The Presence Of Blood In Urine
The presence of blood in urine or often referred to as hematuria, are the traits of bladder stones caused by irritation of the urinary tract.
A stone which can be large and have a texture rather sharp when passing through the ureter, can irritate the channel and trigger bleeding on the walls.
And the blood will be mixed with urine so the urine becomes red or brown. If there is a trait like this, then you should see a doctor immediately to get further treatment.
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
- Do I have a kidney stone or is there another reason for my symptoms?
- What type of kidney stone do I have?
- What size is my kidney stone?
- Where is my kidney stone located?
- How many kidney stones do I have?
- Do I need treatment or will I be able to pass the kidney stone?
- Should I be tested for kidney disease?
- What changes should I make to my diet?
- What type of procedure should I have to get rid of the stones?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Kidney stones can be frustrating at best and agonizingly painful at the worst. To stop your situation from getting worse, you should be evaluated by a healthcare provider as soon as possible. The pain can get severe, and surgery might be necessary. Remember: dont skip your prescriptions, drink lots of water and follow any dietary guidelines. Also, remember that kidney stones are a temporary condition. They wont bother you forever.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/03/2021.
When Should A Kidney Stone Be Treated
When a kidney stone causes pain to the extent that the pain cannot be controlled with oral pain medication, the stone should be treated. Similarly, stones that are associated with severe nausea or vomiting should be treated. Some stones are associated with infection or fever such situations can be life threatening and demand prompt attention. Stones that are associated with a solitary kidney, poor overall kidney function or complete blockage of urine flow should also all be treated.
Sometimes, when a stone is associated with bothersome symptoms, it may be appropriate to wait and see if the stone will pass on its own. If the stone is small, this is a very reasonable course of action. However, stones larger in size than 5 mm are unlikely to pass on their own and should be considered for treatment.
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What Is Considered A Large Kidney Stone
Any kidney stone that is above 6 mm in diameter is considered a large kidney stone, as stated by NHS. Such stones will not get better on their own so medical treatment may be required to heal. Small kidney stones, 4 mm and below in diameter, will heal on their own after a while and may not make a person experience pain.
A kidney stone is a solid hard mass that forms in the kidney due to accumulation of certain materials in the blood. Kidney stones vary in sizes. A large kidney stone may get stuck in the urinary tract and may inhibit the flow of urine. This leads to severe pain and bleeding. A person with kidney stones will need to be admitted to the hospital if pregnant, 60 years and above, experiencing dehydration, have extensive symptoms and are at risk of kidney failure, as stated by NHS.
The symptoms a person may experience includes vomiting, blood in the urine, fever, abdominal pain, pain during urination and foul smell in the urine. There are different treatment options for large kidney stones including open surgery, ureteroscopy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy . The type of treatment a person will have depends on the size and the location of the kidney stone.
How Can Kidney Stones Be Prevented
The best way to avoid kidney stones is to prevent the most common cause â dehydration. You are adequately hydrated when your urine is light yellow. Most people require between 8 to 10 glasses of water per day. Scientists are studying grapefruit juice and other drinks high in citric acid, which may help prevent the most common type of kidney stone.
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What Treatments Are Available
Because of the pain caused by kidney stones, many people find that they need pain relief. Many describe it as the worst pain theyve ever felt.
If you have a kidney stone, you will be encouraged to drink a lot of water if you dont have a medical condition that limits the amount you may have. The extra fluid is to help wash the stone through your urinary system.
If the stone doesnt pass within a reasonable amount of time, your doctor may recommend extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy .; Shock waves are sent through to the stone to break them down into smaller pieces that can be passed. Sometimes, surgery may be needed.
The stone should be removed because of the high risk of infection, which could in turn lead to sepsis.
What Causes Simple Kidney Cysts
Kidney cysts occur when the tube of a nephron begins to get bigger and fill with fluid. Researchers don’t know what causes this to occur, but they do know that simple cysts aren’t inherited. It is believed that injury or microscopic blockages in the tubules may lead to the development of some simple kidney cysts.
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How Are Kidney Stones Treated
Once diagnosed, your healthcare provider will first determine if you even need treatment. Some smaller kidney stones may leave your system when you urinate. This can be very painful. If your provider decides that you do need treatment, your options include medications and surgery.
Medications. Medications may be prescribed to:
- Your healthcare provider may recommend that you take an over-the-counter medication like ibuprofen or, if youre in the emergency room, an IV narcotic.
- Manage nausea/vomiting.
- Relax your ureter so that the stones pass. Commonly prescribed medicines include tamsulosin and nifedipine .
You should ask your healthcare provider before you take ibuprofen. This drug can increase the risk of kidney failure if taken while youre having an acute attack of kidney stones especially in those who have a history of kidney disease and associated illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity.
