Understanding Abo Blood Type Compatibility
All people have one of four blood types: O, A, B and AB. We are all compatible with our own blood type and possibly with others:
- AB patients can get a kidney of any blood type. They are the universal recipient.
- A patients can get a kidney from someone with an O or A blood type.
- B patients can get a kidney from someone with an O or B blood type.
- O patients can only get a kidney from someone with the O blood type.
When a patient’s potential living donor has one blood type, and the patient has a different, incompatible blood type, that donor would typically be unsuitable for that patient.
Fortunately, depending on the situation, we can often turn an incompatible donor blood type into a successful transplant, using incompatible blood type transplant or other approaches, such as our Kidney Exchange Program.
How Long Does The Process Take
The donation process depends on how many tests are required of the donor and how quickly he or she is able to complete them. The average donor work up may take six months or more for completion and may depend on test results, which may indicate additional evaluation is required. A transplant date cannot be set until the donor has completed the entire work up and has been evaluated by the surgeon. The transplant center does its best to accommodate the needs of the donor and recipient, but appointment times may be limited.
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Recovering From The Transplant Surgery
- After the transplant surgery, you will recover in the hospital where you will be watched closely. You will usually spend several days recovering in the hospital.
- In some cases, you may start making your own urine right away. Sometimes, especially with deceased donor kidneys, this will take a bit of time. If your new kidney is not producing urine right away, you will need to stay on dialysis until this starts happening.
- Your transplant team will adjust your immunosuppressant medicines, and watch you closely for signs that your body is accepting the new kidney.
- Usually the transplant team will recommend that you get up and start slowly moving around one day after your surgery.
- Once you have recovered enough to safely go home, you will be released from the hospital and continue recovering at home.
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What Is A Kidney Exchange
Paired exchange programs allow you to get a kidney from another donor who is not a match for their intended recipient. Paired exchange involves two living donors and two recipients. If the recipient from one pair is compatible with the donor from the other pair, and vice versa the transplant center may arrange for a “swap”for two simultaneous …
Special Programs For Deceased Donor Transplantation
Expanded Criteria Donor Program
Although the most commonly transplanted deceased donor kidneys come from previously healthy donors between the ages of 18 and 60, kidneys from other deceased donors have been successfully transplanted. The goal of this program is to use organs from less traditional donors more effectively so that more patients can receive kidney transplants.
Kidney Transplants from Less Traditional Deceased Donor Category
- Age 60 or older
- Between the ages of 50-59 with at least two of the following conditions:
Patients who are most likely to benefit from a kidney through this program are dialysis patients who are older and have a greater risk of problems, including death, while waiting for a transplant. Accepting a kidney from an expanded criteria donor may shorten the waiting period for a transplant. Patients who are considered for this type of transplant also remain on the waiting list for standard kidney offers.
Hepatitis C Donor Program
About 8% of patients on the deceased donor waiting list have the Hepatitis C virus. By accepting a kidney from a deceased donor who also had Hepatitis C, these patients could shorten the waiting time for a deceased donor kidney.
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Is It Possible To Decrease The Chances Of My Child Developing Antibodies To My Mismatched Numbers If They Were To Have A Deceased Donor Kidney First
What we can do is to put your child on-call for a new kidney, but only accept a kidney with your mismatched numbers excluded.
If you are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 and your child is: 1 2 3 7 8 9 then we can ask UK Transplant to put your child on-call, but not offer any kidney that has numbers 4,5 or 6.
Your child should not then make antibodies to any of your mismatched numbers but we can never guarantee this.
Blood may need to be given at the time of the transplant, and as blood cells also carry these numbers and the blood may have come from several different donors, your child may make antibodies to them. Some antibodies also react with more than one HLA number.
How Long Does A Donated Kidney Last
We always base our predictions on historical data, which on the whole shows an increasing lifespan of transplant kidneys with time. The lifespan will always be influenced by the donors age and their medical problems, as well as the medical problems of the recipient.
On average we would expect a living donated kidney to last over 15 years and a deceased donor kidney around 10-12 years. Of course, this is an average – some last a lot more and some less.
If you would like to become a kidney donor, register your interest using these forms available from the NHS.
To make an appointment with Dr David Game, visit his Top Doctors profile and check his availability.
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How Much Does A Kidney Donation Cost In South Africa
Kidney transplants are very cheap in countries like India, Mexico, and South Africa compared to European countries like Germany and Turkey. The costs of transplantation in South Africa can range anywhere between one and two lakh Rands. This can be converted to 7000 to 15000 US dollars
Living Donor Kidney Transplants
The first successful live donor kidney transplant was performed in 1954. The donor and recipient were identical twins. Since then, our understanding of donor compatibility and the development of immunosuppressant medications have greatly advanced living donor procedures. Today, approximately 75% of people who receive a kidney transplant from a living donor maintain their kidney function for 10 to 20 years.
