Prostatitis Epididymitis Urethritis And Orchitis
In contrast to UTI, prostatitis affects men of all ages and, from 1990-1994, accounted for almost 2 million office visits per year in the United States. Prostatitis syndromes account for 25% of male office visits for genitourinary complaints, 8% of visits to urologists, and 1% of visits to primary care physicians. Of these men, 5% have bacterial prostatitis, 64% have nonbacterial prostatitis, and 31% have prostatodynia. Digital examination of the prostate in the setting of probable or possible UTI should be avoided to prevent the risk of inciting bacteremia.
Epididymitis has a bimodal distribution, corresponding to different age groups and pathogens. Most cases in men younger than 35 years are due to sexually transmitted pathogens. Older patients are more likely to have obstructive prostatism or a history of instrumentation or catheterization.
Gonococcal urethritis is more common in ethnic minorities, lower socioeconomic groups, and persons living in urban centers. The risk to a male having intercourse with an infected female is 17%. Some of these associations may be limited by confounding. The peak age for urethritis is 20-24 years.
Mumps orchitis occurs in 18% of postpubertal boys infected with the mumps virus.
John L Brusch, MD, FACP Corresponding Faculty Member, Harvard Medical SchoolJohn L Brusch, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of AmericaDisclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Medication Options For Kidney Infection
Your doctor will decide what antibiotic to prescribe, and for how long, based on your symptoms and the results of your urine tests. Your doctor may start you on one medication right away, but change it later if your urine test results indicate that a different antibiotic will be more effective.
Drugs taken by mouth for kidney infection include:
All of these drugs and others may be considered for IV treatment if you need to be hospitalized for a severe kidney infection.
When To See Your Gp
See your GP if you have a fever and persistent tummy, lower back or genital pain, or if you notice a change to your usual pattern of urination.
Most kidney infections need prompt treatment with antibiotics to stop the infection from damaging the kidneys or spreading to the bloodstream. You may also need painkillers.
If you’re especially vulnerable to the effects of an infection for example, if you have a pre-existing health condition or are pregnant, you may be admitted to hospital and treated with antibiotics through an intravenous drip.
After taking antibiotics, you should feel completely better after about two weeks.
In rare cases, a kidney infection can cause further problems. These include blood poisoning and a build-up of pus in the kidney called an abscess.
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Symptoms Of Bacterial Kidney Infection In Cats
In many cases, a cat does not exhibit symptoms until the infection is advanced. The greatest risk factor for kidney infection in your cat is that your cat will experience kidney failure. A change in your cats urination habits may be a red flag for some type of kidney problem. If your cat seems to be spending too much time in the litter box or has urine accidents outside of the litter box, a urinary tract infection may be to blame. Symptoms to be aware of include:
- Excessive urination or difficulty urinating
- Blood in urine
- Abdominal or lower back pain
How Does Illness Cause Blood Pressure To Rise
There are a number of ways in which a severe cold or flu, particularly if you are running a fever, can cause a higher blood pressure reading. Anytime you get a fever, your body is working to fight off an infection. Fever raises your temperature, speeds up your heart rate and raises your blood pressure levels. This increased blood pressure is due to vasoconstriction a narrowing of blood vessels. If you have a fever, a blood pressure exam is likely to show that your blood pressure is elevated.
An increase in your heart rate can also occur during other kinds of bacterial or viral infection, including bronchitis, pneumonia and strep throat. This happens in response to your hearts extra oxygen demands, so your system can fight off the infection. A heart-rate increase can also raise your blood pressure. Dehydration from fever or infection can raise your blood pressure, too.
- There are a number of ways in which a severe cold or flu, particularly if you are running a fever, can cause a higher blood pressure reading.
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Prevention And Treatment Of Kidney Infection
Antibiotics are started as soon as the doctor suspects pyelonephritis and samples have been taken for laboratory tests. The choice of drug or its dosage may be modified based on the laboratory test results , how sick the person is, and whether the infection started in the hospital, where bacteria tend to be more resistant to antibiotics. Other factors that can alter the choice or dosage of drug include whether the person’s immune system is impaired and whether the person has a urinary tract abnormality .
Outpatient treatment with antibiotics given by mouth is usually successful if the person has:
No nausea or vomiting
No signs of dehydration
Why Am I Experiencing Vaginal Bleeding After Menopause
Vaginal bleeding after menopause may be due to medications, hyperplasia of the uterus, or some types of uterine cancer. Certain medications containing estrogen or progesterone can cause either hyperplasia or an increase in the amount of tissue in the uterus, which may cause bleeding or an excess sloughing off of tissue both of which will be seen as vaginal bleeding.
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Are There Risk Factors For Pyelonephritis
There are several developmental conditions that increase the risk for pyelonephritis.
