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What Does A Small Kidney Mean

What Causes Simple Kidney Cysts

What is Kidney Cysts? | Types, Diagnosis & Treatment | Dr. Ram Mohan Sripad Bhat

Kidney cysts occur when the tube of a nephron begins to get bigger and fill with fluid. Researchers dont know what causes this to occur, but they do know that simple cysts arent inherited. It is believed that injury or microscopic blockages in the tubules may lead to the development of some simple kidney cysts.

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How Renal Hypoplasia Happens

The kidneys form while a baby is growing in the womb. Normally, two tubes, which become the ureters, grow from the bladder into tissue, which becomes the kidneys. These tubes form the renal pelvis, the part of the kidney that collects urine. These tubes also form long tubes that link to the nephrons, the many tiny parts that filter blood and make urine.

In renal hypoplasia, this process does not work, so that the kidney does not grow normally. The kidney is smaller than usual and has fewer nephrons.

Diagnosis Of Kidney Disease: Essential Tests

As soon as you see the signs and symptoms of kidney problems you need to consult a doctor. The doctor will put you through a series of tests to diagnose the problem further. Here are a few important procedures followed to diagnose kidney disease.

Glomerular filtration rate – This is a test done to monitor the filtration rate of the kidney and its functions to determine the stage of the disease.

Urine analysis – The urine sample is observed under a microscope to look for bacterial infections, bleeding and other signs of kidney problems.

Kidney Ultrasound – Ultrasound of kidneys give out clear images of the kidneys with the help of a probe which is placed on the skin to create images of the kidney with the help of sound waves. These images show damage in kidneys such as blockage of urine, the appearance of stones and cysts.

Computed tomography scan – A CT scan helps to take sectional pictures of the organs through X-ray which gives out clear details of the problem in kidneys.

Kidney biopsy – A small piece of the tissue is extracted from the diseased kidney in this procedure. The sample obtained is further studied under a microscope to conclude the severity of the issue. This procedure is followed after you are sedated with local anaesthesia.

Magnetic resonance imaging scan – High-resolution images of the kidney is captured through a scanner which emits radio waves in a magnetic field. This helps the doctor to diagnose the problem with great clarity.

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Why Would One Kidney Be Larger Than The Other

The National Kidney Federation explains that the most common reasons one kidney is larger than the other include congenital dysplasia, reflux nephropathy, kidney infection and blood starvation in the smaller kidney. Diseases such as glomerulonephritis also cause a kidney to become smaller.

Congenital dysplasia is a condition wherein a kidney is small at birth or has never grown with the rest of the body, says the NKF. It is a common cause of small kidneys and is typically detected in childhood. In some cases, the small kidney is in a normal position in the upper back. However, in other cases, it is found in the lower abdomen as it has failed to move up from there before birth.

Reflux nephropathy refers to a damaged kidney due to a faulty drainage system, explains the NKF. It is commonly detected in childhood and early adulthood.

According to the NKF, sometimes one kidney is bigger than the other because an infection has caused the other kidney to shrink. Severe kidney infections damage the kidney and cause it to become small. When the kidney lacks blood due to a narrowing in the artery that supplies the organ with blood, it often becomes smaller. This condition typically occurs in older people, especially those with a history of angina or heart attack.

Risk Factors You Can Control

8 Things That Hurt More Than Childbirth

Drinking too little water is the most common cause of kidney stones. Diet also plays an important role. Eating a lot of animal protein, sodium, and high-oxalate foods, such as chocolate or dark green vegetables, can boost the risk for kidney stones in some people. Other risk factors include drinking sweetened beverages, putting on weight, and taking certain medications.

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What Is The Long

The long-term outlook for a child with kidney dysplasia in only one kidney is generally good. A person with one working kidney, a condition called solitary kidney, can grow normally and may have few, if any, health problems.

The affected kidney may shrink as the child grows. By age 10,3 the affected kidney may no longer be visible on x-ray or ultrasound. Children and adults with only one working kidney should have regular checkups to test for high blood pressure and kidney damage. A child with urinary tract problems that lead to failure of the working kidney may eventually need dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Treatment For Kidney Lesions

The treatment of the kidney lesions may vary, it will depend on the causative factor.

The physician will decide whether the person needs conservative line of treatment or more invasive procedures such as surgery. In malignancy he may require chemotherapy or radiation as the doctor suggests. Hemodialysis may be necessary if the kidney is not functioning.

In addition to the above mode of treatment, certain home remedies and natural cures are valuable for kidney lesions.

  • The herb Hoelen is useful to stop the kidney lesion. It is said to be an immune suppressant.
  • Cut down intake of meat, poultry and fish as they are known to increase the uric acid that forms the kidney stone.
  • Water melon is the best diuretic and helps to increase the urine outflow. You can drink the juice or simply eat sliced watermelon.
  • Uva ursi is an anti inflammatory and antibacterial for kidney. It prevents bleeding if the kidney disease is mild.

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Contribution Of The Ureteric Cell Lineage To Renal Hypoplasia

Nephron formation in the MM requires reciprocal interaction with the UB tips. The proper elaboration of the UB tree and the secretion of tip-derived signals are essential for adequate nephrogenesis. Multiple processes are required within the UB for development: induction, growth and branching, survival, and differentiation. These processes are primarily regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways and transcription factors expressed in the UB .