Living donor programs allow a relative or a compatible unrelated donor to donate a kidney. Siblings have a 25% chance of being an “exact match” for a living donor and a 50% chance of being a “half-match.” Donor compatibility is established through blood tests that look for matching blood types and antigens. The overall health of the potential donor is also of critical importance.
Kidneys from perfectly matched sibling donors on average can function for over 35 years. Live donor procedures of all types, however, offer better outcomes than deceased donor procedures:
- Live donor recipients spend less time waiting for a donor organ. The wait for a deceased donor kidney in New York averages five to seven years.
- Immediately upon transplantation, 97% of live donor kidneys are fully functional, versus 50-60% of deceased donor kidneys.
- Live donor recipients face less risk of organ rejection.
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How To Find A Transplant Center In Your Area
To find a transplant center in your area click here. Select “transplant center by organ,” then select “kidney,” and then select your state. Contact a transplant hospital that has an exchange program. It’s always a good idea to check with your transplant hospital, or hospitals nearby. Contact other organizations which might help.
What Is A Paired Kidney Exchange
Since 2001, Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Transplant Center has participated in paired kidney exchanges. A paired kidney exchange, also known as a kidney swap occurs when a living kidney donor is incompatible with the recipient, and so exchanges kidneys with another donor/recipient pair. Two live donor transplants would occur. Suppose there were two donor/recipient pairs, Donor and Recipient 1 and Donor and Recipient 2:
- Donor 1 would give a kidney to Recipient 2.
- Donor 2 would then give a kidney to Recipient 1.
This kidney paired donation transplant enables two incompatible recipients to receive healthy, more compatible kidneys. All medically eligible donor/recipient pairs may participate in the paired kidney exchange program.
In more complex cases, additional donor/recipient pairs may be used. Participating in the paired kidney exchange program allows for a recipient to receive a better matched kidney, and helps other individuals who would otherwise continue to wait for a matched donor. Approximately 45% of donor/recipient pairs could find a perfectly matched donor by entering the national paired kidney exchange program.
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What Must Match Between A Donor And The Recipient
Ideally, blood types should be compatible. This is quite complicated, but in general, a person who has blood types O can donate to anyone – O is a universal donor. However, someone with blood type A can only donate to someone with blood type A, blood type B to B, and AB to AB. As for the recipient, a person with blood type O can only receive an O kidney, however, someone with blood type A can receive both an A or O kidney and someone with blood type B can receive both a B or O kidney.
- Paired exchange
In living donation, if the donor and recipient do not match, then apaired exchangecan be arranged. This is where another donor and recipient pair are found and the donors then donate to the other recipients. That way, everyone that needs a kidney gets one. In some cases a long chain of recipient/donor pairs can be devised so everyone involved gets a compatible transplant. In some cases, direct transplants can be organised despite incompatible blood groups. A special treatment to remove the blood group antibodies from the recipient will then be used in this case.
- Tissue matching requirements
Some people have other tissue matching requirements to ensure compatibility this is called HLA matching. In addition, from the recipients perspective a younger kidney is better than an older kidney, and, if someone is very big then ideally, they should have a kidney from someone of a similar size.
How We Make Abo Incompatible Transplants Successful
We are one of the nation’s leading centers for transplants performed between incompatible blood type donor and recipient pairs. More than 30% of the living donor transplants we perform are ABO incompatible. Our success rates for these transplants are nearly equal to compatible blood type transplants.
Our approach to handling these complex cases includes:
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What Blood Types Match
Blood typing is the first blood test that will determine if your blood is compatible with the potential donor’s blood. If the donor’s blood type works with your blood type, the donor will take the next blood test .
Kidney donors must have a compatible blood type with the recipient. The Rh factor of blood does not matter in a transplant.
The following blood types are compatible:
- Donors with blood type A can donate to recipients with blood types A and AB
- Donors with blood type B can donate to recipients with blood types B and AB
- Donors with blood type AB can donate to recipients with blood type AB only
- Donors with blood type O can donate to recipients with blood types A, B, AB and O
- Recipients with blood type O can receive a kidney from blood type O only
- Recipients with blood type A can receive a kidney from blood types A and O
- Recipients with blood type B can receive a kidney from blood types B and O
- Recipients with blood type AB can receive a kidney from blood types A, B, AB and O
How Many Different Blood Types Are There
A-positive blood is the second most common blood type in Canada 36% of Canadians share this blood type.
Patients who are A-positive and AB-positive can receive A-positive red blood cells and platelets. Maintaining an adequate supply is crucial.
A-negative blood is one of the rarer blood types only 6% of Canadians share this blood type.
A-negative blood type contains red blood cells that can be used to save patients with A-negative, A-positive, AB-negative and AB-positive blood types almost half of all Canadians.
