Feeling Tired Or Sluggish During The Day
Everyone has a day when they feel tired maybe you didnt get enough sleep, or ate the wrong foods, or some other temporary factors are at play. But sometimes, fatigue is caused by lack of a hormone called erythropoietin, or EPO. The main function of EPO is to stimulate the production of red blood cells, and red blood cells carry energizing oxygen to cells throughout your body.
Stressed kidneys do not produce enough EPO, thereby reducing the number of red blood cells and making you feel weak and tired out.
How Low Is Low
A healthy kidney filters wastes from the blood at a rate of 90 milliliters per minute or more. This is known as the glomerular filtration rate, or GFR. With time, many men’s kidneys start to slip, but function must decline quite a lot before you start to really feel the impact. You feel fine up to the point that kidney function is almost gone, which means you can lead a normal life with reduced kidney function.
On the other hand, lack of early warning from symptoms can deny you the chance to slow the slide. Most people don’t start feeling really ill until kidney function is under 10%.
Other Tests Of Kidney Function
The routine kidney blood test is a general marker of kidney function. If the blood test is abnormal it cannot say what is causing the kidney problem. Therefore, if you have an abnormal result you may need further tests to find the cause of a kidney problem. For example: urine tests, other blood tests, scans, X-rays, kidney biopsy, etc.
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Understanding Kidney Function Numbers And What They Mean
Your kidneys job is to remove the extra wastes and fluids, including urea, from your body in the form of urine. When they do not do this, the fluid retention and waste build up products can leave you with dangerous changes to your body that can even become life-threatening. There are various kidney function labs that your doctor can give you to test the functionality of your kidneys.
These will show your doctor where your kidney function numbers are at and if there really is a problem. These numbers are calculated based on your sex, age and creatinine and urea levels.
Take Care Of Your Kidneys
Not all people with kidney disease progress to kidney failure. Follow these tips to help lower your risk for developing kidney failure:
- Keep your blood pressure below 140/90 .
- If you have diabetes, stay in your blood sugar range as much as possible.
- Work with your health care team to monitor your kidney health.
- Take medicines as prescribed.
- Work with a dietitian to develop a kidney-healthy eating plan. If you have diabetes, find tips on how to eat well to manage both diabetes and CKD.
- Get activephysical activity helps control blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Learn about the many benefits of physical activity.
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What Medications Are Prescribed For People With Chronic Kidney Disease
Depending on the cause of your kidney disease, you may be prescribed one or more medications. Medications your nephrologist may prescribe include:
- An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker to lower your blood pressure.
- A diuretic to help your body eliminate extra fluid.
- Medications to lower cholesterol levels.
- Erythropoetin, to build red blood cells if you are anemic.
- Vitamin D and calcitrol to prevent bone loss.
- Phosphate binder if your kidneys cant eliminate phosphate.
More On Your Kidney Function Numbers
The normal range for kidney function numbers is between 80 and 129. Anything below 80 is generally quite bad. This will vary between men and women and it is dependent on muscle mass. Petite people without much muscle mass will likely have a low kidney number. It is important for you to know your kidney number, as a lot of people do not know this or even what one is, and therefore they dont wind up getting to their doctor until their kidney function is so low that they will require dialysis or kidney replacement.
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Test Results And Stages Of Ckd
Your test results can be used to determine how damaged your kidneys are, known as the stage of CKD.
This can help your doctor decide the best treatment for you and how often you should have tests to monitor your condition.
Your eGFR results is given as a stage from 1 of 5:
- stage 1 a normal eGFR above 90ml/min, but other tests have detected signs of kidney damage
- stage 2 a slightly reduced eGFR of 60 to 89ml/min, with other signs of kidney damage
- stage 3a an eGFR of 45 to 59ml/min
- stage 3b an eGFR of 30 to 44ml/min
- stage 4 an eGFR of 15 to 29ml/min
- stage 5 an eGFR below 15ml/min, meaning the kidneys have lost almost all of their function
Your ACR result is given as a stage from 1 to 3:
- A1 an ACR of less than 3mg/mmol
- A2 an ACR of 3 to 30mg/mmol
- A3 an ACR of more than 30mg/mmol
For both eGFR and ACR, a higher stage indicates more severe kidney disease.