- Ectopic ureters describe a condition in which the ureters do not attach to the bladder properly or may attach to reproductive organs instead of the bladder.
- Vesicoureteral reflux describes backflow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters.
- Renal dysplasia describes abnormal development of the kidneys from birth.
There are several medical and procedural conditions that increase the likelihood of urinary tract infection including:
- Diabetes mellitus, causing glucose in the urine, making the urine very attractive to bacteria.
- Cushing’s disease , or overactive adrenal glands, causing increased levels of steroids in the body and decreasing the body’s resistance to infection.
- Administration of medications containing steroids.
- Kidney failure.
- Urine retention.
- Bladder or kidney stones.
- Surgical removal of the penis with creation of a new opening into the urethra .
Are There Foods I Should Avoid If I Have A Kidney Infection
There is no scientific data to suggest that avoiding any type of food while suffering from a kidney infection is harmful or beneficial. However, it is important to note that severe nausea and vomiting as well as poor appetite can occur with kidney infection. Therefore, it may be difficult to maintain adequate food and liquid requirements for patients with kidney infection, as this may lead to dehydration and worsening weakness. The treating physician may prescribe medications to treat these symptoms.
Some natural remedies for kidney and urinary tract infection, cranberry and cranberry juice, may have a role in reducing the risk of future kidney infections. This approach seems to be more useful as a preventative measure than actual treatment.
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What Causes A Kidney Infection
Scientists believe that most kidney infections start as a bladder infection that moves upstream to infect one or both of your kidneys. Most often, the infection is caused by bacteria that normally live in your bowel. The urinary tract has several ways to prevent infection from moving up the urinary tract. For example, urination most often flushes out bacteria before it reaches the bladder. Sometimes your body cant fight the bacteria and the bacteria cause a UTI. If you dont get medical treatment to stop the infection, the bacteria may infect your kidneys.
In some cases, your blood can carry bacteria or viruses from another part of your body to your kidneys.
What Can I Do To Help Prevent My Child From Getting A Kidney Infection
If you suspect your child has a UTI, get them prompt medical treatment to help prevent the UTI from turning into a kidney infection. Here are some tips for preventing UTIs.
While preventative antibiotics have been found to reduce the number of recurrent UTIs, there isnt any evidence that their use decreases the risk of kidney infection or scarring. Uncircumcised boys that are less than one year old are ten times more likely to get UTIs than circumcised boys, but by age two the risk decreases and circumcision does not have an effect on infection rates.
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How Is It Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You may have lab tests of your urine and discharge from the urethra and prostate gland.
For serious or repeated infections, you may need:
- An intravenous pyelogram . An IVP is a special type of X-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
- An ultrasound scan to look at the urinary tract.
- A cystoscopy. This is an exam of the inside of the urethra and bladder with a small lighted instrument. It is usually done by a specialist called a urologist.
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What Is Kidney Infection
Infection in the urinary tract can involve the lower tract especially the bladder , prostate or the upper tract and kidney . It is usually a bacterial infection. The disease occurs in roughly three to seven of every 10,000 people in the United States. The occurrence in pregnant women is about 2 percent. It is readily treatable if diagnosed early.
A bacteria called Escherichia Coli causes about 90 percent of kidney infections. The bacteria migrate from the genitals through the urethra into the bladder and up the tubes that connect the bladder to the kidneys.
Some bacteria, such as staphylococcus infections, can enter the kidneys from the bloodstream.
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Prevention Of A Kidney Infection
Preventing kidney infections usually starts with preventing UTIs in the lower urinary tract. Steps you can take to help prevent UTIs include:
- Drink lots of water throughout the day.
- Urinate when you feel the urge to do so dont wait.
- After using the toilet, wipe from front to back so you don’t spread bacteria from your anus to your urethra.
- Urinate after having sex.
- Dont use unnecessary cleansing or deodorizing products in the genital area.
- Steer clear of birth control methods that can raise the risk of a UTI.
If you do develop a UTI, get it treated as soon as possible. See your primary healthcare provider for treatment, or visit an urgent-care facility for diagnosis and a prescription for antibiotics.
Treating a UTI promptly may prevent it from spreading from your bladder to your kidneys.
Shortness Of Breath After Very Little Effort
Why this happens:
Being short of breath can be related to the kidneys in two ways. First, extra fluid in the body can build up in the lungs. And second, anemia can leave your body oxygen-starved and short of breath.
What patients said:
At the times when I get the shortness of breath, its alarming to me. It just fears me. I think maybe I might fall or something so I usually go sit down for awhile.
I couldnt sleep at night. I couldnt catch my breath, like I was drowning or something. And, the bloating, cant breathe, cant walk anywhere. It was bad.
