A Providence Physician Provides More Insights On Causes Of Kidney Stones And How To Avoid Them
Congratulations! Youve gotten in the habit of working out. Thats terrific.
While the benefits of working out are undeniable, there are some things to be cautious about. For example, the jury remains out on some of those tablets, shakes, powders and liquids that promise to boost your stamina or provide other benefits. In at least a couple of cases, workout supplements have been linked to kidney stones.
While the research isnt conclusive, its worth bearing in mind as you move forward on your journey to a stronger, more durable body.
Understand How To Prevent Kidney Stones
The National Kidney Foundation offers a helpful backgrounder on diet and kidney stones, which are formed when crystals accumulate in the urine. The foundation offers some tips to help prevent the formation of kidney stones. They include:
- Drink water. Staying hydrated is one of the best measures you can take to avoid kidney stones. Drink at least 12 cups of fluid daily.
- Talk with your health care provider about your diet. Sometimes, she will recommend a special diet or medication.
- Reducing your intake of animal protein, such as beef, poultry, fish, eggs and cheese, may help.
Prevention Of Future Stones
Once your health care provider finds out why you are forming stones, he or she will give you tips on how to prevent them. This may include changing your diet and taking certain medications. There is no âone-size-fits-allâ diet for preventing kidney stones. Everyone is different. Your diet may not be causing your stones to form. But there are dietary changes that you can make to stop stones from continuing to form.
Drink enough fluids each day.
If you are not producing enough urine, your health care provider will recommend you drink at least 3 liters of liquid each day. This equals about 3 quarts . This is a great way to lower your risk of forming new stones. Remember to drink more to replace fluids lost when you sweat from exercise or in hot weather. All fluids count toward your fluid intake. But itâs best to drink mostly no-calorie or low-calorie drinks. This may mean limiting sugar-sweetened or alcoholic drinks.
Knowing how much you drink during the day can help you understand how much you need to drink to produce 2.5 liters of urine. Use a household measuring cup to measure how much liquid you drink for a day or two. Drink from bottles or cans with the fluid ounces listed on the label. Keep a log, and add up the ounces at the end of the day or 24-hour period. Use this total to be sure you are reaching your daily target urine amount of at least 85 ounces of urine daily.
Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
Eat the recommended amount of calcium.
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Kidney Stones Are On The Rise
- By Robert H. Shmerling, MD, Senior Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publishing
ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
In the past, medical textbooks described the typical person unlucky enough to develop a kidney stone as a white, middle-aged, obese man who eats an unhealthy diet and doesnt drink enough fluids. Those books may need an update. A new study has found not only that the incidence of kidney stones is going up, but that they are also developing in people not considered high-risk in the past, including children, women, and African Americans.
What Causes Vitamin D Toxicity
Vitamin D toxicity is almost always the result of excess supplementation. Because your body regulates vitamin D production, you are unlikely to develop it as a result of sun exposure . Foods generally do not contain large amounts of vitamin D, so getting an excessive amount in your diet is unlikely.
People may begin taking vitamin D supplements in order to address a deficiency or to help relieve symptoms of things like seasonal affective disorder or depression. The problem is that they may go overboard or think that taking more will produce more beneficial effects.
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Different Types Of Kidney Stones
There is a considerable variety of kidney stones. Here are five well-known ones:
1. Calcium phosphate stones are common and easily dissolve in urine acidified by vitamin C.
2. Calcium oxalate stones are also common but they do not dissolve in acid urine. We will discuss this type further below.
3. Magnesium ammonium phosphatestones are much less common, often appearing after an infection. They dissolve in urine acidified by vitamin C.
4. Uric acid stones result from a problem metabolizing purines . They may form in a condition such as gout.
5. Cystine stones result from an hereditary inability to reabsorb cystine. Most childrens stones are this type, and these are rare.
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Family History Of Kidney Stones Watch Those Megadoses Of Vitamin C
New York, NY – Kidney stones are a common problem, affecting about half a million people each year. Men are more prone to kidney stones than women — nearly four out of five sufferers are men. Dietary habits may sometimes increase the risk of developing kidney stones. If you or anyone in your family has had a kidney stone, consider the following:
Taking high doses of vitamin C supplements, such as 500 mg or more a day on a regular basis, has been shown to increase the risk of developing kidney stones in some people. This is particularly true in people who have had calcium oxalate stones in the past or who have a family history of these stones. The reason for this may be that, at high doses, a significant amount of vitamin C is converted to oxalate in the body. A large amount of oxalate would then be present in the urine where it could combine with calcium to form calcium oxalate stones. “People who are at risk for this problem should not take more than the recommended daily allowance of vitamin C as a supplement,” says Garabed Eknoyan, MD, president of the National Kidney Foundation.
