How To Diagnose Kidney Disease:
Comparing electrolyte levels in the blood and urine is used to decide whether the kidneys normally monitor and filter the blood.
GFR below 60 mL/min/1.73m2 for three or more months indicates chronic kidney disease.
What Is Kidney Failure In Cats
Kidney failure can be caused by a number of conditions that affect the kidneys and related organs.
Healthy kidneys eliminate waste from the blood, maintain a normal electrolyte balance, regulate hydration and calcium, manage blood pressure and stimulate production of red blood cells. If your cat experiences kidney failure, the kidneys are no longer functioning efficiently.
Stage 2 Of Chronic Kidney Disease
A person with stage 2 chronic kidney disease has kidney damage with a mild decrease in their glomerular filtration rate of 60-89 ml/min. There are usually no symptoms to indicate the kidneys are damaged. Because kidneys do a good job even when theyre not functioning at 100 percent, most people will not know they have stage 2 CKD. If they do find out theyre in stage 2, its usually because they were being tested for another condition such as diabetes or high blood pressurethe two leading causes of kidney disease.
Signs of stage 2 kidney disease
Other ways a person may discover they are in stage 2 CKD include:
- Higher than normal levels of creatinine or urea in the blood
- Blood or protein in the urine
- Evidence of kidney damage in an MRI, CT scan, ultrasound or contrast X-ray
- A family history of polycystic kidney disease
Treating stage 2 kidney disease
Regular testing for protein in the urine and serum creatinine can show whether the kidney damage is progressing. Living a healthy lifestyle can help slow progression of kidney disease. Its recommended that people in stage 2 CKD:
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Treating Kidney Failure In Dogs
While there is no cure for chronic kidney failure, symptoms can be minimized, and the diseases progression can be slowed down. Treatment depends on test results.
Maintaining hydration is extremely important in dogs with kidney failure. Dehydration occurs when the kidneys are in distress due to the amount of water that is passed out of the body. Along with providing your dog around-the-clock access to fresh drinking water, fluids may also need to be administered subcutaneously, a process that can be done at home. By rehydrating through fluids, you are essentially restarting the kidneys and aiding in the removal of toxic metabolites. Fluid therapy also includes the replacement of various electrolytes, especially potassium.
How Is Chronic Kidney Failure Diagnosed
There are two basic tests for kidney function: a complete urinalysis and a blood chemistry analysis.
A urinalysis is needed to evaluate kidney function. A low urine specific gravity is the earliest indication of kidney failure. An increase in protein in the urine also indicates decreased kidney function.
A blood biochemistry analysis assesses the function of various internal organs. Measuring the level of two waste products in the blood, namely blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine , indicates decreased kidney function. Tests to measure the blood levels of other substances such as albumin, globulin, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, and calcium, as well as the red and white blood cell counts are important in order to determine the extent of failure and the best course of treatment.
A recently developed blood test to assess levels of SDMA has been used to determine if early renal failure is occurring. SDMA concentrations increase above the normal reference interval well before serum creatinine becomes elevated. This will help your veterinarian provide treatment for your dog at a much earlier stage in the disease.
“SDMA concentrations increase above the normal reference interval well before serum creatinine becomes elevated.”
A dog diagnosed with low urine specific gravity as well as elevated BUN and CREA is said to be azotemic.
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What Can I Expect From This First Phase Of Treatment
There are three possible outcomes from the first phase of treatment:
1. The kidneys will resume functioning and continue to function for a few weeks to a few years.
2. The kidneys will resume functioning during treatment but fail again as soon as treatment stops, usually within three to fourteen days.
3. Kidney function will not return.
Unfortunately, there are no reliable tests that will predict the outcome. Each case should be treated aggressively and monitored closely. Even dogs that have severe kidney failure may respond favorably to treatment and resume a normal quality of life after treatment.
Angiotensin Ii Inhibition And Renoprotection In Animal Studies
As mentioned in the introduction, the causes and the initiating mechanisms of chronic renal failure are multiple, varying from major metabolic or cardiovascular pathologies , to inflammatory or toxic aggressions or even to physiological conditions such as aging. For these reasons several experimental models of renal disease have been developed trying to mimic the variety of initiating aggressions. As typical examples we mention the nitric oxide deficiency model, that is the equivalent of nephroangiosclerosis due to endothelial dysfunction, the model of unilateral ureteral obstruction that mimics conditions of pyelonephritis, the anti-GMB model that reproduces conditions of glomerulonephritis and the 5/6 nephrectomy that reproduces conditions of severe reduction of functioning nephrons.
