How Can You Protect Your Kidneys
Your doctor should monitor your kidney function by checking your blood pressure and testing your urine and blood once a year.
Controlling Blood Pressure
If your blood pressure is above normal, you should work with your doctor to keep it below 130/80. Great care should be taken in selecting blood pressure medicines for people with a solitary kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are two classes of blood pressure medicine that protect kidney function and reduce proteinuria. But these medicines may be harmful to someone with renal artery stenosis , which is the narrowing of the arteries that enter the kidneys. Diuretics can help control blood pressure by removing excess fluid in the body. Controlling your blood pressure may require a combination of two or more medicines, plus changes in diet and activity level.
Whats Expected After Duplex Kidney Is Treated
The amount of recovery time needed after surgery depends on the procedure performed and the age of the patient. Children usually need one to two days in the hospital for recovery, then continued rest at home for one to two weeks.
An ultrasound of your kidney is usually done four to six weeks after surgery.
No long-term problems with kidney function or sexual function will result from treatment.
What Are The Types Of Kidney Cancer
The information in this document refers to renal cell carcinoma the most common form of kidney cancer. However, there are different types of kidney cancer, including:
- Renal cell carcinoma : This is the most common form of kidney cancer in adults and accounts for 85% of all kidney cancers. Renal cell carcinoma usually develops as a single tumor in one kidney, but it can affect both kidneys. Renal cell carcinoma begins in the cells that line the small tubes that are part of the nephrons within the kidneys. .
- Transitional cell carcinoma: Transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 6% to 7% of all kidney cancers. This cancer usually begins in the area where the ureter connects to the main part of the kidney. This area is called the renal pelvis. Transitional cell carcinoma also can occur in the ureters or bladder.
- Renal sarcoma: This is the least common form of kidney cancer, accounting for only 1% of kidney cancer cases. It begins in the connective tissues of the kidneys and, if not treated, can spread to nearby organs and bones.
- Wilms’ tumor: This is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. It accounts for about 5% of kidney cancers.
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What Is The Outlook For People With Kidney Cancer
The chance of recovery depends on the type and stage of cancer . The chance of recovery also depends on the patient’s general state of health.
Like most cancers, kidney cancer is most able to be treated if it is found in its early stages. In general, if the cancer is detected early, before it breaks through the outer covering of the kidney, kidney cancer is often curable.
What Is Ectopic Ureter
Most of us are born with 2 ureters, the tube that drains the urine from each kidney into the bladder.
But some babies are born with 2 ureters that drain a single kidney. In these cases, one ureter drains the upper part of the kidney and the second ureter drains the lower part of the kidney. As long as they both enter the bladder, this extra ureter is usually not a problem.
But if a child is born with a ureter that does not connect with the bladder, it can drain somewhere outside the bladder. This is called an ectopic ureter. In girls, the ectopic ureter can drain into the urethra or even the vagina. In boys, it often drains into the urethra near the prostate or into the sex organs.
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Urine Data Analyses And Expression
All assays were performed against cDNA standards. Because the urine sample volume varied from 5 to 50 ml, we first expressed data per milliliter of urine, and we then expressed data per gram of urine creatinine to compensate for urine concentration. All data are therefore expressed per gram of creatinine. Where more than one sample was available from a patient, the mean value of all available samples was used for analysis so that each patient is represented only once. Because these are mRNA assays, the possibility exists that the amount of mRNA in a cell could increase in relation to the amount of hypertrophy. Therefore, it might not be accurate to interpret these urine mRNA data in relation to cell number. We therefore use the term amount of urine mRNA under the concept that losing a hypertrophied cell could be equivalent to losing two nonhypertrophied cells in terms of glomerular basement membrane surface covered. The term amount deals with this concept in a reasonable way.
How Is Kidney Cancer Treated
Treatment depends on the type of cancer, the stage, and grade of the tumor, and the patient’s age and overall health.
Surgery is the most common treatment for kidney cancer. Several surgical options may be considered, including:
- Partial nephrectomy: The surgeon removes just the part of the kidney that contains the tumor.
- Radical nephrectomy: The surgeon removes the whole kidney and some of the tissue around the kidney. Some lymph nodes in the area also may be removed.
When one kidney is removed, the remaining kidney usually is able to perform the work of both kidneys.
Surgery is the treatment of choice for most stages of kidney cancer. For chemotherapy for kidney cancer, there are many relatively new agents that block the blood flow to the tumor and put it into remission. These medications are typically taken by mouth and are generally well tolerated. The other approach is to use medication that activates the bodys own immune system to fight the tumor.
Some people with kidney cancer participate in clinical trials. Clinical trials are research programs conducted with patients to evaluate new medical treatments, drugs or devices. Clinical trials also are being conducted on new chemotherapy drugs and on new ways to use biological therapy for patients with kidney cancer.
