Types Of Kidney Stones
Doctors break down kidney stones into types. Knowing which kind you have could affect the treatment you get. They include:
Calcium stones: These are the most common ones. Even just eating some foods very high in oxalates, such as rhubarb, or taking unusually high levels of vitamin D, can boost your chances of getting this type. You could get this kind if you typically donât drink enough water or if you sweat a lot and donât replace the fluids you lose.
Cystine stones: This is the least common typeThis is the least common type and due to a genetic mutation. In this situation your kidneys have trouble reabsorbing a compound called cystine, which ends up in the urine at higher levels and causes stones to form.
Struvite stones: Infections, especially in the urinary tract, can cause this kind of stone.
Uric acid stones: Eating large amounts of animal proteins can lead to uric acid buildup in your urine. That can eventually form a stone either with or without calcium. Risk factors include gout, diabetes, and chronic diarrhea.
Things That Can Help You Take A Pass On Kidney Stones
- By Matthew Solan, Executive Editor, Harvard Men’s Health Watch
If youve ever passed a kidney stone, you probably would not wish it on your worst enemy, and youll do anything to avoid it again. “Kidney stones are more common in men than in women, and in about half of people who have had one, kidney stones strike again within 10 to 15 years without preventive measures,” says Dr. Brian Eisner, co-director of the Kidney Stone Program at Harvard-affiliated Massachusetts General Hospital.
Treating Small Kidney Stones
Small kidney stones may cause pain until you pass them, which usually takes 1 or 2 days.
A GP may recommend a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to help with pain.
To ease your symptoms, a GP might also recommend:
- drinking plenty of fluids throughout the day
- anti-sickness medicine
You might be advised to drink up to 3 litres of fluid throughout the day, every day, until the stones have cleared.
To help your stones pass:
- drink water, but drinks like tea and coffee also count
- add fresh lemon juice to your water
- avoid fizzy drinks
- do not eat too much salt
Make sure you’re drinking enough fluid. If your pee is dark, it means you’re not drinking enough. Your pee should be pale in colour.
You may be advised to continue drinking this much fluid to prevent new stones forming.
If your kidney stones are causing severe pain, your GP may send you to hospital for tests and treatment.
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Size Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are of variable sizes. They range from small sized crystals to large sized stones such as the size of a golf ball. Variations in sizes of kidney stones affect the following things:
The size of kidney stones affect the treatment method required for their removal. Small-sized stones can easily pass through the kidney without any medical assistance but large-sized stones require medical intervention. Certain tests are conducted which help in determining the size of kidney stones, such as KUB, an Ultrasound or an IVP. They help in analyzing which treatment should be effective for the removal of your kidney stones.
It is estimated that one in ten people will have a kidney stone sometime in their lives. The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly in the United States from 3.8% in the late 1970s to about 9% in the 2000s. The lifetime risk of developing kidney stones is about 19% in men and 10% in women.
Kidney Stones In Bladder Symptoms
Kidneys are the usual place of origin for stones since these organs actually produce and secret urine.; The kidneys filter out the waste matter and mineral elements from the blood that passes through the organ.; These organs also assist in maintaining a constant water balance in the bloodstream by removing excess water molecules.; The resultant filtered materials are utilized to secrete the waste fluid called urine.; Stones in urine are defined by their location in the urinary tract.
The urinary tract is made up of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and finally the urethra.; Mineral elements that start to crystallize in the kidneys will at some point move out and travel to other organs situated in the urinary tract system.; While some may manage to get stuck in the ureters, these are usually the big-sized stones, the smaller stones will successfully pass through the ureters and settle in the urinary bladder.
Now in a situation where the bladder is not capable of emptying fully, like in the case of prostate enlargement, weakened bladder wall, damaged nerves responsible for the release of urine, or certain inflammatory conditions, etc., it will cause the crystals to grow and form large-sized stones.
Stagnant urine in an undiluted state will promote more crystal formations that can stick together to form one solid mineral mass.; This can obstruct urine outflow as well as irritate the bladder walls. Find here Complete Cause of Kidney Stone formation in the Bladder.
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What Do Kidney Stone Symptoms Feel Like
You’re probably already aware that passing a kidney stone can be incredibly painful. Perhaps you’ve heard someone compare the pain to childbirth. Or maybe someone mentioned their experience with kidney stones completely recalibrated how they rate pain. Ouch.
But while the most-discussed kidney stone symptom is often the pain where it’s felt and how bad it can get it’s not the only symptom to be aware of.
“Kidney stones are fairly common and often painful, but they’re also treatable and even preventable,” says Dr. Chris Kannady, urologist at Houston Methodist. “If you think you might have a kidney stone, it’s important to see your doctor as soon as possible since delaying care for a kidney stone can lead to serious complications.”