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What Is A Uti Anyway
A UTI, or urinary tract infection, happens when bacteria enters into any part of your urinary system, which includes the urethra, the bladder, the kidneys or the uterus. If not flushed out of the system, the bacteria can lead to an infection, or a UTI.
If youve ever had a UTI , you probably havent forgotten the symptoms. UTIs are very unpleasant, to say the least, and are often accompanied with one or more of the following:
A burning sensation when urinating
A strong urge to urinate often, usually passing only small amounts of urine at a time.
Cloudy and/or strong smelling urine
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of An Std
The signs and symptoms of STD dont show up during the early stages and the infected person can be walking around with STD for several without evening knowing about it. Usually, the signs appear in the second week since the contraction of the disease. The most common symptoms of STDs are
- Abnormal vaginal/penile discharge
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Can A Urinary Tract Infection Be Prevented
Many methods have been suggested to reduce or prevent UTIs. The single most important prevention measure is increased fluid intake. Many people develop UTIs simply because they do not drink enough fluids. Some of these are considered home remedies and have been discussed . There are other suggestions that may help prevent UTIs. Good hygiene for males and females is useful. For females, wiping from front to back helps keep pathogens that may reside or pass through the anal opening away from the urethra. For males, retracting the foreskin before urinating reduces the chance of urine lingering at the urethral opening and acting as a culture media for pathogens. Incomplete bladder emptying and resisting the normal urge to urinate can allow pathogens to survive and replicate easier in a non-flowing system. Some clinicians recommend washing before and urinating soon after sex to reduce the chance of urethritis and cystitis. Many clinicians suggest that anything that causes a person irritation in the genital area may encourage UTI development. Wearing underwear that is somewhat adsorptive may help wick away urine drops that otherwise may be areas for pathogen growth.
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Infectious Disease And Your Kidneys
What would you do if you had a fever with irritation or pain when you urinate? Would you wait a few days and then make an appointment to see a doctor? Dont wait. Those symptoms might be from a bladder infection. Bladder infections need to be treated. If a bladder infection is not resolved, it may lead to a kidney infection.
Kidney infections are rare, but they can cause a number of problems. Urine is one of the body fluids that normally have no bacteria. When the bladder is infected with bacteria, the bacteria in the bladder can travel up to the kidney. If this happens, you may have pain in the back or side, chills and fever, irritation or pain when urinating, or orangecolored urine . Nausea and vomiting can also occur. Urine is checked for bacteria in several ways. A test of the kidney, such as a scan or an ultrasound may be ordered. A kidney infection is called pyelonephritis.
Most kidney infections start as bladder infections. Bladder infections usually get better with antibiotics in otherwise healthy people. The goal of antibiotics is to kill the bacteria in the bladder and prevent it from spreading. One dose is not enough you need to finish all of the pills in the prescription to be sure the bacteria are gone. If you still have symptoms when you finish the pills, you should call your doctor. You might need another or a different prescription.
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How Long Does A Uti Last
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If you have a UTI, its best to get it treated right away before any complications develop . Its possible for a UTI to get better on its own, but most of the time, it wont. While home remedies can help ease some of the discomfort, a doctor can prescribe you an antibiotic that is a much quicker and more effective treatment. An antibiotic will start working immediately and, depending on how complicated your UTI is, may clear it up in a matter of days. Be sure to always take your medication how your doctor prescribes.
Protecting Yourself Against Stis:
- Use a condom. However, nothing is 100% safe. If youâre concerned you might have an STI, even after safe sex, check with your doctor.
At the clinic, your doctor may ask you questions like âDid you use a condom?â or âDid you have multiple sexual partners?â Its not so they can judge you. Itâs so they can organize what further tests you need. So, donât be shy or feel ashamed about your answers.
With a few minor changes, you can take good care of yourself. You can start making better health choices now by
CDC. âUrinary Tract Infection.â Accessed March 2021.
Flores-Mireles, A.L., et al. Nat Rev Microbiol, , doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3432.
Behzadi, P., et al. Maedica , , PMID: 21977133.
Valiquette, L. Can J Urol, , PMID: 11442991.
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What Kind Of Follow
Serial urinalyses and urine cultures are done during antibiotic treatment, generally 5 to 7 days into treatment and 1 to 4 weeks after antibiotic therapy concludes. Potential complications of pyelonephritis include kidney failure, recurrent kidney infections, bacteria in the blood causing infection in other parts of the body .
Overall, dogs with sudden pyelonephritis do well and return to normal health unless they also have kidney stones, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction, or cancer in the urinary tract.
Dogs with chronic or recurrent pyelonephritis may be difficult to cure and their prognosis is more serious. If pyelonephritis is not identified and treated appropriately, permanent kidney damage and chronic kidney disease with kidney failure may result.