How Do My Kidneys Work
Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process: the glomerulus filters your blood, and the tubule returns needed substances to your blood and removes wastes.
When To See A Doctor
If you have signs of a kidney infection, you should see a doctor right away. Again, a kidney infection is seriousit can sometimes lead to a dangerous, life-threatening health condition called , the NIDDK says. Even if your infection doesnt progress to that, a kidney infection can become chronic, i.e., long-lasting, and can cause permanent damage to your kidneys, the NIDDK says. Kaufman recommends heading to your local urgent care facility or emergency room if you have signs of a kidney infection.
Something A Little Different
Even while the company’s major models wore the trademark combination of a wide grille opening and circular headlights, other products showed experimentation with something different. Vehicles like the M1, Z1, and original 8 Series still had kidneys, but they were smaller and simpler than other members of the lineup.
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What Is A Kidney Infection
Kidney infections are technically a type of UTI, since kidneys are part of your upper urinary tract, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases . These infections are typically caused by bacteria called Escherichia coli that is usually found in the large intestine but can wreak havoc when it finds itself in the urinary tract.
Kidney infections are one of the most common urologic conditions that we see in general urology practice, Fara Bellows, M.D., a urologist at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, tells SELF. Still, kidney infections are no joke.
This is a serious organ infection, and people need to take care of it, urologist David Kaufman, M.D., of New Yorks Central Park Urology, tells SELF. Bladder infections are really uncomfortable, but kidney infections can be deadly.
What Can I Do The First Week After Surgery
- Try to drink enough fluids: 1.5 litres daily throughout the day to facilitate urine flow and the spontaneous loss of small stone fragments.
- Try not to have sex within the first week after the procedure to avoid urinary tract infections.
- Eat more vegetables and less meat to have softer stoolthe inner healing process will be helped if you do not have to squeeze when using the toilet.
- Allow your body to rest during the first week after the procedureyou are allowed to lift a maximum of 5 kg and to go for walks. You can start cycling and exercising after this period.
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What Are The Ureters
Ureters are long, narrow tubes that drain urine from your kidneys to your bladder. Normally one ureter leads from each kidney to your bladder. In the case of duplicated systems, two ureters drain a single kidney. One ureter drains the upper pole of your kidney and the other drains the lower pole. This condition may affect one or both kidneys.
How Is A Stent Removed
Stents can be removed two different ways. Sometimes a string has been left attached to the end of the stent. This string is allowed to come out of the patients urethra . The string can be used to pull on the stent and remove it. If a string is not attached, numbing medication is usually administered, and a small camera called a cystoscope is inserted into the urethra. The cystoscope is advanced into the bladder along with a grasping instrument, which grasps and removes the stent.
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What If The Doctor Suspects That I Have A High Risk Of Forming New Stones
If the results show that you have a high risk of forming more stones, your doctor will do a metabolic evaluation. This is a series of blood and urine tests to determine the possible causes of your stone formation. Depending on the test results, your doctor will recommend preventive measures or further tests. Besides changes in your lifestyle, you may be advised to take medication that reduces the risk of stones recurring. Generally, the medication will cause few to no side effects.
Diseases Can Affect Kidney Size
Typically, the kidneys are fully developed in the early twenties .; There should be very little or no changes to the size of the kidneys, after this age.
Kidney disease is an important factor that may affect kidney size.; In fact, the size of a kidney and changes in its size can provide indications of renal problems.
Other chronic renal conditions can affect kidney size and cause the kidneys to decrease in size.; This is known as atrophy and usually occurs over a period of time . ;Alport Syndrome, Chronic Glomerulonephritis and Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis are examples of conditions, which may cause atrophy.
If kidney dimensions are found to be outside the range of what is considered normal kidney size, further investigations are usually done to determine whether kidney disease is present.
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What Are Symptoms And Complications Of Duplex Kidney
As long as your duplicated ureters drain normally into your bladder they should not cause any symptoms. If symptoms do occur, it is usually in the case of complete duplicated ureters.
A duplex kidney can occur with other abnormalities of your urinary system. One common abnormality is an ureterocele, which occurs when the end of the ureter does not develop properly, and urine flow is obstructed. This results in a balloon-like swelling as urine builds up at the point where the ureter and bladder connect. In addition, urine can reflux back toward the kidney through the second ureter, which often has a weak valve because it joins the bladder in an abnormal location.