Table 1 Reversal of Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis and Restoration of Renal Function
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How Is Kidney Failure Treated
Kidney failure treatment is determined by the cause and extent of the problem. Treating your chronic medical condition can delay the progression of kidney disease. If your kidneys start losing their function gradually, your doctor may use one or more methods to track your health. By watching you closely, your doctor can help you maintain your kidneys function as long as possible.
Your doctor may gauge your kidney function with:
- Routine blood tests
- Blood pressure checks
Because the kidneys serve such an important purpose, people in kidney failure need treatment to keep them alive. The main treatments for kidney failure are:
- Dialysis: This treatment helps the body filter the blood .
- In hemodialysis, a machine regularly cleans your blood for you. People often receive this kidney failure treatment at a hospital or dialysis clinic, 3 or 4 days each week.
- Peritoneal dialysis cleans the blood in a slightly different way using a dialysis solution and a catheter. Sometimes, people can do their treatment at home.
How Did It Start
This all began when Fionas grandmother was diagnosed with stage-4 renal disease. Rather than have her grandma undergo dialysis, Fiona and Duncan looked for another solution. After analyzing several peer-reviewed journals and other medical literature, they proceeded to medical trials. Fionas grandmother went through this organic program. In just 12 weeks, her condition improved significantly.
Within six months during her treatment, she transferred from stage-4 to stage-1. Fionas grandma lived on for ten more years before dying of heart failure in 2017.
The Kidney Disease Solution has treated more than 25,000 people globally since 2008.
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Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease: A Brief
The early stages of chronic kidney disease are Stage 1 and Stage 2. During these phases, the kidneys do not function to their full capacity. Though, they continue to perform their functions without any symptoms.
In stage 4, the kidneys have suffered severe damage while functioning at below 30% percent of the normal rate.
The glomerular filtration rate of stage 4 chronic kidney disease patients is 1529 ml/min. This indicates the quantity of blood your kidneys are filtering every minute.
In all, stage 4 is the last stage before progressing to stage 5 kidney disease or kidney failure.
What Are The Stages Of Kidney Disease:
At this stage, patients must take control of their hypertension and diabetes, exercise regularly, cut down on stress, and avoid smoking and alcohol.
Younger patients who reach the last stages of kidney disease are often at the risk of developing cancer.
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What Causes Kidney Disease
Kidney diseases happen when your kidneys are damaged and cant filter your blood. The damage can happen quickly when its caused by injury or toxins or, more commonly, over months or years.
- Glomerulonephritis. This type of kidney disease involves damage to the glomeruli, which are the filtering units inside your kidneys.
- Polycystic kidney disease. This is a genetic disorder that causes many fluid-filled cysts to grow in your kidneys, reducing the ability of your kidneys to function.
- Hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Kidney damage caused by chronic, poorly controlled hypertension.
- Membranous nephropathy. This is a disorder where your bodys immune system attacks the waste-filtering membranes in your kidney.
- Obstructions of the urinary tract from kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or cancer.
- Vesicourethral reflux. This is a condition in which urine flows backward refluxes back up the ureters to the kidneys
- Nephrotic syndrome. This is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage.
Summary Of Kidney Failure In Dogs
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are no longer functioning correctly. There are two different types acute and chronic kidney failure. Acute kidney failure happens suddenly, and if caught and treated quickly, can be reversed. While there is no cure for chronic kidney failure, symptoms can be minimized with fluid therapy and diet changes.
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What Medications Are Prescribed For People With Chronic Kidney Disease
Depending on the cause of your kidney disease, you may be prescribed one or more medications. Medications your nephrologist may prescribe include:
- An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker to lower your blood pressure.
- A diuretic to help your body eliminate extra fluid.
- Medications to lower cholesterol levels.
- Erythropoetin, to build red blood cells if you are anemic.
- Vitamin D and calcitrol to prevent bone loss.
- Phosphate binder if your kidneys cant eliminate phosphate.
If The First Phase Of Treatment Is Successful What Happens Next
The second phase of treatment is to help keep the kidneys functioning as long and normally as possible. This is usually accomplished with one or more of the following, depending on your pet’s condition:
A special diet – Nutrition is one of the cornerstones in the effective treatment of dogs with chronic kidney failure. The ideal diet for a dog in the advanced stages of kidney failure is lower in protein, low in phosphorus, and is not acidified. This type of diet helps reduce the amount of protein wastes or metabolic toxins that may make your pet feel sick and lethargic. In advanced kidney disease, a decreased protein diet will also decrease the workload on the kidneys.