But, when all you’ve heard about kidney stones is how much they hurt, how can you tell if your pain might be kidney stone pain?
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Besides being painful, what arekidney stones?
Theyre solid formations of minerals and salts that crystalize in urine in the kidneys when concentrations are high. They can be as tiny as a grain of sand to pebble-size and larger. And they can develop at any age, from infants to the elderly.;
Although some stones remain in the kidneys, others travel through the ureter and into the bladder, explains Howard Abromowitz, MD.
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Whats The Outlook For Kidney Stones
The outlook for kidney stones is very positive, although there is a risk of recurrence . Many kidney stones pass on their own over time without needing treatment. Medications and surgical treatments to remove larger kidney stones are generally very successful and involve little recovery time.
Its possible to get kidney stones multiple times throughout your life. If you keep developing kidney stones, your healthcare provider may work with you to discover why the stones happen. Once the cause is found, you may be able to make dietary changes to prevent future stones.
How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will discuss your medical history and possibly order some tests. These tests include:
- Imaging tests: An X-ray, CT scan and ultrasound will help your healthcare provider see the size, shape, location and number of your kidney stones. These tests help your provider decide what treatment you need.
- Blood test: A blood test will reveal how well your kidneys are functioning, check for infection and look for biochemical problems that may lead to kidney stones.
- Urine test: This test also looks for signs of infection and examines the levels of the substances that form kidney stones.
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Stage 1 Of Passing Kidney Stone
The physiology behind this stage is that the effects of the inflammatory process due to the accumulation of deposits forming a stone, cause a progressive rise in renal blood flow and renal pelvis and ureteral pressure. This is the situational circumstance where the afferent arteriole, called the faucet of the kidney opens maximally to push the stone out of the kidney. Despite that, urine from the kidney can no longer pass to the bladder and as a result builds up and stretches the upper end of the ureter and renal collecting system.;This stretch activates sensory nerve fibres of the neuronal network located in the kidney and ureters.
This stage lasts for approximately 1 to 1 and half hours. The obstruction caused by the stone at the renal tubules classically correlates with the onset of pain or spasm. This is when a person presents at the casualty seeking medical care.
What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Stones
“A kidney stone is a hard mass that’s made up of minerals , certain salts and other byproducts. They can form when these substances accumulate in the area of your kidneys where urine is produced,” explains Dr. Kannady.
Kidney stones can be as small as the point of a pen or as large as a ping pong ball.
“Typically, a person doesn’t start noticing the symptoms of a kidney stone until it moves from the kidney into the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from your kidney to your bladder,” Dr. Kannady adds.
Kidney stone symptoms include:
- Sharp pain in the lower abdomen, typically on one side
- A burning sensation or pain while urinating
- Urinating frequently
- Feeling like you’re urinating incompletely or in small amounts
- Urine that is brown, red or pink, which indicates the presence of blood
- Smelly or cloudy urine
- Feeling queasy or nauseous due to the intensity of the pain
- Signs of infection, including fever, chills and vomiting
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Causes And Risk Factors
Kidney stones form when certain substances in the urine turn into crystals. These substances are often salts, but uric acid or other minerals sometimes form stones too:
- 80% of people with kidney stones have stones,
- 5 to 10% have uric acid stones, and
- 10% have stones made up of the mineral struvite.
Stones of any other substances are rare.
Usually, these substances are dissolved in the urine. But some medical conditions cause their concentration in the urine to rise, resulting in crystals. For instance, if the parathyroid glands are overactive, the level of in the urine will rise. Gout increases the level of uric acid. Sometimes, but rarely, the excess levels are genetic. This is the case if the stones are made of the amino acid cystine, for example.
Nutrition is a factor too: Some foods, such as rhubarb, contain high levels of oxalic acid. Offal may increase uric acid levels. These higher levels can result in kidney stones. The concentration of substances that can potentially form stones also increases if we don’t drink enough fluids.
One other cause might be a lack of substances that usually prevent the formation of stones in the urine, the main one being citrate. A citrate deficiency may result from chronic diarrhea, for example.
Certain medications can create favorable conditions for kidney stones, too either because they form crystals in the urine themselves or because they change the composition of the urine.
How Big Are Kidney Stones How Can They Be Removed
Have you ever wondered how big are kidney stones? Stones of > 5mm size are considered as large kidney stones.
Large-sized stones cannot pass through the kidneys without any medical intervention. If they are left to pass on their own, they may take longer time, about a year or more than that and there is a risk of complications. Large sized stones may get struck in the urinary tract and cause extreme pain and bleeding during urination.