A number of symptoms can occur when one of the ureters is ectopic, which means it drains to somewhere other than the bladder. Symptoms of an ectopic ureter include:
What Is A Double J Stent
A double J stent is a tube that is used to help a patient urinate when he is suffering from kidney stones or a blockage in the ureter. This type of stent gets its name from the twisted ends of the tube, which look similar to a “J”. These twists in the ends of the stent keep it from slipping out of place.
A simple surgery is used to place this stent in the patient’s ureter. The doctor often uses only a local anesthetic, which makes it possible for the patient to recover quickly after the procedure is finished. The stent is fed into the patients urinary tract and pulled out again in a similar fashion once there is no need for it. It is possible for a doctor to remove the stent or for a patient to perform the removal at home.
The most common use for a double J stent is to allow the ureter to dilate properly when a patient has kidney stones. The stones, when exiting the kidneys, can become lodged in the ureter, causing pain, discomfort, and partial blockage of the urinary tract. The stent can also be used to allow urine to pass through the ureter following surgery to remove a tumor from the ureter or surgery which repaired scarring in the ureter.
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What Are The Types Of Duplex Kidney
Duplex kidney can take on one of two forms:
- Incomplete: Two separate ureters are attached to the same kidney but join together at some distance away from the kidney to form a single ureter that enters the bladder.
- Complete: Two separate ureters lead away from the same kidney and enter the bladder separately.
Editorial Note On The Review Process
F1000 Faculty Reviews are commissioned from members of the prestigiousF1000 Faculty and are edited as a service to readers. In order to make these reviews as comprehensive and accessible as possible, the referees provide input before publication and only the final, revised version is published. The referees who approved the final version are listed with their names and affiliations but without their reports on earlier versions .
The referees who approved this article are:
Satu Kuure, Helsinki Institute of Life Science / STEMM Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
No competing interests were disclosed.
Norman D Rosenblum, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
No competing interests were disclosed.
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The Tubule Returns Needed Substances To Your Blood And Removes Wastes
A blood vessel runs alongside the tubule. As the filtered fluid moves along the tubule, the blood vessel reabsorbs almost all of the water, along with minerals and nutrients your body needs. The tubule helps remove excess acid from the blood. The remaining fluid and wastes in the tubule become urine.
How Is Fetal Duplication Of Collection Systems Treated
Nothing can be done to treat fetal duplication of collecting systems before a baby is born. However, after birth, treatment will depend on how the duplication of collecting systems is affecting the urinary system. If an;ureterocele;is found, then the accumulated urine may need to be drained surgically. If the duplicated system is causing reflux, the second ureter may need to be removed. In some cases, the duplex system is not associated with reflux nor a ureterocele, so the child may just need continued observation.
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On The 507 The Face Widens
In 1956, the 507 brought a complete revolution to the kidney grille. The spectacular sports car with a design by Albrecht von Goertz boasted a pair of short, yet wide horizontal opening that created an integral part of the styling between the headlights.
The;BMW Z8 with a design by Henrik Fisker under;the supervision of Chris Bangle brought the 507’s styling back with a more modern appearance. The similarities are obvious, yet don’t go so far to make the Z8 look too retro.
Treatments For Duplex Kidneys
Duplex kidneys that are not causing problems do not require treatment. However, if they are causing symptoms and affecting the patients health or quality of life, doctors may recommend one of the following:
- Nephrectomy kidney removal. It is rare to remove the entire kidney, and this will only be done if the affected kidney is functioning poorly, but the other is fine. This should decrease the risk of urine infections and eliminate incontinence.
- Heminephrectomy part of the affected kidney and duplicated ureter are removed.
- Ureteroureterostomy in the case of an ectopic ureter, it is split near the bladder and joined to the normal ureter, allowing urine from the upper kidney to drain as normal.
- Ureteral reimplantation the location where the abnormal ureter meets the bladder is moved. The ureter is cut away and moved to a part of the bladder where it can drain more easily. This procedure carries the risk that in the future the ureter may narrow and cause blockages.
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Normal Kidney Size Of A Human Kidney
Normal kidney size is expressed as an average, since actual sizes vary from person to person.; In fact, an individual’s two kidneys are normally not identical in size.
Some;studies;indicate that kidney size is positively correlated to age and body size . ;The greater the body size, the larger the kidneys tend to be.
As young children mature and their kidneys develop, they increase in size. ;The kidneys become fully developed in the early stages of adulthood, and tend to decrease in later years…
Typically, renal size decreases in senior citizens.