Eating foods that are high in oxalate may also trigger kidney stone formation in people who are prone to develop calcium oxalate stones. The following foods have been shown to increase oxalate in the urine, and they should be avoided by these individuals: spinach, rhubarb, beets, nuts , chocolate, tea, wheat bran and strawberries.
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What Diseases Cause Hypercalciuria
Asked by: Dr. Kitty CarrollCauses of hypercalciuria that need to be considered include the following:
- Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases.
- Vitamin D intoxication.
Causes / Risk Factors for Hypercalciuria
- Family history of kidney stones.
- Not drinking enough fluids.
- Diet high in sodium and protein.
- Taking medicines such as furosemide , corticosteroids, excessive vitamin D and methylxanthines, such as theophylline.
Assessment Of Kidney Stones
Participants reporting an incident kidney stone were asked to complete a supplementary questionnaire with information about date of occurrence and accompanying symptoms. Self-reported diagnosis was found to be reliable by medical record review of a sample . In a subsample of the study population with stone composition reports, the stone type was predominantly calcium oxalate in 86% of participants in the HPFS, 77% of participants in the NHS I, and 79% of participants in the NHS II cohort.
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Vitamin D And Chronic Kidney Disease
We get vitamin D from the ultraviolet rays of the sun, but not all sunlight is equal. The amount of UV rays absorbed depends on where you live, the time of day, the season, whether its cloudy and if youre using sunscreen. People who live in sunny areas at lower latitudes typically get enough vitamin D compared to people living at higher latitudes , particularly during late fall and winter.
What foods give us vitamin D?
Few foods are naturally good sources of vitamin D. The best food sources for vitamin D are fatty fish including salmon, sardines, cod, tuna and halibut. Many foods, such as some breakfast cereals and milk, are fortified with vitamin D. Milk must contain at least 100 IU of vitamin D per cup, according to federal regulations. The practice of fortifying milk with vitamin D began in the 1930s to prevent rickets, a bone disease that was common in children at the time. Other dairy products are not required to be fortified. Milk substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk and nondairy creamer may or may not have added vitamin D.
Benefits of vitamin D
Vitamin D is responsible for:
- Building and maintaining strong bones
- Keeping the right level of calcium and phosphorus in the blood
- Preventing bones from becoming weak or malformed
- Preventing rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
Too much vitamin D can be toxic. The recommended maximum intake is 25 mcg for infants and 50 mcg for children and adults with normal kidney function.
Vitamin D supplements
Calcium And Vitamin D Supplements May Increase Stone Risk
HOUSTON Calcium and vitamin D supplements appear to be associated with high calcium levels in the blood and urine, and this could increase the risk of kidney stones, according to a new study presented at The Endocrine Societys 94th Annual Meeting.
The use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation may not be as benign as previously thought, said principal investigator J. Christopher Gallagher, MD, Professor of Medicine and director of the Bone Metabolism Unit at Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Neb. Pending further information, people should not exceed the guidelines suggested by the Institute of Medicine, which are 800 international units of vitamin D, and 800-1,200 mg per day of calcium.
Dr. Gallagher and his colleagues studied 163 healthy, postmenopausal women aged 52-85 years. The women were randomly assigned to receive either a vitamin D supplement of 400, 800, 1,600, 2,400, 3,200, 4,000, or 4,800 IU a day or placebo. In this study, calcium intake was increased from an initial intake of 691 mg to 1,200-1,400 mg per day. The investigators measured urine and blood calcium levels at the beginning of the study, and then every three months for one year.
The mean baseline serum 25OHD level was 15.6 ng/mL. The level increased on the highest dose of vitamin D to 45 ng/mL. Mean baseline serum calcium level was 9.47 mg/dL. This increased to 9.52 mg/dL. The mean 24-hour urine calcium level was 142 mg. This increased to 186 mg, according to the researchers.
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Is My Vitamin D Supplement Causing Kidney Stones
In this episode of the Kidney Stone Diet Podcast Jill Harris answers a listener question about raising Vitamin D levels without causing more kidney stones.
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About the AuthorJill Harris, LPN, CHC
Jill Harris is a Licensed Practical Nurse who specializes in kidney stone prevention. Her goal is to teach you what you need to know and, more importantly, how to put that knowledge to work so you can stop forming stones. For good.
