How Kidney Stones Form
Urine becomes more concentrated as it moves through the kidneys and as water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream . Minerals and organic molecules that are dissolved in the urine can crystallize if the urine becomes highly concentrated. These crystals can stick together and form complexes with other molecules, particularly proteins. These crystalline-protein complexes are the main components of kidney stones .
There are five major types of kidney stones :
Calcium oxalate From 6080% of all kidney stones are entirely calcium oxalate or predominantly calcium oxalate with a smaller percentage of calcium phosphate.
Calcium phosphate Pure calcium phosphate stones are less common, accounting for 1020% of all kidney stones.
Uric acid Uric acid stones account for up to 20% of all kidney stones.
Struvite Kidney stones are made of struvite, which is magnesium ammonium phosphate, in 17% of cases. Struvite stones are associated with chronic urinary tract infections involving certain types of bacteria, and are up to three times more common in women.
Cystine Stones made of the amino acid cystine are rare in adults and more common in children, representing 13% of all kidney stone cases.
How To Prevent Kidney Stones Naturally
Anyone whos had a kidney stone will tell you that theyre one of the worst medical problems you can ever experience. Kidney stones are a common and painful chronic condition seen in otherwise healthy patients, and one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. About a million people in the United States are treated for kidney stones each year, and the prevalence in adult men is almost 12% and around 6% in adult women.
Stones are most common in caucasian adults between the ages of 20 and 50, and once someone develops a stone, they are far more likely to develop another stone in the future. Like most chronic diseases, the incidence of kidney stones has been increasing over the past 30 years. This is likely due to the variety of dietary and lifestyle changes weve made as Americans which arent conducive to good health.
Limiting Foods With Calcium Oxalate
Kidney stones can consist of many different compounds, including uric acid, struvite, and cysteine. The most common type of kidney stone involves calcium oxalate.
One 2014 study examined nearly 44,000 kidney stones and found that 67% were composed predominately of calcium oxalate.
Doctors usually only recommend restricting oxalate intake to those at a high risk of kidney stones or those with high oxalate levels.
Consuming calcium alongside oxalate-rich foods may reduce the risk of kidney stones by binding the chemicals together before they reach the kidneys.
Foods that contain high levels of oxalate include:
- grapefruit and cranberry juice
You May Like: Coke And Asparagus Remedy For Kidney Stones
Study Outcomes And Laboratory Tests
Patient information such as demographic and anthropometric data, past medical and drug history had been collected by physicians of Stone Prevention Clinic of Labbafinejad Hospital, as previously described .
Fasting blood samples were taken from patients and blood serums were separated for the analyses. The 24-hour urine samples were collected with hydrochloric acid 6N as the preservative. Serum 25 D and parathormone were measured by the electrochemiluminescent method . Serum or urine urea, Cr, Ca, phosphorous, sodium , potassium, uric acid, magnesium , citrate and oxalate concentrations were analyzed as reported previously -style and low-oxalate diets. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 63:456-63.). Relative Supersaturations of CaOx , Ca phosphate and uric acid were calculated using LithoRisk software , using measured 24-hour urine metabolites.
Add Lemon To Your Water
This is a natural treatment that conventional nephrologists have gotten right. While lemon water is often touted as a cleansing or alkalizing drink, the main reason it is helpful in reducing stone formation is its citric acid content.
Citric acid inhibits stone formation and breaks up small stones that are beginning to form. It works in a few different ways. Citrate binds with calcium in the urine, reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. It also prevents tiny calcium oxalate crystals that are already in the kidneys from growing and massing together into larger stones. It also makes the urine less acidic, which inhibits the development of both calcium oxalate and uric acid stones.
Youll need about a half a cup of lemon juice added to water throughout the day to get the same benefits as taking a potassium citrate pill, which is one of the standard pharmaceutical treatments for kidney stones. You can either take this all in one shot, or spread your intake of the lemon juice throughout the day. Try adding half a cup of lemon or lime juice to a 32 ounce bottle of water and sip on it throughout the day. If you prefer, you can also try adding apple cider vinegar, which also contains citric acid and is an alkalizing addition to your beverages.
Recommended Reading: Yerba Mate Kidney Stones
Causes Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones happen when your pee has a high concentration of minerals and other substances — like calcium, oxalate, and uric acid — that come together to make crystals. Crystals stick together to make one or more stones. Stones happen when your urine doesnât have enough fluid and other substances to keep them from happening.
A kidney stone can be as tiny as a grain of sand, and you can pass it without ever knowing. But a bigger one can block your urine flow and hurt a lot. Some people say the pain can be worse than childbirth.
A Providence Physician Provides More Insights On Causes Of Kidney Stones And How To Avoid Them
Congratulations! Youve gotten in the habit of working out. Thats terrific.
While the benefits of working out are undeniable, there are some things to be cautious about. For example, the jury remains out on some of those tablets, shakes, powders and liquids that promise to boost your stamina or provide other benefits. In at least a couple of cases, workout supplements have been linked to kidney stones.
