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Are Tumors On The Kidney Cancerous

Does Every Person With Kidney Cancer Needs To Get The Entire Organ To Be Removed Can It Not Be Cured A Doctor Clears The Air

The Kidney and Kidney Cancers | UCLA Urology
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We are all aware of the seriousness and lethal potential of cancer. However, only a small portion of people are aware that kidney cancer is one of the top 10 malignancies in the globe. A cancer develops in the kidney due to the buildup of abnormal cells, and the tumour eventually spreads outside of the kidney. Although it is uncertain what causes kidney cancer, a few prevalent misconceptions need to be busted.

If you know someone in the family who is going through kidney cancer, or you just want to increase your awareness about it for the sake of your loved ones, heres what you must know.

Should I Get A Biopsy

A question that we hear all the time. There is a theoretical risk of bleeding or spreading the cancer with a biopsy, but this not why they are not widely used.

Unlike prostate, breast, or colon biopsies it turns out that biopsies of small kidney tumors are not as accurate as we would like.

As many as 20% of the biopsies are “false negatives”- in other words the biopsy says there is no cancer when indeed there is a cancer.

We still use them sometimes but it has to be in the right patient. Recent innovations in how we do the biopsies has allowed us to get more information than ever before. It remains, however, that a biopsy should only be obtained after a discussion with an expert on this disease!

Treatment options for patients with a small kidney tumor including active surveillance, ablation, partial nephrectomy, and total nephrectomy. In the vast majority of patients treatment of a small kidney tumor should result in saving the kidney. A quick decision to remove the kidney may not be the best treatment. Experience is critical in being able to save the kidney. In our section regarding treatment one can find details regarding these options.

At Johns Hopkins our surgeons are experts on all approaches and will help tailor the treatment to the patient. One size does NOT fit all.

There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

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Mind & Body Therapies

These combine mental focus, breathing, and body movements to help relax the body and mind. Some examples are:

  • Meditation: Focused breathing or repetition of words or phrases to quiet the mind
  • Biofeedback: Using simple machines, the patient learns how to affect certain body functions that are normally out of one’s awareness
  • Hypnosis: A state of relaxed and focused attention in which a person concentrates on a certain feeling, idea, or suggestion to aid in healing
  • Yoga: Systems of stretches and poses, with special attention given to breathing
  • Tai Chi: Involves slow, gentle movements with a focus on the breath and concentration
  • Imagery: Imagining scenes, pictures, or experiences to help the body heal
  • Creative outlets: Interests such as art, music, or dance

How Can I Prevent Kidney Cancer

* An Overview of Kidney Cancer

Because doctors don’t know the causes of kidney cancer, it is not clear how to prevent the disease. However, certain factors are linked to kidney cancer, so you can take certain steps to lower your risk — quit smoking, maintain a healthy weight, manage your blood pressure, and avoid being exposed to harmful chemicals.

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What Are The Different Types Of Kidney Cancer In Cats

Unfortunately, most types of tumors found in cats kidneys are malignant . The most common type of kidney cancer in cats is renal lymphoma, followed by renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma.

It is more common that kidney cancer in cats is secondary, meaning it has spread from cancer that began elsewhere in the body. However, primary cancer may also occur.

Because the kidneys have such a good blood supply, cancer in the kidneys tends to spread quickly to other areas of the body, which is why the prognosis for kidney cancer in cats is generally poor.

Signs And Symptoms Of Kidney Cancer

Most people with kidney cancer have no symptoms. Doctors find most kidney cancers when they are checking for something else. Signs and symptoms can include:

  • blood in your urine this may be obvious, or the urine may look dark, rusty or brown
  • pain in your lower back or side
  • a lump in your abdomen
  • constant tiredness
  • fever .

Not everyone with these symptoms has kidney cancer. If you have any of these symptoms or are worried, always see your doctor.

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How Does The Doctor Know I Have Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancers dont usually cause any signs or symptoms, but sometimes they might. Symptoms of kidney cancer may be:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Losing weight, if youre not trying to lose weight
  • Fever thats not from a cold and that doesnt go away

Talk to a doctor if you notice any of these problems. Your doctor will ask you questions about your health and do an exam.

If signs are pointing to kidney cancer, more tests will be done. Here are some of the tests you may need:

Urinalysis: Urine is checked in the lab to see if there are blood or cancer cells in it

Blood chemistry tests: These tests show how well the kidneys are working.

