What Should I Think About When Deciding
There are many things to think about when deciding which option might be best to help lower your chance of getting another calcium stone. You and your doctor should talk about:
- Your eating habits and the changes to your diet and lifestyle you may be asked to make
- The possible benefits of making changes to your diet
- The possible benefits and side effects of taking medicines to lower your chance of getting another kidney stone
- The costs of the medicines
What Causes Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are formed from substances in your urine. The substances that combine into stones normally pass through your urinary system. When they dont, its because there isnt enough urine volume, causing the substances to become highly concentrated and to crystalize. This is typically a result of not drinking enough water. The stone-forming substances are:
- Cloudy, foul-smelling urine, fever, chills or weakness which might be a sign of a serious infection.
- Blood in the urine.
Most pediatric kidney stones remain in the kidney, but up to a third may migrate from the kidney and get stuck in a ureter. Stones that remain in the kidney, although often painless, can be the source of recurrent urinary tract infections. Those that lodge in the ureter can create severe colicky pain.
Errors From Changing Image Types
Imagine the first image for a patient is a flat plate showing 1 stone on the right. Several years later, a stone is passed from the right and a CT shows 2 stones on the right and 3 more on the left. What do we make of this? New stones or change of technique?
To me these are not new stones because a flat plate has poor sensitivity compared to a CT. But we cannot be sure, can we?
Imagine another patient with 3 stones in the right kidney seen on CT. After ureteroscopic removal of 3 stones, a flat plate shows no stones. One year later, a new CT shows 2 stones on the operated side. One presumes they are new, but the flat plate could be insensitive and the surgeon unable to see several stones during the surgery. Or, possibly, the stones are tissue calcifications not seen during surgery. With ultra low dose instruments, perhaps a majority of such images will be CTs.
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Dietary Calcium And Kidney Stones
Only lower your calcium intake below that of a normal diet if instructed by your doctor. Decreased calcium intake is only necessary in some cases where absorption of calcium from the bowel is high.
A low-calcium diet has not been shown to be useful in preventing the recurrence of kidney stones and may worsen the problem of weak bones. People with calcium-containing stones may be at greater risk of developing weak bones and osteoporosis. Discuss this risk with your doctor.
What Will This Summary Tell Me
This summary will tell you about:
- Changes you can make to your diet and/or medicines you can take that could help lower your chance of getting another calcium stone
- What research says about how well making changes to your diet and taking medicines work to lower the chance of getting another calcium stone
- Possible side effects of the medicines
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What Are The Costs Of Medicines To Lower Your Chance Of Getting Another Calcium Stone
Thiazide diuretics, citrates, and allopurinol are all available in generic form and are usually not very expensive. The costs to you for these medicines depend on:
- Your health insurance
- Review Medicines for Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults With Kidney Disease and Diabetes or High Blood PressureJohn M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science. Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers. 2005
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Blocked Ureter And Kidney Infection
A kidney stone that blocks the ureter can lead to a kidney infection. This is because waste products are unable to pass the blockage, which may cause a build-up of bacteria.
The symptoms of a kidney infection are similar to symptoms of kidney stones, but may also include:
- a high temperature of 38C or over
- chills and shivering
Kidney stones are usually formed following a build-up of certain chemicals in the body.
This build-up may be any of the following:
- uric acid a waste product produced when the body breaks down food to use as energy
- cysteine an amino acid that helps to build protein
Certain medical conditions can lead to an unusually high level of these substances in your urine.
You’re also more likely to develop kidney stones if you don’t drink enough fluids.
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Purpose Of Proposed Comparative Effectiveness Review
There is significant variation in current medical practice regarding management to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis. Clinical uncertainty exists regarding the effectiveness, comparative effectiveness, and adverse effects of different dietary and pharmacological preventive treatments the value of urine and blood biochemical measures for initiating and/or modifying treatment and the potential impact of patient and stone characteristics on important treatment outcomes. Where data allow, the proposed systematic review and meta-analysis will comprehensively address all these questions. Our findings should inform providers and patients making treatment decisions, organizations developing clinical guidelines, and policymakers making coverage decisions. Results also should effectively define the limitations of existing evidence and the parameters of any future RCTs or other research studies needed to address remaining evidence gaps.
What Treatments Are Available
Because of the pain caused by kidney stones, many people find that they need pain relief. Many describe it as the worst pain theyve ever felt.