Does Coffee Cause Kidney Stones
Caffeine intake has been shown to be associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and, as such, could potentially increase the risk of developing kidney stones, although in our previous reports we consistently found an inverse association between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages, such as coffee
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Vitamin D Therapy And Kidney Stones
A few years ago after taking calcium and vitamin Dsupplements I developed a calcium kidney stone. Since that time I stopped taking calcium supplements.Since I was just told that I had a low Vitamin D level I just purchased Vitamin D3 1,000 IU and will be taking this with a Centrum Ultra Vitamin for women . Could this total amount of Vitamin D contribute to possibly a future kidney stone? I don’t want to end up in the hospital again.I just received my bone density test back and it was normal so I think I really don’t need the calcium.Any advice you can give will be greatly appreciated.Loretta B.
Should I Worry If My Calcium Is High
High blood calcium can lead to many serious health problems and should almost always be treated with an operation to remove the parathyroid tumor. Over 99% of all cases of high calcium in the blood are due to a small tumor on one of the parathyroid glands causing a disease called primary hyperparathyroidism.
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Can Too Much Vitamin C Lead To Kidney Stones
Being in the midst of cold season, many of us try to take as many preventive actions as possible to avoid the sniffles, whether its washing our hands more frequently, taking more vitamins, sucking on zinc lozenges or popping extra vitamin C supplements.
But if you are a male, be aware of how much vitamin C you are taking. A recent study in the JAMA Internal Medicine journal found that men who ingested vitamin C supplements of 1,000 mg/day or more were at increased risk for kidney stones. Vitamin C intake through diet did not carry the same risk.
The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C in the United States is 75 mg/day for women and 90 mg/day for men.
Most people get enough vitamin C from a balanced diet and our bodies absorb it most effectively from the foods we eat, says Sarah Malik, MD, Nebraska Medicine gastroenterologist.
People who might be susceptible to vitamin C deficiency, such as smokers, people with severe intestinal malabsorption or cachexia and cancer patients might be at increased risk of vitamin C inadequacy, may benefit from the use of vitamin C supplements under a doctors supervision, says Dr. Malik.
Major sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, tomatoes, cantaloupes and strawberries. Approximately 70% to 90% of vitamin C is absorbed in moderate intakes of 30 to180 mg/day. However, at doses above 1g/day, absorption falls to less than 50%. Absorbed, unmetabolized vitamin C is excreted in the urine.
Regular Articlecardiovascular Pulmonary And Renal Pathologyvitamin D And Calcium Supplementation Accelerates Randall’s Plaque Formation In A Murine Model
Most kidney stones are made of calcium oxalate crystals. Randall’s plaque, an apatite deposit at the tip of the renal papilla, is considered to at the origin of these stones. Hypercalciuria may promote Randall’s plaque formation and growth. We analyzed whether long-term exposure of Abcc6/ mice to vitamin D supplementation, with or without a calcium-rich diet, would accelerate the formation of Randall’s plaque. Eight groups of mice received vitamin D alone , a calcium-enriched diet alone , both vitamin D supplementation and a calcium-rich diet, or a standard diet for 6 months. Kidney calcifications were assessed by 3-dimensional microcomputed tomography, -Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Yasue staining. At 6 months, Abcc6/ mice exposed to vitamin D and calcium supplementation developed massive Randall’s plaque when compared with control Abcc6/ mice . Wild-type animals did not develop significant calcifications when exposed to vitamin D. Combined administration of vitamin D and calcium significantly accelerates Randall’s plaque formation in a murine model. This original model raises concerns about the cumulative risk of vitamin D supplementation and calcium intakes in Randall’s plaque formation.
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Vitamin D Supplements: How To Take Them Safely
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Vitamin D Repletion In Stone Formers With Hypercalciuria
|The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.|
|First Posted : February 15, 2011Results First Posted : October 23, 2012Last Update Posted : October 23, 2012|
- Study Details
- History of nephrolithiasis as per medical record
- Urinary calcium excretion between 150 and 400 mg/day
- 25D deficiency or insufficiency within 3 months of enrollment
- Pregnant women, since the optimal dose of vitamin D supplementation in this population has not been rigorously studied.
- Known uric acid, cystine, or struvite stone disease . An exception to this is patients who have passed both uric acid and calcium stones, or patients who have passed stones of mixed composition .
- Hypercalcemia at baseline
- Acute stone event or gross hematuria within the past 2 months
- Recent stone intervention within the past 1 month
- Suspected or known secondary causes of hypercalciuria, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, hyperthyroidism, or malignancy
- Addition or dose change of medicines potentially affecting urinary calcium since the baseline 24hour urine collection
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