Surgery. There are four types of surgeries used to treat kidney stones. The first three are minimally invasive, meaning that the surgeon enters your body through a natural opening , or makes a small incision.
What Is A Kidney Stone
A kidney stone is a hard object that is made from chemicals in the urine. There are four types of kidney stones: calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. A kidney stone may be treated with shockwave lithotripsy, uteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithomy or nephrolithotripsy. Common symptoms include severe pain in lower back, blood in your urine, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills, or urine that smells bad or looks cloudy.
Urine has various wastes dissolved in it. When there is too much waste in too little liquid, crystals begin to form. The crystals attract other elements and join together to form a solid that will get larger unless it is passed out of the body with the urine. Usually, these chemicals are eliminated in the urine by the body’s master chemist: the kidney. In most people, having enough liquid washes them out or other chemicals in urine stop a stone from forming. The stone-forming chemicals are calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate.
After it is formed, the stone may stay in the kidney or travel down the urinary tract into the ureter. Sometimes, tiny stones move out of the body in the urine without causing too much pain. But stones that don’t move may cause a back-up of urine in the kidney, ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. This is what causes the pain.
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Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Or Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy
If your stone is large or lithotripsy doesn’t break it up enough, this surgery is an option. PCNL uses a small tube to reach the stone and break it up with high-frequency sound waves.
You will be given something so that you wonât be awake during this surgery. Your surgeon will make a small cut in your back or side and place a thin scope into the hole.
The surgery can be done in one of two ways:
Nephrolithotomy: Your surgeon removes the stone through a tube
Nephrolithotripsy: Your surgeon uses sound waves or a laser to break up the stone and then vacuums up the pieces with a suction machine.
The surgery takes 20 to 45 minutes. You’ll typically have to stay in the hospital for a day or two afterward. Usually, a stent will have to stay in your kidney for a few days to help urine drain.
Your doctor might do an X-ray or ultrasound a few weeks later to see whether any parts of the stone are left. They might also send the stone fragments to a lab to find out what they’re made of.
Risks from this surgery include:
- Damage to the bladder, bowel, ureter, kidney, or liver
Prevention Of Urinary Tract Stones
In a person who has passed a calcium stone for the first time, the likelihood of forming another stone is about 15% within 1 year, 40% within 5 years, and 80% within 10 years. Measures to prevent the formation of new stones vary, depending on the composition of the existing stones.
Drinking large amounts of fluids8 to 10 ten-ounce glasses a dayis recommended for prevention of all stones. People should drink enough fluid to produce more than about 2 quarts of urine per day. Other preventive measures depend somewhat on the type of stone.
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How Are Simple Kidney Cysts Diagnosed
Simple kidney cysts are often found while the patient is seeing the doctor about another condition. The most common tests used to diagnose simple kidney cysts include:
- Ultrasound: High-frequency soundwaves and echoes create images of the inside of the body.
- Computed tomography : X-rays and computers produce images of a cross-section of the body.· The scans require an injection of iodinated contrast n order to distinguish fluid-only filled cysts from solid masses.
- Magnetic resonance imaging : Magnets, radio waves and a computer create images of inside the body. They also can be used to tell the difference between cysts filled with fluid and solid masses. Because they don’t require iodinated contrast, MRIs are used for patients with iodine allergy.
Who Is Likely To Develop A Kidney Stone
The rate of people who develop kidney stones is increasing in the U.S. The reasons for the trend are unknown. The prevalence of kidney stones was 3.8% in the late 1970s. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the number rose to 5.2%. Caucasian ethnicity and male gender are associated with higher rates of kidney stones. Men tend to develop kidney stones in their 40s through 70s; rates increase with age. Women are most likely to experience kidney stones in their 50s. A person who has suffered from one kidney stone is more likely to develop others.
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What Can I Do To Control Frequent Urination
There are several lifestyle changes and non-medicated ways to manage your frequent urination. These can include:
- Avoiding drinking fluids before going to bed.
- Limiting the amount of alcohol and caffeine you drink.
- Doing Kegel exercises to build up strength in your pelvic floor. These muscles support the organs in the pelvis, including your bladder. Kegel exercises are often prescribed to women after childbirth because of the stress having a baby places on the pelvic floor muscles.
- Wearing a protective pad or underwear to avoid leaks. This is a short-term solution that can help you keep living your life while your condition is being treated.
What Is A Kidney Stone Size Chart
Kidney stones vary in sizes. Therefore, as discussed above, the composition, their treatment and removal, time they take in passing through the urine, and their other characteristics may also vary based on their sizes. A kidney stone size chart is an easy way to tabulate and illustrate the important pieces of information about one or more of these factors associated with varying sizes of kidney stones.