While the research isnt conclusive, its worth bearing in mind as you move forward on your journey to a stronger, more durable body.
Read Also: What Can Cause A Swollen Kidney
Limit High Oxalate Content Foods
When preparing your kidney-friendly diet, you must limit foods and beverages that contain a high amount of calcium oxalates in it. Foods such as beets, nuts, berries, spinach, and drinks like tea possess a high amount of calcium oxalates that can lead to the formation of kidney stones and further cause difficulty in the passing of urine. It is recommended that you consume and combine foods such as yogurt, cheese and other milk products that are rich in calcium with foods that are rich in oxalates, like these, both will bind one another in the intestine itself and will prevent itself from entering the kidneys and forming stones there.
Are Bananas Good For Kidney Stones
Bananas may be a particularly helpful remedy against kidney stones, as they are rich in potassium, vitamin B6 and magnesium and low in oxalates. Studies have shown that consuming a banana per day can help reduce the likelihood of developing kidney problems.5 jui. 2021
You May Like: Does Pop Cause Kidney Stones
Increase The Intake Of Vitamin D & Calcium
Vitamin D is an essential nutrient required for the proper absorption of calcium in the bones. If the body is getting low amounts of calcium, it can certainly level up the number of oxalates. It is always beneficial to intake calcium from foods like cheese, yogurt, seeds, nuts, tofu, cottage cheese, green leafy vegetables, etc., and avoid consuming the desired nutrient from other supplements.
Avoid Consumption of Carbonated Drinks
Carbonated and caffeinated drinks like cola contain high amounts of sugar and phosphate, which can again boost developing kidney stones. These carbonated drinks are added with sucrose and fructose syrups that can elevate the risk associated with kidney stone formation. Not only cola but even canned and packed juices can also generate the same results. Try to look at the label on the packaging that carries the nutritional information stating the amount of sugar added to the product. Its a healthy pick if you try to include foods that have less sugar quantity.
RG Stone Hospital is the leader in the field of laparoscopy and urology and is well equipped with equipment of the latest technology, quality treatments and expertise that has the excellence of 34 years and withholds the Guinness World Record of treating the largest kidney stone of size 13cms. So, for all your urological and nephrological needs, RG Stone takes care of your health just like your family
What Foods Are Linked To Kidney Stones
Certain foods, when eaten in excess, can cause various kinds of kidney stones. Your diet may contribute to kidney stone formation if it dehydrates you, promotes the growth of crystal-forming materials, or both.
Note that not all foods linked to kidney stones are unhealthy, or necessary to avoid altogether. While its essential to eat a balanced, nutritious diet, you may need more complex, specific guidance from your doctor to prevent kidney stones while getting the nourishment you need.
Trouble foods for different kidney stones include:
Also Check: Can Seltzer Water Cause Kidney Stones
Does Vitamin D Increase Kidney Stones
Taking vitamin D does not increase the risk for kidney stones, the study found. Peoples age, gender and weight, however, may play a role in developing the condition. Previous research suggested that adequate levels of vitamin D might help protect against a number of diseases, including certain forms of cancer.
Factors That Increase Your Risk Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones often have no single cause, and several factors may increase your risk for getting them. Some of these factors are listed below. They include:
Lack of water
You need to make enough pee to dilute the things that can turn into stones. If you donât drink enough or sweat too much, your pee may look dark. It should be pale yellow or clear.
If youâve had a stone before, you should make about 8 cups of urine a day. So aim to down about 10 cups of water daily, since you lose some fluids through sweat and breathing. Swap a glass of water for a citrus drink. The citrate in lemonade or orange juice can block stones from forming.
Also Check: Is Pomegranate Juice Good For Your Kidneys
Is Ginger Good For Kidney Stones
Ginger has vitamin C, magnesium and other minerals that on regular consumption in the form of ginger tea can dissolve and prevent kidney stone formation. Ginger teas flush the kidneys and promote healthy blood pressure and also act as renal tonics to flush extra toxins and prevent bacteria build-up.
Can Vitamin C Cause Kidney Stones
Sandra Adamson Fryhofer, MD
Hello. I’m Dr. Sandra Fryhofer. Welcome to Medicine Matters. The topic: Vitamin C supplements may cause kidney stones, according to a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine. Here’s why it matters.
Vitamin C is ascorbic acid. Some people take extra doses of vitamin C to prevent colds. Some take even more to treat them. Others may take it for other reasons. But if you’ve ever had a kidney stone, you may want to think twice about taking extra vitamin C supplements.
This study looked only at men and followed more than 22,000 men for more than 10 years. It found that those who took high doses of vitamin C supplements doubled their risk of getting a kidney stone. The increased risk was seen only in those taking extra doses of vitamin C and not in those taking just a multivitamin.
How much vitamin C is too much? Well, that’s not exactly clear. This study was done in Sweden, where most vitamin C supplements contain 1000 mg per tablet. The kidney stone risk was highest in those taking more than 7 vitamin C supplements per week.