If you have a kidney stone, you will be encouraged to drink a lot of water if you dont have a medical condition that limits the amount you may have. The extra fluid is to help wash the stone through your urinary system.
If the stone doesnt pass within a reasonable amount of time, your doctor may recommend extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy . Shock waves are sent through to the stone to break them down into smaller pieces that can be passed. Sometimes, surgery may be needed.
The stone should be removed because of the high risk of infection, which could in turn lead to sepsis.
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Whats The Outlook For Kidney Stones
The outlook for kidney stones is very positive, although there is a risk of recurrence . Many kidney stones pass on their own over time without needing treatment. Medications and surgical treatments to remove larger kidney stones are generally very successful and involve little recovery time.
Its possible to get kidney stones multiple times throughout your life. If you keep developing kidney stones, your healthcare provider may work with you to discover why the stones happen. Once the cause is found, you may be able to make dietary changes to prevent future stones.
How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will discuss your medical history and possibly order some tests. These tests include:
- Imaging tests: An X-ray, CT scan and ultrasound will help your healthcare provider see the size, shape, location and number of your kidney stones. These tests help your provider decide what treatment you need.
- Blood test: A blood test will reveal how well your kidneys are functioning, check for infection and look for biochemical problems that may lead to kidney stones.
- Urine test: This test also looks for signs of infection and examines the levels of the substances that form kidney stones.
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How Can I Lower My Chance Of Getting Another Calcium Stone
Your doctor may suggest making changes to your diet and/or taking medicine to help lower your chance of getting another calcium stone. Your doctor may do urine and blood tests and ask about your medical history, eating habits, and lifestyle. Not everyone forms calcium stones for the same reasons. Your doctor will work with you to find the best way to help keep calcium stones from forming again.
Is There Any Way To Make Them Pass Faster
The best home remedy to encourage the stone to pass is to drink lots of fluids, especially plain water and citrus juices such as orange or grapefruit. The extra fluid causes you to urinate more, which helps the stone move and keeps it from growing. You should aim for at least 2 to 3 quarts of water per day.
Smaller stones are more likely to pass on their own, so you should take steps to keep the stone from growing. This includes eating a diet thats low in salt, calcium, and protein.
However, you need all of these for your body to function properly, so talk with your doctor about an appropriate diet to help you pass the stone.
Passing a kidney stone can be very painful. Taking pain medication such as ibuprofen wont speed up the process, but it can make you a lot more comfortable while passing the stone. A heating pad can also help.
If you have a fever, significant nausea, or are unable to keep down liquids without vomiting, you should seek medical care.
Likewise, if you have only one kidney or known kidney problems or damage, see a doctor immediately.
An infected kidney stone is a surgical emergency. If you notice any signs of infection, go to the hospital.
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Diagnosis Of Kidney Stones
Many kidney stones are discovered by chance during examinations for other conditions. Urine and blood tests can help with finding out the cause of the stone. Further tests may include:
- CT scans
- x-rays, including an intravenous pyelogram , where dye is injected into the bloodstream before the x-rays are taken.
Can Children Get Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are found in children as young as 5 years. In fact, this problem is so common in children that some hospitals conduct ‘stone’ clinics for pediatric patients. The increase in the United States has been attributed to several factors, mostly related to food choices. The two most important reasons are not drinking enough fluids and eating foods that are high in salt. Kids should eat less salty potato chips and French fries. There are other salty foods: sandwich meats, canned soups, packaged meals, and even some sports drinks. Sodas and other sweetened beverages can also increase the risk of stones if they contain high fructose corn syrup.
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Treatment Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones can be managed in a number of ways, depending upon the size of the stone, your other medical problems, and your overall comfort level. Many small stones will pass with the help of medications, which will keep you comfortable while the stone passes naturally. This process may take a few days to a week or more.
For larger stones, stones that are associated with severe symptoms, or stones that will not pass with medical therapy, surgery is often required.
Factors That Increase Your Risk Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones often have no single cause, and several factors may increase your risk for getting them. Some of these factors are listed below. They include:
Lack of water
You need to make enough pee to dilute the things that can turn into stones. If you donât drink enough or sweat too much, your pee may look dark. It should be pale yellow or clear.
If youâve had a stone before, you should make about 8 cups of urine a day. So aim to down about 10 cups of water daily, since you lose some fluids through sweat and breathing. Swap a glass of water for a citrus drink. The citrate in lemonade or orange juice can block stones from forming.