Table 2 Targeted gene disruption leading to renal hypoplasia in mice

Kidney Disease And Cardiovascular Risks

What is a Renal Mass? – Urology Care Foundation

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with chronic kidney disease. Compared to the general population, people with chronic kidney disease are two to three times more likely to have cardiovascular problems such as:

This increased risk is partly caused by factors common to both chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure. However, researchers are discovering that chronic kidney disease is, in itself, an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and a history of cardiovascular disease is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease.

The kidneys regulate water and salts, remove certain wastes and make various hormones. Kidney disease increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in many ways, including:

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Symptoms Of Kidney Cancer

In many cases, there are no obvious symptoms at first and kidney cancer may only be found during tests for another condition or reason.

If there are symptoms, they can include:

  • blood in your pee you may notice your pee is darker than usual or reddish in colour
  • a persistent pain in your lower back or side, just below your ribs
  • a lump or swelling in your side

How Do Doctors Treat Kidney Stones

The treatment for a kidney stone depends on:

  • The size of the stone
  • The type of stone
  • If the stone is causing you pain
  • If the stone is blocking your urinary tract

If your kidney stone is small, your doctor may have you take pain medicine and drink fluids to help push the stone through your urinary tract and out through your urine .

If your kidney stone is large or if it is blocking your urinary tract, a different treatment may be needed. Treatment options include:

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How Are Renal Cysts Diagnosed And Evaluated

Since they rarely cause symptoms, renal cysts are most often found during imaging tests performed for other reasons. In such cases without any symptoms, simple renal cysts are usually left alone and do not need any further tests. However, some renal cysts look more complex than the usual simple renal cyst. These complex renal cysts can have a thicker wall, or solid material inside instead of just fluid. Once complex renal cysts are discovered, additional imaging tests may be performed to monitor them and distinguish benign cysts from cancer.

Some types of imaging tests your doctor might order include:

Abdominal Ultrasound and Pelvic Ultrasound: These exams are performed to take pictures of the kidneys and confirm the presence of fluid inside the renal cysts. Your doctor may use ultrasound imaging to monitor renal cysts for any changes over time.

For more information about ultrasound performed on children, visit the Pediatric Abdominal Ultrasound page.

Abdominal and Pelvic CT: Often used as a complement to ultrasound in the study of complex renal cysts, this procedure can help distinguish benign cysts from tumors in the kidneys. A CT scan may include an injection of contrast material. See the Radiation Dose page for more information about CT procedures.

For more information about CT performed on children, visit the Pediatric CT page.

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Diabetes And Kidney Disease

Conditions That Can Cause Blood In Your Urine

About 20 to 30 per cent of people with diabetes develop a type of kidney disease called diabetic nephropathy. This is a serious disease and may worsen other diabetic complications such as nerve and eye damage, as well as increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of kidney failure .

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Causes Of Kidney Lesions

Their lesions are detected accidentally while doing investigation for other causes. While others may develop kidney lesion symptoms such as blood in the urine, back pain, pain in the renal region or impairment of renal function as it occurs in nephrosis.

There are number of causes for kidney lesion. Lesion is an injury to the organ tissue. Here the organ is kidney and the injury is on the tissue of the kidney either internally or externally. These lesions can be benign or malignant. Malignant lesions are cancerous while benign lesions are non cancerous, however benign lesions can make things worse if not taken care of in some cases.

  • Glomerulonephritis can damage the kidney.
  • Disease of renal vessels: renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis.
  • Inflammation of kidneys called nephritis.
  • Tumors: cancerous and non cancerous.
  • Kidney stone.
  • Uncontrolled hypertension.
  • Multiple kidney lesions are common in malignancy.

All this conditions to a certain extent damage the kidney tissue and its function. In some the damage is reversible while in others the damage is permanent. Scarring of kidney can result due to inflammation of the kidney, infection, or it can also be due to surgery.

What Is Kidney Disease

Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that act as your bodys waste filtration system. They filter your blood 12 times per hour. Excess water and unwanted chemicals or waste in the blood are disposed of as urine .

Kidney disease is when your kidneys are damaged in some way and are not filtering your blood effectively.

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Can It Be Prevented

Atrophic kidney cant always be prevented. But there are some measures you can take to keep your kidneys as healthy as possible.

First, try to prevent those conditions that can damage your kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes. If you already have such a condition, work to keep it under good control.

Your diet should be rich in:

  • fruits and vegetables
  • low-fat or fat-free dairy products

Limit your intake of:

Other Conditions That Look Like Renal Hypoplasia

Small stone in kidney

Sometimes, renal hypoplasia is thought to be another type of problem with the kidney.

  • Renal dysplasia one or both kidneys are smaller than usual, but have also not developed properly and may have cysts
  • Multicystic dysplastic kidney a more severe form of renal dysplasia. The whole of the affected kidney is a bundle of many cysts, and does not work.
  • Reflux nephropathy scars on the kidney.