Why the increased risk? As we know, kidney stones are often composed of calcium oxalate. When excess vitamin C is excreted by the body, it is usually in the oxalate form, and this may lead to more stones.
No link to stones was found for foods high in vitamin C. The caution applies only to vitamin C supplements and not to vitamin C found in foods.
For Medicine Matters, I’m Dr. Sandra Fryhofer.
You May Like: What Laxative Is Safe For Kidneys
Prevention Of Future Stones
Once your health care provider finds out why you are forming stones, he or she will give you tips on how to prevent them. This may include changing your diet and taking certain medications. There is no “one-size-fits-all” diet for preventing kidney stones. Everyone is different. Your diet may not be causing your stones to form. But there are dietary changes that you can make to stop stones from continuing to form.
Drink enough fluids each day.
If you are not producing enough urine, your health care provider will recommend you drink at least 3 liters of liquid each day. This equals about 3 quarts . This is a great way to lower your risk of forming new stones. Remember to drink more to replace fluids lost when you sweat from exercise or in hot weather. All fluids count toward your fluid intake. But it’s best to drink mostly no-calorie or low-calorie drinks. This may mean limiting sugar-sweetened or alcoholic drinks.
Knowing how much you drink during the day can help you understand how much you need to drink to produce 2.5 liters of urine. Use a household measuring cup to measure how much liquid you drink for a day or two. Drink from bottles or cans with the fluid ounces listed on the label. Keep a log, and add up the ounces at the end of the day or 24-hour period. Use this total to be sure you are reaching your daily target urine amount of at least 85 ounces of urine daily.
Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
Eat the recommended amount of calcium.
Monitoring The Intake Of High Acid Foods
Highly acidic urine can increase the risk of uric acid kidney stones and make passing them more painful.
High amounts of acid in the urine also encourage the kidneys to reabsorb citrate rather than excrete it. Citrate is a compound that can help flush out calcium-based stones, as well as impair their growth.
Highly acidic foods include:
According to the National Kidney Foundation, almost 1 in 10 people in the United States develop a kidney stone during their lifetime. The risk is around 19% for men and 9% for women.
Most men experience their first kidney stone after the age of 30 years.
Recommended Reading: Does Red Wine Cause Kidney Stones
Green Tea And Catechins
Green tea and green tea extracts, which are rich in phytochemicals called catechins, have been shown to inhibit calcium oxalate stone formation . In an animal study, the flavonoids catechin and epicatechin were evaluated for their ability to modulate kidney stone biochemical risk factors. Compared with rats given no treatment, those that received catechin or epicatechin had lower kidney calcium and fewer crystals deposited in the kidneys. The authors of the study suggested the flavonoids may have protected the interior of the kidneys from oxidative damage that could initiate stone formation .
Another study, with laboratory and rodent model components, investigated the effects of catechin on calcium oxalate-mediated kidney damage. In the laboratory setting, catechin protected kidney cells from the oxidative stress ordinarily induced by calcium oxalate. In the animal component of the study, catechin appeared to protect rats from the oxidative effects of calcium oxalate .
Vitamin Cocktails May Injure Kidneys
Athletes seeking a competitive edge may turn to performance-enhancing substances, but people using these chemicals often experience tragic results.
A January 2017 review in Nefrologia described 16 cases of vitamin cocktail abuse by body sculptors.
These people injected a veterinary product with a mix of vitamins A, D and E, and all ended up in the hospital with acute kidney injury. Doctors restored kidney function in some, but not all, cases.
Vitamin cocktails can also increase the risk of vitamin-drug interactions. For example, a December 2014 report in Nutrition Research Reviews describes how vitamin E alters the effects of common medicines like cyclosporine A, warfarin and aspirin.
People with diabetes who have kidney damage may seek to restore their health by taking vitamin D, and researchers have shown that vitamin D may help hide diabetic symptoms. An August 2017 paper published in Drug Development Research showed that this nutrient increased insulin sensitivity in an animal model of diabetes, but unfortunately, the vitamin D administered also caused kidney damage.
Such a result is not surprising. Scientists classify vitamin D as a fat-soluble vitamin. It can, therefore, accumulate in the body and cause hypervitaminosis.
Read More: How Does Diabetes Occur?
Also Check: Is Aleve Bad For Kidneys
What Causes Kidney Stones
Though your urine normally contains some solid waste materials, theres usually enough liquid to dilute them, so you can pass them easily. However, if your urine contains too high a proportion of crystal-forming materials, like minerals and salts they may clump together and form kidney stones.
Calcium stones are the most common of kidney stones, but there are also struvite, uric acid and cystine stones. This results in the painful, burning sensation that often signals you have a kidney stone. It can also mean darker, cloudy, or foul smelling urine, pain in the lower abdomen and groin, and nausea and vomiting.
Many factors can contribute to getting kidney stones, including dehydration, family history, obesity, medical conditions , overuse of various supplements and medications , and diet.