This blood type is the third most recurring blood type in Canada only 7.6% of Canadians share this blood type.
B-positive red blood cells can be given to B-positive and AB-positive patients.
B-negative blood holds tremendous power only 1.4% of Canadians share this blood type.
B-negative red blood cells can be used to help patients with B-negative, B-positive. AB-negative and AB-positive blood types nearly 12% of the population.
AB-positive patients can receive red blood cells from donors with any blood type and 2.5% of Canadians share this blood type.
Donors who are AB-positive are considered the universal plasma donors because this blood component can be transfused to any patient, regardless of their blood type.
AB-negative patients can receive red blood cells from donors with any other Rh negative blood type only 0.5% of Canadians share this blood type.
This is the most common blood type in Canada 39% of Canadians share this blood type.
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What If More Than One Person Offers To Donate
Blood testing will begin with only three donors, to determine compatibility with the recipient. If you have more than three people who are willing to donate, they may contact the donor department to discuss their options. Once compatibility tests have been completed the recipient and donors must discuss which donor he/she will proceed with. The donor coordinator can help families decide which donor may be best for them.
Are There Any Side Effects Of Donating A Kidney
Donating a kidney is an amazing gift. Living donors are having an operation they dont need – it is mainly to benefit someone else. The risk of death is quoted as 1 in 5000. Of course, it involves a hospital stay and pain associated with an operation, and in the longer term, there is a small increased risk of high blood pressure and a small increased risk of kidney failure. These are explained in detail during medical consultations.
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Is It Worth Donating A Kidney
A large study of the long-term effects of kidney donation had good news for people who donate kidneys. Doctors reported that living kidney donors can expect to live full, healthy lives. Their long term survival rate was similar to non-donors and they did not have an increased risk of kidney failure.
Can You Live With One Kidney
- Living Kidney Donor Surgery
- 10 Things to Know About Living Kidney Donation
When most of us think about kidney donation, we think of checking a box on our drivers license in case of an accident. But you dont have to be deceased to donate a kidney. Being a living kidney donor is actually more commonand safethan you might think.
Living kidney donations save thousands of lives each year. What do you know about being a living kidney donor?
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What Blood Type Is Used For Kidney Transplant
You may have heard discussions about matching and kidney transplantation. There are actually three tests that are done to evaluate donors. They are blood type, crossmatch, and HLA testing. This blood test is the first step in the process of living donation and determines if you are compatible or a match to your recipient.#N#Blood Typing#N#There are 4 different blood types. The most common blood type in the population is type O. The next most common is blood type A, then B, and the rarest is blood type AB. The blood type of the donor must be compatible with the recipient. The rules for blood type in transplantation are the same as they are for blood transfusion. Some blood types can give to others and some may not. Blood type O is considered the universal donor. People with blood type O can give to any other blood type. Blood type AB is called the universal recipient because they can receive an organ or blood from people with any blood type. The chart below shows which blood type can donate to which.
Innovative Immune Modifying Techniques
The recipient will naturally have antibodies in their blood that will attack a kidney from a donor with a different blood type. It’s crucial to reduce the levels of these antibodies prior to transplant surgery. We use several advanced techniques to successfully modify the recipient’s immune system and block these antibodies.
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Who Can Have A Kidney Transplant
Most people who need a kidney transplant are able to have one, regardless of their age, as long as:
- they’re well enough to withstand the effects of surgery
- the transplant has a relatively good chance of success
- the person is willing to comply with the recommended treatments required after the transplant such as taking immunosuppressant medication and attending regular follow-up appointments
Special Programs For Living Donor Transplantation
Many patients have relatives or non-relatives who wish to donate a kidney but are not able to because their blood type or tissue type does not match. In such cases, the donor and recipient are said to be “incompatible.”
See also: National Kidney Registry
Live Donor to Deceased Donor Waiting List Exchange
This program is a way for a living donor to benefit a loved one, even if their blood or tissue types do not match. The donor gives a kidney to another patient who has a compatible blood type and is at the top of the kidney waiting list for a “deceased donor” kidney. In exchange, that donor’s relative or friend would move to a higher position on the deceased donor waiting list, a position equal to that of the patient who received the donor’s kidney.
For example, if the donor’s kidney went to the fourth patient on the deceased donor waiting list, the recipient would move to the fourth spot on the list for his or her blood group and would receive kidney offers once at the top of the list.
Paired Exchange Kidney Transplant
This program is another way for a living donor to benefit a loved one even if their blood or tissue types do not match. A “paired exchange” allows patients who have willing but incompatible donors to “exchange” kidneys with one another-the kidneys just go to different recipients than usually expected.
That means that two kidney transplants and two donor surgeries will take place on the same day at the same time.
Blood Type Incompatible Kidney Transplant
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