Annual Loss In Egfr By Sex/race Subgroups
The annual change in creatinine and eGFRcrea was compared across subgroups defined by race and sex. The mean annual changes in creatinine were 0.01 Â± 0.07 mg/dl in white women, 0.02 Â±0.11 mg/dl in black women, 0.002 Â± 0.06 mg/dl in white men and 0.006 Â± 0.63 mg/dl in black men . Rates of eGFRcrea change by sex and race subgroups are shown in figure . After multivariate adjustment, female sex was associated with a 0.5 ml/min/1.73 m2 greater annual decline in eGFRcrea , but race was not a significant predictor . In contrast, annual loss of eGFRcys did not differ significantly by sex or race, varying only from â1.7 Â± 2.4 ml/min/1.73 m2/year in white women to â2.1 Â± 3.5 ml/min/1.73 m2/year in black men .2). Multivariate adjustment for age, risk factors and baseline kidney function decreased these differences: â1.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year for white women, â1.7 ml/min/1.73 m2/year for black women, â1.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year for white men and â1.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year for black men. The adjusted rate of change in cystatin C concentration was 0.03 mg/l/year in all 4 subgroups. The annual rate of change in 100/cystatin C ranged from â1.9 Â± 2.7 in white women to â2.4 Â± 3.9 in black men .
Mean annual loss of kidney function by sex and race group. The panels on the left side present the annual eGFR declines using a creatinine equation the panels on the right utilize a cystatin C-based equation.
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Nutrition And Low Kidney Function
Food is what our bodies use for growth, homeostasis, and healing. This is why its important for you to consult with a dietician who is knowledgeable about kidney disease. Youll need to find and maintain a balance between the levels of electrolytes, minerals, and fluid in your body.
A modified diet for chronic kidney disease may include adjustments to your intake of the following food items:
Can Kidney Disease Be Prevented
Seeing your healthcare provider on a regular basis throughout your life is a good start for preventing kidney disease. About one in every three people in the United States is at risk for kidney disease. Identify and manage any risk factors for developing kidney disease.
- Control your high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is 120/80.
- Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
- Eat a healthy diet. Follow a low-fat, low-salt diet.
- Dont smoke.
- Be active for 30 minutes at least five days a week.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Take nonprescription pain relievers only as directed. Taking more than directed can damage your kidneys.
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Are There Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease
Yes, there are five stages of kidney disease. The stages are based on how well your kidneys are able to do their job to filter out waste and extra fluid from your blood. The stages range from very mild to kidney failure . Healthcare providers determine the stage of your kidney function according to the glomerular filtration rate . Your GFR is a number based on the amount of creatinine, a waste product, found in your blood, along with other factors including your age, race and gender.
|Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease|
- Are African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian.
- Are over 60 years of age.
- Have a long history of taking painkillers, including over-the-counter products such as aspirin and ibuprofen.
Procedures And Low Kidney Function
Diet modification and medications can help delay the progression of chronic kidney disease, especially in the early stages. If the disease progresses, however, other forms of treatment may become necessary.
Other forms of treatment may include:
- Blood transfusions: Hormone and iron supplements are not always enough to manage the symptoms of anemia. In those cases, your doctor may order one or more blood transfusions.
- Dialysis: Dialysis is an artificial method of removing wastes, toxins, and excess fluids from your blood when your kidneys cease to function. There are two types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
- With hemodialysis, your blood is filtered through a machine to be cleansed of impurities and then returned to your body.
- With peritoneal dialysis, a thin tube is inserted into your abdomen, which you fill with a solution that absorbs wastes and extra fluids. After a specified period of time, the solution is drained, and the wastes are removed.
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Various Kidney Function Tests
There are as mentioned several different kidney function labs that your doctor can run to find out your kidney function numbers. A common and inexpensive one is a routine urinalysis, which is usually the first test that is ran if you have suspected kidney problems. It is checked for things such as odor, appearance, color and concentration, plus chemically for substances like glucose, protein and the pH. Plus it is microscopically tested for the presence of elements such as white and red blood cells and epithelial cells, crystals, bacteria, and casts. If the results from this test indicate the possibility of kidney disease or an impaired kidney, your doctor will run additional tests such as a urea clearance test, creatinine clearance test, urine osmolality test, urine protein test, creatinine test, blood urea nitrogen test and other blood tests.
Catching any dysfunction or failing of your kidneys as soon as possible is very important, so you should be aware of your kidney function numbers. You can do this by asking for it to be checked during routine physicals at your doctor when they are already taking a urine test. Keeping on top of your health can help catch any problems early on so you can better treat any problems that may come up.
What Can I Expect If I Have Kidney Disease
If you have kidney disease you can still live a productive home and work life and enjoy time with your family and friends. To have the best outcome possible, its important for you to become an active member of your treatment team.
Early detection and appropriate treatment are important in slowing the disease process, with the goal of preventing or delaying kidney failure. You will need to keep your medical appointments, take your medications as prescribed, stick to a healthy diet and monitor your blood pressure and blood sugar.