A kidney stone size chart may show a correlation between possible treatment options and various sizes of the kidney stone. Another type of a kidney stone size chart may show correlation between kidney stone sizes and their compositions and so on.
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How To Pass A Kidney Stone Easily
The occurrence of kidney stones is increasing within the United States. Currently, men have a 10 percent chance of developing a kidney stone during their lifetime, while women face a seven percent likelihood throughout their lives.
As more cases arise, individuals are discovering that these mineral buildups often inflict tremendous pain and internal discomfort. The removal of a kidney stone often comes in the form of passing it through the urinary system.
In the event of a diagnosed kidney stone, and based upon your doctors recommendations, there are approaches to helping the foreign body pass more easily.
Are Home Remedies Effective For Kidney Stones
For some people who have had many kidney stones, home care may be appropriate. When passing a kidney stone, drinking lots of fluid is important. In fact, this is the most important home care measure. Medications may help control the pain . However, if it is the first time one has had symptoms suggestive of a kidney stone, it is important to see a doctor right away.
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Kidney Stone Size Chart And Its Features
This is a simple kidney stone size chart that that provides important information about the chances of passing stones naturally, time taken, and treatment required for various sizes of the kidney stones. More types of kidney stone charts can be possible to show different types of information pieces about kidney stones and their sizes.
|Size of kidney stones|
Does A Simple Kidney Cyst Need To Be Watched Over Time
It is very important that a specialist evaluate the type and location of the kidney cysts. There are often characteristics such as wall thickness, calcifications, fluid density, and irregular borders of the cyst that may make it more likely to be associated with a kidney cancer. Urologists use a grading system for cysts called the Bozniak Scoring System . Higher Bozniak grades are associated with a greater chance for kidney cancer. Bozniak grade 1 cysts are virtually always benign .
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How Can Uric Acid Stones Be Prevented
You can help to prevent uric acid stones if you do the following:
- Drink at least three quarts of fluids daily; water is best.
- Limit the amount of alcohol you drink.
- Achieve or maintain a healthy weight.
- Avoid crash dieting, which increases uric acid levels in the blood.
- Follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, which has been shown to reduce not only high blood pressure but also the risk of kidney stones.
Many patients may also need to take prescribed medications to prevent uric acid stones and keep them from coming back.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 11/03/2016.
Diagnosis: Too Much Calcium In The Urine
These drugs help to decrease urine calcium excretion. They also help to keep calcium in the bones, reducing the risk for osteoporosis. The most common side effect of thiazide diuretics is potassium loss, so in many cases your doctor will prescribe a potassium supplement to go along with the thiazide diuretic.
Lower sodium intake
The human body carefully regulates its sodium levels. When excess sodium is excreted in the urine, calcium is also excreted proportionally. In other words, the more sodium you consume, the more calcium that will be in your urine. Your goal should be to reduce your sodium intake so that you consume less than 2 grams of sodium per day. Watch out for silent sources of salt, such as fast foods, packaged or canned foods, softened water and sports drinks.
Normal calcium diet
People who form stones sometimes think that because there is too much calcium in their urine, they should restrict their calcium intake. There is no research that supports this practice. Your body needs dietary calcium to support the skeleton. You should be encouraged to consume two servings of dairy or other calcium-rich foods to maintain bone stores of calcium.
Increase fluid intake
No matter what your diagnosis, you should drink enough water to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day.
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Prevention Of Future Stones
Once your health care provider finds out why you are forming stones, he or she will give you tips on how to prevent them. This may include changing your diet and taking certain medications. There is no “one-size-fits-all” diet for preventing kidney stones. Everyone is different. Your diet may not be causing your stones to form. But there are dietary changes that you can make to stop stones from continuing to form.
Drink enough fluids each day.
If you are not producing enough urine, your health care provider will recommend you drink at least 3 liters of liquid each day. This equals about 3 quarts . This is a great way to lower your risk of forming new stones. Remember to drink more to replace fluids lost when you sweat from exercise or in hot weather. All fluids count toward your fluid intake. But it’s best to drink mostly no-calorie or low-calorie drinks. This may mean limiting sugar-sweetened or alcoholic drinks.
Knowing how much you drink during the day can help you understand how much you need to drink to produce 2.5 liters of urine. Use a household measuring cup to measure how much liquid you drink for a day or two. Drink from bottles or cans with the fluid ounces listed on the label. Keep a log, and add up the ounces at the end of the day or 24-hour period. Use this total to be sure you are reaching your daily target urine amount of at least 85 ounces of urine daily.
Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
Eat the recommended amount of calcium.