Nutritionists have developed commercial therapeutic diets that are designed for treating various stages of chronic kidney disease. Your veterinarian will recommend the most appropriate diet, containing the necessary quantity and quality of nutrients for your dog.
A phosphate binder – Phosphorus is removed from the body by the kidneys. Once the filtration process is impaired, phosphorous begins to accumulate in the blood. Elevated blood phosphorus levels also contribute to lethargy and poor appetite. Certain drugs will bind excess phosphates in the intestinal tract so they are not absorbed into the bloodstream, resulting in lower blood levels of phosphorus.
“The second phase of treatment is to help keep the kidneys functioning as long and normally as possible.”
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How Is Kidney Failure And Kidney Damage Treated
If the initial problem that caused kidney failure is resolved and your kidneys are not severely damaged, they may begin to heal themselves. Otherwise, kidney failure is usually treated with changes to your diet, medications, and possibly dialysis or kidney transplants depending on the stage of kidney disease and rate of progression.
Your doctor will develop a diet plan for you that you should adhere to as much as possible. This diet plan will likely involve limiting salt and potassium as those put stress on your kidneys.
Usually, doctors will prescribe medication that helps to regulate the amount of potassium and phosphorus in your blood. These medications are not intended to help heal your kidneys. Instead, they help your body deal with the potassium and phosphorus that your kidneys have been failing to remove from your blood.
Live Well With Chronic Kidney Disease
Taking an active role to manage your CKD will help you feel better and improve your overall well-being.
Taking an active role in managing your chronic kidney disease can improve your overall well-being. Learn what you can do to feel your best.
Kidneys that work properly are critical to keeping you healthy. If you have CKD, your kidneys cant filter blood as well as they should, and this can lead to other health problems, such as heart disease and stroke.
While its not possible to reverse kidney damage, you can take steps to slow it down. Taking prescribed medicine, being physically active, and eating well will help. Youll also feel better and improve your overall well-being.
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Is This Stage Of Kidney Disease Serious
Stage 2 CKD is still considered mild in the overall progression of the disease, but it is more serious than stage 1. At this stage, its critical to make the dietary and lifestyle changes that your healthcare provider recommends. You must also take any necessary steps to manage related medical conditions that can complicate your kidney disease and cause faster disease progression if left unaddressed.
Testing For Kidney Disease
Tests to diagnose kidney disease include complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis. These blood tests will determine if your pet is anemic, determine white blood cell counts, measure blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes. A urinalysis is essential for the proper interpretation of the urea and creatinine values in the serum biochemistry profile and may also provide important clues to the possible underlying cause of kidney disease. A urinalysis will also determine the specific gravity, pH, presence of blood in the urine, and the amount of protein in the urine. An evaluation of the urine sediment will determine the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, bacteria, crystalline material, and cellular casts all of which provide information to determine the underlying cause of kidney disease in your pet. Further diagnostic tests may be recommended based on the results of these initial screening tests.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Failure
When your kidneys begin to fail, there are often little to no outward symptoms. Often, your doctor will find that you have early stages of kidney failure during laboratory tests or examinations for some other health condition.
If you do experience symptoms, however, they may include:
- Less urine than normal
- Water weight accumulation causing your legs, feet, and ankles to swell
- Feeling like youre going to vomit
- Twitching muscles
- Pain in the stomach or back
Who Are The Creators
The folks behind The Kidney Disease Solution are Duncan Capicchiano and Fiona Chin. They are both qualified Naturopaths from Melbourne, Australia. With more than 13 health therapists from their Melbourne clinic, theyve been able to help thousands of patients live healthier lives.
Duncan received from the Australian College of Natural Medicine his advanced Diploma in Naturopathy. He also has additional training and diplomas in Craniosacral therapy, Kinesiology, Homeopathy, and Nutrition and Herbal Medicine.
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Dog Kidney Failure Stages
The International Renal Interest Society has developed guidelines to help us better understand chronic disease, the diagnosis of this disease, the stages of this disease, and the best course of treatment and management based on the stage. These stages are based on tests such as blood creatinine levels, the SDMA test, blood pressure, and the level of proteinuria .
There are 4 stages of chronic kidney disease according to the IRIS guidelines.