From The Aerodynamic Kidneys Of 1933 To The Tall Grille Of The Upcoming 4 Series
BMW’s kidney grille is such a distinctive design element of the brand’s models that it’s hard to picture a product from the company without these dual openings at the front. It’s now an iconic element for the firm’s styling.
The famous design detail has changed many times since 1933, and it has only become bigger and bigger in recent years. Just look at the forthcoming BMW 4 Series for the best example.
But where does the BMW “double kidney” come from and how has it evolved over the years? Let’s find out together!
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Signs Of A Kidney Infection To Know And When To Go To The Hospital
Youre probably not constantly on the lookout for signs of a kidney infection. But getting a urinary tract infection can open you up to also getting an infection in one or both kidneys, which means this is an illness that should be on your radar. Yep, it’s an unfortunate truth: A urinary tract infection can lead to a kidney infection, which is medically known as pyelonephritis and can be incredibly serious. So if youre experiencing symptoms of a UTI and thinking, Eh, I can wait a few more days to get those antibiotics, think again. Heres what you need to know about the signs of a kidney infection, its underlying causes, why its so important to get treatment as soon as you can, and more.
Normal Kidney Size Of Adults
When fully developed, the kidneys are roughly the size of a fist.
In more precise measurements, the average size of an adult human kidney is about 10 to 13 cm long, approximately 5 to 7.5 cm wide and about 2 to 2.5 cm thick.
On average, a kidney weighs approximately 150 to 160 grams and, together, both kidneys weigh about 0.5 percent of total body weight.; Usually, the left kidney is slightly larger than the right.
These measurements and weights represent the typical ranges of a healthy, adult human kidney.
Actual kidney size is directly correlated with, height, age and BMI .; Therefore, taller people with greater BMI tend to have larger kidney dimensions than shorter persons with less BMI.; Also, as people age, there is a tendency for their kidneys to shrink a bit.
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What Is Duplicated Kidney
A duplicated kidney, also referred to as an ureteral duplication or duplicated collecting system, means that a kidney has two ureters draining the kidney rather than the normal one. The two ureters may either drain the kidney into the bladder independently of one another or as a single ureter into the bladder. This condition can occur in one or both of the childs kidneys.
Where Can I Get More Information
Contact the National Kidney Foundation for information at 800.622.9010. If you have Internet access, you can find more information at www.kidney.org/transplanttion/livingdonors or at NKFs Kidney Learning System ® Web site at www.kidney.org/KLS
You can also get more information from the following organizations:
- National Cancer Institute, 1-800-4-CANCER , or online at
- National Kidney and Urologic Disease Information Clearinghouse , a service of the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Call 1-800-891-5390 or visit the website at www.niddk.nih.gov
Date Reviewed: July 2009
If you would like more information, please contact us.
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Obstructed Moiety In A Duplex Kidney
Duplex kidney is the commonest congenital abnormality of the urinary tract with a reported urographic incidence of around 2%.53 Duplex kidney formation is a result of early divisions of the ureter to reach the metanephros during embryogenesis. The two parts of the duplex kidney are usually joined at a slight twist. Typically there is a smaller upper moiety with only two major calyces and a larger lower moiety with three major calyces.
Duplex kidney is a relatively common variant that may remain concealed in the absence of associated complications. However, it frequently occurs in association with other urinary tract anomalies such as a ureterocele and ectopic vesical insertion of the ureter draining the upper moiety causing ureteric obstruction, or a defective vesico-ureteric junction valve mechanism causing vesico-ureteral reflux to the lower moiety.54 Both situations may present on imaging with a hydronephrotic moiety.55
Peter M. Cuckow, in, 2010
How Is Duplex Kidney Treated What Procedures Are Performed
Most people do not need treatment.
If needed, treatments include:
- Ureteroureterostomy: The ectopic ureter is split near your bladder, then sewn into the normal ureter of the lower part of your kidney. This allows urine from the upper part of the kidney to drain normally.
- Ureteral reimplantation: The ectopic ureter is split near the bottom and sewn into your bladder. This allows urine to drain correctly and not flow backwards.
- Nephrectomy: This treatment is rarely used its a last resort. In it, some or all of your kidney that is not working correctly is surgically removed. This eliminates incontinence and decreases the chance of infection. This surgery should be used only when kidney function is poor and the other kidney is operating normally.
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