Complete blood count :This test measures the number of blood cells in the blood, like white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. People with kidney cancer often have low red blood cell counts.

Chest x-ray: X-rays may be done to see if the cancer has spread to your lungs.

CT scan: This is also called a CAT scan. It uses a special kind of x-ray that takes detailed pictures of your insides to see if the cancer has spread.

MRI scan: This testuses radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays to make pictures that look at the soft tissue parts of the body. This test may be used to see if the cancer has spread.

There are many types of biopsies. Ask your doctor what kind you may need. Each type has risks and benefits. The choice of which type to use depends on your own case.

Grading kidney cancer

Pearls And Other Issues

Kidney Cancer Symptoms and Treatment

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for over 3% of all malignancies and 90% of adult renal malignancies. It is the most lethal of all urologic cancers. The 5-year survival rate varies based on histologic type as does metastatic potential and favored site of metastasis with the lung being the most frequently involved in clear cell tumors and the liver in chromophobe tumors.

Tobacco use and obesity are the strongest risk factors, and about half of the RCC can be eliminated by controlling these two factors.

RCC is a group of closely related neoplasms the subtypes can be separated on the basis of histologic findings, cytogenetic abnormalities, biologic behavior, and imaging appearances of the tumors. It is possible to differentiate the three main subtypes based on characteristic radiologic appearances.

Histopathologically, RCC has a number of subtypes, and clear cell , papillary , and chromophobe are the most common. Other RCC subtypes are rare and include carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini , renal medullary carcinoma, Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma, among others.

Cytogenetically familial and sporadic VHL gene alterations/mutations are seen in CCRCC with a loss of 3p25.3 locus. PRCC has chromosomal abnormalities of 3, 7, 12, 16, 17, and 20, c-MET mutations, and loss of the Y chromosome. Chromophobe RCC has a number of abnormalities that include loss of multiple chromosomes such as 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21.

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Treatments For Kidney Cancer

The treatment for kidney cancer depends on the size of the cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of your body.

The main treatments are:

  • surgery to remove part or all of the affected kidney this is the main treatment for most people
  • cryotherapy or radiofrequency ablation where the cancerous cells are destroyed by freezing or heating
  • biological therapies medicines that help stop the cancer growing or spreading
  • embolisation a procedure to cut off the blood supply to the cancer
  • radiotherapy using high-energy radiation to target cancer cells and relieve symptoms

How Do You Treat Kidney Cancer In Cats

Treatment of kidney cancer in cats depends upon the type of cancer, and whether there is cancer found in other parts of the body as well.

Renal lymphoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in cats. Renal lymphoma is treated with chemotherapy.

In other types of kidney cancer, surgery to remove the affected kidney may be recommended. This is only possible in cats where only one kidney is affected, and there is no evidence of spread of the cancer to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be advised in combination with surgery to improve the prognosis.

For some cats, chemotherapy or surgery are not the right option, and treatment will be aimed at keeping them as comfortable as possible for the time they have left. Palliative treatment may include drugs such as steroids, anti-nausea medication, appetite stimulants, pain relief and antibiotics for secondary infections.

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Risk Factors And Symptoms

Risk factors for all kidney cancers include smoking, being overweight, having high blood pressure, and being exposed to toxic substances, such as asbestos and cadmium. Being on long-term dialysis, a treatment for kidney failure that involves removing harmful substances from the blood, can also raise the risk. A family history of kidney cancer and rare genetic syndromes such as von HippelLindau disease, hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma, and BirtHoggDubé syndrome also increase risk.

In the past, kidney cancer was only discovered when people experienced common symptoms such as blood in the urine, a pain or lump in the side or lower back, fatigue, a loss of appetite, and weight loss. In recent years, however, imaging tests conducted for unrelated health conditions detect up to 67 percent of kidney tumors before symptoms start. Earlier detection of kidney tumors increases the likelihood that they can be managed with surgery.

To diagnose the condition, your doctor asks about your medical history and any symptoms you may be experiencing. Then, NYU Langone doctors may perform several different tests.

What Are The Treatments For Kidney Cancer

Tumors in Kidney

Once you have a diagnosis and know your stage of kidney cancer, you and your doctor can plan treatment. You may want to gather information to help you feel more informed about your decision. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist for treatment. This could include an urologist, a medical or radiation oncologist, or a surgeon. Before beginning treatment, many people find it helpful to get a second opinion about the diagnosis of kidney cancer and the treatment plan.