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Will You Need Dialysis
Dialysis performs the function of your kidney by filtering your blood and removing waste and extra fluid. Its only done when youve temporarily or permanently lost most or all of your kidney function.
According to the National Kidney Foundation, dialysis should be started only if your kidneys have lost 85 to 90 percent of their function. Since you usually have nearly normal kidney function when you have one kidney, you wont need dialysis unless your kidney fails.
You should see your healthcare provider at least once a year to evaluate your single kidney. If a problem develops, you should be checked more often.
Two tests are used to evaluate your kidney function:
- The glomerular filtration rate indicates how well your kidneys are filtering blood. Its calculated using the creatinine level in your blood.
- The amount of protein in your urine is measured to determine if the filters in your kidney are damaged and leaky. High levels of protein in your urine is a sign of kidney dysfunction.
Your blood pressure also must be measured.
High blood pressure can be a sign of kidney dysfunction. It can also damage the blood vessels in your kidney, which can make kidney dysfunction worse.
Lifestyle changes and medication can lower your blood pressure and avoid further kidney damage.
What Are The Ureters
Ureters are long, narrow tubes that drain urine from your kidneys to your bladder. Normally one ureter leads from each kidney to your bladder. In the case of duplicated systems, two ureters drain a single kidney. One ureter drains the upper pole of your kidney and the other drains the lower pole. This condition may affect one or both kidneys.
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What Are The Complications Of A Solitary Kidney
Complications from a solitary kidney are rare but may include
- increased protein in the urine, known as albuminuria.
- a lower-than-normal glomerular filtration rate , which measures how quickly your kidneys filter wastes and extra fluid from your blood. While less common, this complication can at times lead to kidney failure.
- high blood pressure.
- high blood pressure during pregnancy. This complication less commonly results in organ damage in the mother or child, a condition known as preeclampsia.
People with kidney agenesis or kidney dysplasia can be at an increased risk for developing kidney disease. For example, if your solitary kidney functioned normally during childhood, you still have an increased risk of having decreased kidney function as an adult.4,5
Pay Attention To Protein
The more protein you eat, the harder your kidneys have to work. But you do need some protein. You can get it from animal products such as:
Portion size matters, too. A portion of chicken, fish, or meat is 2 to 3 ounces. A portion of yogurt or milk is half a cup. One slice of cheese is a portion.
You can also get protein from beans, grains, and nuts. A portion of cooked beans, rice, or noodles is half a cup. A portion of nuts is a quarter of a cup. One slice of bread is a portion.
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What Are Symptoms And Complications Of Duplex Kidney
As long as your duplicated ureters drain normally into your bladder they should not cause any symptoms. If symptoms do occur, it is usually in the case of complete duplicated ureters.
A duplex kidney can occur with other abnormalities of your urinary system. One common abnormality is an ureterocele, which occurs when the end of the ureter does not develop properly, and urine flow is obstructed. This results in a balloon-like swelling as urine builds up at the point where the ureter and bladder connect. In addition, urine can reflux back toward the kidney through the second ureter, which often has a weak valve because it joins the bladder in an abnormal location.
A number of symptoms can occur when one of the ureters is ectopic, which means it drains to somewhere other than the bladder. Symptoms of an ectopic ureter include:
One Shoulder Higher Than The Other: Coping Methods
1. Treat Shoulder Injury
Work with your doctor to treat your shoulder injury in a proper way. You should not put any stress on your shoulder while it is still healing. It makes sense to work with a physiotherapist to understand how to strengthen your shoulder girdle muscles. This will help you attain full range of motion in a short time.
2. Treat Scoliosis
Seek treatment for scoliosis if it is the main cause of one shoulder higher than the other. It does not always require treatment, especially when the curve is less than 20 degrees, but serious cases require medical help. Here are some treatment options:
3. Deal with Osteoporosis
It is necessary to take medications if osteoporosis is the reason why you have one shoulder lower than the other. Making some lifestyle changes may also help. For instance, you should stop smoking because it puts you at an increased risk of losing bone density and developing osteoporosis. You should also limit your alcohol intake and not go beyond a couple of drinks a day. You also increase your risk of falling and getting in an accident when under the influence of alcohol.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Solitary Kidney
In general, people born with kidney agenesis or kidney dysplasia show no symptoms, lead full healthy lives, and may never discover they have a solitary kidney. Some people discover they have a solitary kidney by chance after having an x-ray, an ultrasound, or surgery for an unrelated condition or injury. A minority of people develop progressive loss of kidney function, and they can develop symptoms associated with chronic kidney disease.