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Imaging Tests For Kidney Disease

Tests that create various pictures or images may include:

  • x-rays to check the size of the kidneys and look for kidney stones
  • cystogram a bladder x-ray
  • voiding cystourethrogram where the bladder is x-rayed before and after urination
  • ultrasound sound waves are bounced off the kidneys to create a picture. Ultrasound may be used to check the size of the kidneys. Kidney stones and blood vessel blockages may be visible on ultrasound
  • computed tomography x-rays and digital computer technology are used to create an image of the urinary tract, including the kidneys
  • magnetic resonance imaging a strong magnetic field and radio waves are used to create a three-dimensional image of the urinary tract, including the kidneys.
  • radionuclide scan.

Impact Of Each Parameter For Detecting Small Kidney

Cutoff values for detection of small kidney estimated by the ROC curve was 4.97 cm length, 11.02 cm2 eArea, 17.42 mL eVol, 90.85% ratio of length, 74.26% ratio of eArea, and 63.84% ratio of eVOL. Among these parameters, maximum area under the curve was obtained using a ratio of eArea of 74.26%, with the highest sensitivity , specificity , positive predictive value , negative predictive value , and accuracy rate when compared with other parameters. Simple measurement of length showed high specificity comparable with the ratio of eArea .

Table 3 Impact of each parameter on detecting small kidney

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What Are The Symptoms Of Simple Kidney Cysts

Simple kidney cysts usually don’t cause any symptoms. In fact, most people who have them don’t know they have them. The cysts become a problem if they rupture and start to bleed, become infected, or grow so large that they push against other organs within the abdomen.

When simple kidney cysts do cause symptoms, they might include:

  • Pain in the side between the ribs and hip, stomach or back.

Depending on where the cyst is located, it can affect how the kidney works. It can also lead to a type of high blood pressure if the cyst prevents the kidney from filtering extra fluid from the blood.

What Causes Kidney Stones

What Is Kidney Atrophy?

Anyone can get a kidney stone, but some people are more likely than others to get them. Men get kidney stones more often than women. Kidney stones are also more common in non-Hispanic white people than in people of other ethnicities. You may also be more likely to get a kidney stone if you:

  • Have had kidney stones before
  • Have someone in your family with kidney stones
  • Do not drink enough water
  • Eat a lot of protein, sodium , or sugar
  • Are overweight
  • Have a health problem that causes your urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium
  • Have a health problem that causes swelling or damage in your digestive system or your joints
  • Take certain medicines, such as diuretics or calcium-based antacids

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Preventing Future Kidney Stones

If you had a calcium stone, your doctor may suggest cutting back on salt, which cause the body to dispense more calcium into the urine, as well as animal protein. You may also be advised to avoid high-oxalate foods, including chocolate, instant coffee, tea, beans, berries, dark leafy greens, oranges, tofu, and sweet potatoes. The best way to ward off new kidney stones is to drink enough water to keep urine clear.

Risk Factors You Can’t Control

White men have a greater risk for kidney stones than other groups, starting in the 40s. Women see their risk rise in the 50s. And your odds also go up if you have a family history of kidney stones. Certain medical conditions can boost the risk — high blood pressure, gout, urinary tract infections, certain kidney conditions such as polycystic kidney disease — but treating or controlling these conditions generally helps prevent stone formation.

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What Are The Symptoms And Complications Of Simple Kidney Cysts

As people age, simple kidney cysts tend to grow bigger and grow in number. However, simple kidney cysts usually dont cause symptoms or additional health problems.

In rare cases, simple kidney cysts can become large enough to

  • press on your bones or other organs, causing pain or discomfort
  • block blood or urine flow through the kidneys or the ureters
  • become infected, causing fever, pain, and tenderness
  • burst, causing pain or blood in the urine, also called hematuria

Talk with your health care professional if you have any of these symptoms. Health care professionals can treat simple kidney cysts that cause symptoms or other health problems.

Overview Of Kidney Development

What are Kidney Cyst & its causes? – Dr. Vidyashankar Panchangam

Development of the mammalian metanephric kidney is dependent on reciprocal inductive interactions between two distinct cell lineages, the ureteric cell lineage and the metanephric mesenchyme cell lineage . At the onset of metanephric development, signals emanating from the mass of uninduced MM initiate the formation of an epithelial bud from the adjacent Wolffian duct . Reciprocal inductive interactions between the ureteric bud tip and adjacent MM result in continued/successive branching of the UB, ultimately forming the mature collecting duct system of the kidney . Simultaneously, the UB tips signal to the adjacent MM cells causing them to aggregate, undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial conversion, and progress through a series of maturation steps to form a fully functional nephron . This iterative cycle of ureteric branching morphogenesis and nephron induction results in the formation of 60,000 collecting ducts and an average of 785,000 nephrons in humans . Human metanephric development commences at 56 wk after fertilization, and nephrogenesis is completed by 36-wk gestation. Therefore, final nephron endowment is completed during embryogenesis, after which no new nephrons can be formed, although the kidney tubules continue to mature into the postnatal period. The fetal metanephric kidney begins to function at 10-wk gestation when the first signs of urinary output become evident.

Figure 1

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