Kidney cancer is one of the more common cancers to undergo spontaneous regression, in which it may return to an eralier stage. However, the incidence is quite low .

There are several standard types of treatment for kidney cancer. In most cases, surgery is the first step. Even if surgery removes the entire tumor, though, your doctor may suggest an extra treatment to kill any remaining cancer cells that can’t be seen.

Surgery for kidney cancer

These are the main types of surgery for kidney cancer. Which type you have depends on how advanced your cancer is.

You can survive with just a part of one kidney as long as it is still working. If the surgeon removes both kidneys or if both kidneys are not working, you will need a machine to clean your blood or a new kidney . A transplant is possible if your cancer was found only in your kidney and a donated kidney is available.

If surgery can’t remove your kidney cancer, your doctor may suggest another option to help destroy the tumor.

Biologic therapy for kidney cancer

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Hereditary Renal Tumor Syndromes

Some kidney tumors are caused by genetic disorders or syndromes, including:

  • Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects multiple systems in the body. It is characterized by cysts and tumors in various parts of the body that can become malignant . This syndrome increases the risk for renal cell carcinoma and pheochromocytomas .
  • Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and in other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, lungs and skin. Symptoms may include seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, behavioral problems, skin abnormalities, and lung and kidney disease.
  • Birt-Hogg-DubĂ© is a rare genetic disorder that can increase the risk of kidney cancer, renal and pulmonary cysts and noncancerous tumors of the hair follicles, called fibrofolliculomas.

Treatment Of Stage Iii Renal Cell Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

  • Arterial embolization as palliative therapy.
  • Surgery as palliative therapy.
  • Radiation therapy before or after surgery .
  • A clinical trial of biologic therapy following surgery.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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Myth : Renal Cell Carcinoma Is The Only Kind Of Kidney Cancer

Fact: Although it is not the only type of kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma is the most common. There are other different types of kidney cancer that can affect people and are probably more dangerous to their lives. A majority of people assume that this type of tumour is the only one that affects the kidneys because it is present in 90% of cases of kidney cancer. The kidneys lining is the site of the initial cancerous growth before it spreads to the kidneys internal cells.

Treatment Of Stage I Renal Cell Cancer

Treatments for Kidney Tumors – Kenneth Nepple, MD

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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Why Choose Children’s Colorado To Treat Pediatric Renal Tumors

Because proper treatment for kidney tumors in children is not always straightforward, we believe it helps to get advice from physicians with abundant experience treating this cancer. At Children’s Colorado, experts in our Urologic Tumor Program have extensive experience managing pediatric kidney cancer for kids of all ages. We are experienced with all phases of care for renal tumors and can provide care for patients in all stages of the disease.

As a hospital, we are fortunate to have one of the few pediatric urologists in the world who is also fellowship-trained in urologic oncology, Nicholas Cost, MD. Our medical experts are also active in clinical trials and research, always striving to find more effective, innovative ways to treat pediatric renal cancer.

Here, we treat each patient as an individual, offering customized treatment for every case and every patient. We proudly provide both traditional and advanced options for treatment, as well as access to the latest research on pediatric kidney cancer.

For more information on kidney tumors in children, visit:

What Are The Treatment Options

It is very important for a person with kidney cancer to discuss treatment options with a healthcare team. Different types of kidney cancer may need different treatments, but they all depend on whether or not the cancer has spread to other organs.

If the cancer has not spread outside the kidney, doctors may recommend surgery. The explains that this can involve removing the whole kidney or just the infected part. Doctors may also remove the surrounding lymph nodes.

Other treatments include:

The Urology Care Foundation says that 1 in 4 kidney tumors are benign, or non-cancerous. It explains that if the mass is small in size, it is most likely benign.

The ACS states that angiomyolipomas are the most common type of benign kidney tumor. Doctors usually adopt a watch it and see approach to these tumors unless they are causing problems, such as pain or bleeding.

Angiomyolipomas are often associated with tuberous sclerosis, which can also affect the heart, lungs, eyes, and brain. These tumors are more common among women than men.

According to a paper published by StatPearls, oncocytomas are benign, non-cancerous, growths that account for

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After Renal Cell Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Kidney Or To Other Parts Of The Body

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the kidney or to otherparts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from thestaging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to knowthe stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests andprocedures may be used in the staging process:

  • CT scan: A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the chest or brain, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
  • MRI: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the brain. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging .
  • Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
  • Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones with cancer and is detected by a scanner.

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