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How Long Does It Take A Kidney Stone To Form
You can have kidney stones for years without knowing theyre there. As long as these stones stay in place within your kidney, you wont feel anything. Pain from a kidney stone typically starts when it moves out of your kidney. Sometimes, a stone can form more quickly within a few months.
Talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors. They might do a 24-hour urine test to check how quickly you develop stones.
Side Of Passage And Counting
Example 2 illustrates the importance of records or clinical history. Suppose he had passed his newest stone from the left, not the right. Then, it would have been a new stone as the number of stones on the left remained at 2 before and after stone passage. Patients can help a lot here by keeping careful track of which side pain was on, and from which side stones were removed.
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Where Does The Information Come From
Researchers funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality , a Federal Government research agency, reviewed 28 studies on dietary changes and medicines to lower the chance of having recurrent kidney stones published between January 1948 and November 2011. Nearly all the adults in the research studies for this summary were young to middle-aged men with calcium stones. The report was reviewed by clinicians, researchers, experts, and the public. You can read the report at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/kidney-stones.cfm.
Are Home Remedies Effective For Kidney Stones
For some people who have had many kidney stones, home care may be appropriate. When passing a kidney stone, drinking lots of fluid is important. In fact, this is the most important home care measure. Medications may help control the pain . However, if it is the first time one has had symptoms suggestive of a kidney stone, it is important to see a doctor right away.
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Whats The Urinary Tract How Does It Work
Your urinary tract is vital to your body because it gets rid of waste and extra fluid. Its made up of both your kidneys, two ureters, your bladder and your urethra. Each organ has an important job :
- Kidneys: Your fist-sized, bean-shaped kidneys are located on either side of your spine, below your rib cage. Each day they filter 120 to 150 quarts of your blood to remove waste and balance fluids. Your kidneys make one to two quarts of urine every day.
- Ureters: After your kidney creates urine, the liquid travels through the tube-shaped ureter to the bladder. There is one ureter per kidney. Kidney stones can pass through the ureters or, if theyre too big, get stuck in them. You may require surgery if the stone is too large.
- Bladder: Between your hip bones is your bladder, an organ that stores urine. It stretches to hold about one and a half to two cups.
- Urethra: Like a ureter, your urethra is a tube through which urine passes. Its the final stop of the urinary tract where your urine leaves your body. This is called urination.
Confused With Other Pains
I am rarely confused, nor are patients. Renal colic, gallstone passage, acute pancreatitis, and myocardial infarction can seem alike at the beginning. So physicians and patients need be careful. But in all my decades of work, colic had more or less always been stone passage.
If lodged at the junction of the bladder and ureter, a stone mimics infection urinary frequency, urgency, burning. This is not typical stone pain, but may well lead to an image that discloses the stone.
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What Happens When You Get Kidney Stones But Only Have One Kidney
About 8.8 percent of the population in the U.S. will experience the pain of a kidney stone, according to a 2012 study published in European Urology. That adds up to about half a million people every year, or 1 in 10, and those numbers are rising, the National Kidney Foundation says.
But what happens if you were born with only one kidney or lost one to disease or trauma? How does that affect your diagnosis and treatment if you get a kidney stone?
Is It Possible To Have Multiple Kidney Stones At Once
She said: My bond with Aliyana made me focused on recovering as quickly as possible. Doctors told me I wouldnt be able to.
Sometimes, the kidney stone can travel down the ureter, the tube between the.
There are two types of calcium stones: calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate.
to neurologic disorders are at the.
Once the urologist sees the stone with the ureteroscope, a small, basket-like.
Both men and women can get kidney stones, but men’s chances of getting.
Once you get a cystine stone, there is a chance that you may have.
If this procedure is done, you could have to stay in the hospital for several days.
Gallstones And Kidney Stones Are They The Same When EMTs opened the door to the dwelling, they were met by a heat blast they likened to the Sahara Desert. Heat stress can lead to heart attacks, kidney stones, and preterm birth. Cholera, dengue, Sep 21, 2015 · Gallstones and kidney stones have similar symptoms, but they are not the same. Learn how theyre different,
Once you have had a kidney stone, you are at an increased risk of.
Facilitating stone passage There are several different medications that.
pineledge: I have had a few episodes of painful kidney stones requiring a visit to.
Is there a pain medicine I can ask my primary care physician for (to keep on.
Dr__Monga: Once it reaches the bladder, the stone typically passes within a.
partners: I have had multiple stones for years, and the doctors can’t seem to help.
Fans have speculated that.
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