A small percentage of babies born with kidney agenesis have other birth defects, such as an absent anus, an absent or smaller-than-normal bladder, an absent or smaller-than-normal uterus, a smaller-than-normal lung, club feet, or a hole in the heart wall separating the two lower heart chambers.5
Why Would One Kidney Be Larger Than The Other
The National Kidney Federation explains that the most common reasons one kidney is larger than the other include congenital dysplasia, reflux nephropathy, kidney infection and blood starvation in the smaller kidney. Diseases such as glomerulonephritis also cause a kidney to become smaller.
Congenital dysplasia is a condition wherein a kidney is small at birth or has never grown with the rest of the body, says the NKF. It is a common cause of small kidneys and is typically detected in childhood. In some cases, the small kidney is in a normal position in the upper back. However, in other cases, it is found in the lower abdomen as it has failed to move up from there before birth.
Reflux nephropathy refers to a damaged kidney due to a faulty drainage system, explains the NKF. It is commonly detected in childhood and early adulthood.
According to the NKF, sometimes one kidney is bigger than the other because an infection has caused the other kidney to shrink. Severe kidney infections damage the kidney and cause it to become small. When the kidney lacks blood due to a narrowing in the artery that supplies the organ with blood, it often becomes smaller. This condition typically occurs in older people, especially those with a history of angina or heart attack.
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Is There Anything Else I Need To Know About A Bun Test
A BUN test is only one type of measurement of kidney function. If your health care provider suspects you have kidney disease, additional tests may be recommended. These may include a measurement of creatinine, which is another waste product filtered by your kidneys, and a test called a GFR , which estimates how well your kidneys are filtering blood.
Other Conditions Associated With Renal Hypoplasia
Sometimes, renal hypoplasia can be seen with other conditions that happen in the womb.
- Antenatal hydronephrosis one or both kidneys do not drain urine properly usually because there is a blockage affecting how urine leaves the body. The affected kidney can become stretched and swollen. Antenatal hydronephrosis often gets better at a later stage in the pregnancy, but your doctor will check how your baby is affected.
Vesicoureteral reflux when babies with VUR pass urine in the womb, some urine refluxes towards, and sometimes into, the kidneys. This can affect the fully working kidney and/ or the hypoplastic kidney.
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What Do The Results Mean
Normal BUN levels can vary, but generally a high level of blood urea nitrogen is a sign that your kidneys are not working correctly. However, abnormal results don’t always indicate that you have a medical condition needing treatment. Higher than normal BUN levels can also be caused by dehydration, burns, certain medicines, a high protein diet, or other factors, including your age. BUN levels normally increase as you get older. To learn what your results mean, talk to your health care provider.
Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.
Imaging Techniques For The Kidney
KUB is the proper terminology for a radiograph of the abdomen when used to view the urinary tract. The outline of kidneys can usually be seen. Ureters usually are not visible. The most common pathological findings are urinary tract stones. See the image below.
The imaging technique of choice for evaluation of the urinary tract and adrenal glands is CT scanning. It allows evaluation of the relative density of structures. CT scanning without contrast can be used for detection of renal or ureteral stones. See the image below.
The advantages of ultrasonography include that it is readily available, does not require contrast, and avoids radiation exposure. The renal medulla is hypoechoic compared with the renal cortex. The renal cortex is isoechoic or slightly hypoechoic compared with the liver. Ultrasonography is able to identify simple or mildly complicated cysts and is able to differentiate these lesions from a solid mass. It is excellent for detecting hydronephrosis. See the image below.
Radionuclide Renal Scintigraphy
Renal radionuclide imaging is an integral part of nuclear medicine and provides substantial information on the actual renal function.
The following radionuclides are used for dynamic imaging:
- Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid
For static imaging, Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid is used.
A diuretic challenge can also be administered.
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How Does Eating Diet And Nutrition Affect A Solitary Kidney
If you have a solitary kidney, you do not need to eat a special diet. However, you can keep your kidneys healthy by staying well hydrated, not taking too much salt, and not gaining excessive weight. If you have reduced kidney function, you may need to make changes to your diet to slow your kidney disease progression. Work with your health care professional or a registered dietitian to develop a meal plan that includes foods you enjoy eating while maintaining your kidney health.
Secretion Of Active Compounds
The kidneys release a number of important compounds, including:
- Erythropoietin: This controls erythropoiesis, or the production of red blood cells. The liver also produces erythropoietin, but the kidneys are its main producers in adults.
- Renin: This helps manage the expansion of arteries and the volume of blood plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Lymph is a fluid that contains white blood cells, which support immune activity, and interstitial fluid is the main component of extracellular fluid.
- Calcitriol: This is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D. It increases both the amount of calcium that the intestines can absorb and the reabsorption of phosphate in the kidney.
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