The methods involved in the removal of large-sized kidney stones are as follows:
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Can Small Kidney Stones Pass Naturally
Kidney stones of less than 5mm are considered to be small. Small kidney stones can easily pass through the urinary tract without any medical assistance. 4mm size stones have 80% chances to pass through the kidneys in about a month, but 5mm size stones have 60% chances of passage in about 45 days.
To pass small-sized kidney stones naturally in urine, certain home remedies can be helpful such as increased fluid intake, increased water, lemon and citrus juice consumption and low salt, calcium and protein diet. High water concentration does not allow growth of kidney stones and they can slowly pass along with the urine. Read about passing of kidney stones with urine.
If you experience any pain in the lower abdomen during passing of the kidney stones, you can take an analgesic such as ibuprofen or any other painkiller as suggested by the doctor. Painkillers help in relieving pain and also speed up the process of passing the stone. Read about relieving kidney pain.
Symptoms Associated With Kidney Stones
When a kidney stone starts to pass, symptoms typically occur suddenly and without warning.;Sharp, stabbing pain usually develops in your side or back, typically right at the bottom part of the ribcage.;Sometimes, the pain will travel downward into the genital area.;Stones that have nearly passed into the bladder may be associated with an intense urge to urinate.
Stone pain typically comes and goes.;After an initial period of severe pain, you may feel better for a few hours before developing another attack.;Many patients will require medication to help with stone pain.
Nausea and vomiting are also very common and are often a reason for hospital admission during stone attacks.;You might also see blood in your urine.;This can be unsettling to many patients, but is generally not life-threatening.
The most concerning symptom during a stone attack is fever, which indicates that you may have an infection in addition to a kidney stone.;This is a potentially life-threatening combination and requires immediate evaluation and treatment.
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Kidney Stone Causes And Risk Factors
Both men and women can get kidney stones, but menâs chances of getting them are about double that of womenâs.
Itâs often hard to figure out what caused a kidney stone. But they happen when your urine has high levels of certain minerals. These include:
- Uric acid
If you donât have enough urine in your body to water down the high concentration of minerals, stones can form. Think about stirring up your favorite drink from a powder mix. If you donât add enough liquid — say, water or juice — the powder will clump up and turn into hard, dry chunks.
Things that can raise your risk for kidney stones include:
- What you eat
- Some medications like triamterene , a diuretic that treats high blood pressure; antiseizure drugs; ; corticosteroids; and protease inhibitors like indinavir sulfate for HIV.
Effective Treatment At St Pete Urology
At St Pete Urology, we provide a multidisciplinary approach to treating and managing kidney stones of all sizes. We have assembled a highly integrated team of nephrologists, urologists, radiologists and dietary and metabolic specialists to ensure comprehensive diagnosis, treatment and proper assessment of the risks leading to the formation of kidney stones. By applying the latest technology in treating kidney stones and a broad range of noninvasive and minimally-invasive procedures for removing small and large stones, we guarantee only the highest quality and successful treatment to all our patients. For more information, visit the St Pete Urology site.
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What Is A Kidney Stone Size Chart
Kidney stones vary in sizes. Therefore, as discussed above, the composition, their treatment and removal, time they take in passing through the urine, and their other characteristics may also vary based on their sizes. A kidney stone size chart is an easy way to tabulate and illustrate the important pieces of information about one or more of these factors associated with varying sizes of kidney stones.
A kidney stone size chart may show a correlation between possible treatment options and various sizes of the kidney stone. Another type of a kidney stone size chart may show correlation between kidney stone sizes and their compositions and so on.
Time Needed For Passing Kidney Stones
The size of kidney stones determine the time needed for their removal from the kidneys. Smaller the size of a stone, the faster it can pass through the urinary tract. For example, a 2mm stones may pass through the kidneys in about 12 days but stones of size 4mm can take about 30 days to pass out.
|Rare genetic disorder: increased cystine in urine||;|
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Can Kidney Stones Cause Bladder Spasms
A bladder spasm is a condition affecting millions of people around the world. Just as many also suffer from kidney stones. Both embarrassing and painful, kidney stones and bladder spasms may have a possible connection to one another.
While there are many different causes of bladder spasms, it may very well be kidney stones that is causing your complaints.
It is within your best interest to get medical attention as soon as possible if you have either bladder spasms or a kidney stone.
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- fever and chills
- urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
The kidney stone starts to hurt when it causes irritation or blockage. This builds rapidly to extreme pain. In most cases, kidney stones pass without causing damage-but usually not without causing a lot of pain. Pain relievers may be the only treatment needed for small stones. Other treatment may be needed, especially for those stones that cause lasting symptoms or other complications. In severe cases, however, surgery may be required.