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Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease
About chronic kidney disease
With chronic kidney disease, the kidneys dont usually fail all at once. Instead, kidney disease often progresses slowly years. If caught early, medicines and lifestyle changes may help slow or prevent CKD progression.
Five stages of chronic kidney disease
The National Kidney Foundation divided kidney disease into five stages. This helps doctors provide the best care, as each stage calls for different tests and treatments.
Doctors determine the stage of kidney disease using the glomerular filtration rate , a math formula using a person’s age, gender, and their serum creatinine level . Creatinine, a waste product that comes from muscle activity, is a key indicator of kidney function. When kidneys are working well they remove creatinine from the blood but as kidney function slows, blood levels of creatinine rise.
Use the links below to learn about each stage of kidney disease:
What Is A Kidney Function Blood Test
The kidney function blood test measures the level of creatinine, urea and certain dissolved salts.
- Creatinine is a waste product in your body that is made by your muscles. It passes into your bloodstream, and is usually passed out in urine . A high blood level of creatinine indicates that your kidneys may not be working properly.
- Urea is produced when protein is broken down by your body. Healthy kidneys eliminate more than 90% of the urea your body produces. A high blood level of urea may indicate that you are dehydrated or that your kidneys may not be working properly.
- Dissolved salts that are routinely measured are sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. They are sometimes referred to as ‘electrolytes’. Abnormal blood levels of any of these may sometimes be due to a kidney problem.
- eGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Although the level of creatinine in your blood is a useful guide to kidney function, the eGFR is a more accurate measure of how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. Using your blood creatinine, and your age and sex, your eGFR can be calculated by computer and reported with the creatinine blood test.
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What Is Kidney Disease
In simple terms, kidney disease means your kidneys have become damaged and can no longer perform their key functions properly. Its a serious condition and its important to receive immediate medical care.
There are two forms of kidney disease:
Acute kidney disease is known to occur pretty suddenly and over a short period of time, its sometimes referred to as acute kidney injury.
Chronic kidney disease is a long-term condition which can get worse over time, sometimes developing into chronic kidney failure,
Glomerular Filtration Rate Test
The glomerulus is a cluster of looping blood vessels in nephrons, the blood filtering units in your kidneys. Blood is continuously filtered through this to allow water and small molecules to pass but retain blood cells and proteins. The glomerular filtration rate is the rate at which substances in plasma are filtered through these tiny filters. This renal profile test measures how much blood your kidneys can filter every minute. A normal GFR should be 90 to 120ml per minute. A GFR below 60ml per minute is a sign of kidney disease.
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How Is The Sample Collected For Testing
A blood sample taken by a needle placed in a vein in your arm. An elastic band is wrapped around your upper arm. It may feel tight. You may feel nothing at all from the needle, or you may feel a quick sting or pinch. The blood sample is collected in a tube, which is sent to the laboratory for analysis.
Characteristics Of Included Participants
Among participants with at least 2 measurements of creatinine and cystatin C, 2,234 were white women, 376 were black women, 1,561 were white men and 209 were black men. Average age was approximately 72 years in each subgroup. Cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and measurements of kidney function differed across the sex/race subgroups .1). Baseline levels of cystatin C were the highest, and eGFRcys the lowest, among white men, but were similar among the other 3 groups. Serum creatinine levels were higher in black men than in white men, and higher in black women than in white women however, black participants had higher eGFRcrea than whites.
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What Is Kidney Dialysis
Because there is no cure for CKD, if you are in late-stage disease, you and your healthcare team must consider additional options. Complete kidney failure, left untreated, will result in death. Options for end stages of CKD include dialysis and kidney transplantation.
Dialysis is a procedure that uses machines to remove waste products from your body when your kidneys are no longer able to perform this function. There are two major types of dialysis.
Hemodialysis: With hemodialysis, your blood is circulated through a machine that removes waste products, excess water and excess salt. The blood is then returned to your body. Hemodialysis requires three to four hours, three times a week and is performed at a clinic, hospital or dialysis center.
Peritoneal dialysis: In peritoneal dialysis, a dialysis solution is run directly into your abdomen. The solution absorbs waste and then is removed via catheter. Fresh solution is added to continue the process of cleaning. You can perform this type of dialysis yourself. There are two types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis , which involves a change in dialysis solution four times a day and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis . CCPD uses a machine to automatically fill, remove wastes, and refill the fluid during the nighttime.
What Is Kidney Transplantation
Kidney transplantation involves placing a healthy kidney into your body where it can perform all of the functions that a failing kidney cant. Kidneys for transplantation come from two sources: living donors and deceased donors. Living donors are usually immediate family members or sometimes spouses. This is possible because a person can live well with one healthy kidney.
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