occur with gout.
a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do.
Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with.
Keywords: hypercalciuria, kidney stones, mineral metabolism.
Overall mean urinary uric acid excretion did not differ (K-cit, 1.6Â±0.1 mg/d versus.
A machine-learning algorithm can use demographic, symptomatic, and clinical data to accurately predict the health-related quality of life of patients with kidney stones, new research shows.
in calcium citrate supplements and in some medications , is closely related to citric acid and also has stone prevention benefits. These medications may be prescribed to alkalinize your urine. How does citric acid protect against kidney stones? Citric acid makes urine less favorable for the formation of stones.
Their appearance can.
potassium citrate to achieve a urine pH of.
May 17, 2019.
Four Main Kinds Of Kidney Stones
There are four main kinds of kidney stones:
Calcium oxalate stones, by far the most common type of kidney stone
Calcium phosphate stones, also very common
Uric acid stones, often associated with diabetes
Struvite stones, often caused by an active infection
The two most common kidney stones include calciumâ in their names, so does that mean you should cut out milk and other calcium-rich foods?
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Conditions Associated With Increased Kidney Stone Risk
Impaired kidney function Kidney diseases and disorders that impair renal calcium handling cause high urinary calcium and thereby increase stone risk. Similarly, kidney diseases that cause increased phosphate in the urine also contribute to stone risk .
Hyperparathyroidism In this condition, parathyroid hormone levels are elevated. This leads to increased intestinal calcium absorption and calcium removal from bones, raising blood calcium levels as well as urine calcium concentrations and kidney stone risk .
Osteoporosis Emerging evidence suggests a strong relationship between bone loss and kidney stones. This has led some researchers to recommend osteoporosis testing for recurrent kidney stone formers .
Digestive and intestinal disorders People with chronic diarrhea or inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease absorb more dietary oxalate, leading to hyperoxaluria and thus an increased calcium oxalate stone risk . Hyperoxaluria can also occur in people with fat malabsorption due to digestive disorders or after gastrointestinal surgery, including bariatric surgery for weight loss. In this condition, excess fat in the gut binds to calcium, which then cannot attach to and block absorption of oxalate .
Type 2 diabetes People with diabetes have more acidic urine and higher urinary uric acid and oxalate than people without diabetes, increasing their risk of uric acid and calcium oxalate kidney stones .
Easy Ways To Prevent Kidney Stones
Did you know that one in ten people will have a kidney stone over the course of a lifetime? Recent studies have shown that kidney stone rates are on the rise across the country. Those in the know believe that some major misconceptions may be the culprit.
The National Kidney Foundation has teamed up with Dr. Allan Jhagroo, a kidney stone specialist at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, to help you stay stone-free by debunking some of the major kidney stone myths and misconceptions.
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Gout And Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney disease and gout are both closely intertwined. A study in 2021 found that those with uncontrolled gout had a significantly increased risk of not only developing kidney disease but having more advanced kidney disease.
Its important to note that the kidneys are responsible for eliminating more than 70% of the uric acid in the body. Therefore, if a person has kidney disease it can be important to monitor uric acid levels and make dietary changes to prevent uric acid buildup.
That being said, research has shown that even without symptoms of gout or kidney stones, having high levels of uric acid when you have kidney disease can increase the progression of kidney disease.
From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008, 71% of people with gout also had kidney disease. And for those with severely high uric acid, 86% had kidney disease.
Its important to be aware of your uric acid level and talk with your doctor about how to best manage it.