The Role Of Adh In Pkd
ADH helped life evolve from oceans to land, eons ago. If it weren’t for ADH, many living organisms would be unable to withstand the harsh dehydrating influence of the warmer land surface under a blazing sun.
Produced by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus, ADH is a hormone that acts on the kidneys and makes them retain and conserve water. It is what makes urine look dark and concentrated when you have not had enough water to drink or spent a day outside in the hot sun. It can, therefore, influence how much water needs to be excreted and how much must be “recycled” to meet the body’s needs .
How does ADH fit into the discussion on CKD? Studies have shown that ADH is one of the major promoters of cyst growth in PKD. In other words, if you could somehow lower ADH levels, or block its action on the cysts, it might be possible to slow down cyst growth and the inexorable progression of PKD.
Thehealthsitecom Spoke To Dr Sandeep Kumar Mandal Consultant
Written by Satata Karmakar | Updated : March 10, 2022 5:31 PM IST
Polycystic Kidney Disease is an inherited health condition in which several cysts develop primarily inside the kidneys, causing the organ to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. They usually vary in size, and they can grow very large over time, if not treated. On World Kidney Day, TheHealthSite.com spoke to Dr. Sandeep Kumar Mandal, Consultant – Nephrology, Manipal Hospital, Gurugram, to understand more about this condition. Here is what the doctor has to say.
New Treatment For High Blood Pressure In Cats
Did you know that the kidneys secrete a hormone that regulates blood pressure? Cats that suffer from severe kidney problems tend to have high blood pressure that puts undue stress on internal organs, including the heart, lungs and retinas.
Oftentimes, they will require kidney medication for cats, like Amlodipine, to lower blood pressure. While Amlodipine is still the mainstay of treatment, sometimes it is not enough to lower blood pressures adequately.
If this is a problem in your cat, ask your veterinarian about a new drug called Semintra, which can help normalize blood pressure in cats that arent responding well to Amlodipine.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms
A Polycystic Kidney Disease can be both symptomatic and asymptomatic. Some of the symptoms of this condition may include:
- Increase in your blood pressure
- Kidney function impairment
- Flank pain Cyst infection due to cyst haemorrhage, stones, large size cyst infections
How can one diagnose this condition? Diagnosis is done by ultrasonography, CT scan, and MRI of the kidneys.
Can Kidney Disease Be Prevented
Seeing your healthcare provider on a regular basis throughout your life is a good start for preventing kidney disease. About one in every three people in the United States is at risk for kidney disease. Identify and manage any risk factors for developing kidney disease.
- Control your high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is 120/80.
- Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
- Eat a healthy diet. Follow a low-fat, low-salt diet.
- Dont smoke.
- Be active for 30 minutes at least five days a week.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Take nonprescription pain relievers only as directed. Taking more than directed can damage your kidneys.
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Who Is At Risk Of Developing Pkd
How to know if you are too, at risk of developing severe polycystic kidney disease? Here are some of the risk factors that can contribute largely to this fatal health condition.
What Is The Survival Rate Of Pkd
Although Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs in approximately one in a thousand live births, it is estimated that less than half of these cases will be diagnosed during the patient’s lifetime, as the disease is often clinically silent. Survival depends on the rate of its progression to kidney failure, which varies in families. Survival also depends on the extrarenal association of PKD like Intrarenal aneurysms.
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What Happens If My Test Results Show I May Have Chronic Kidney Disease
Your doctor will want to pinpoint your diagnosis and check your kidney function to help plan your treatment. The doctor may do the following:
- Calculate your Glomerular Filtration Rate , which is the best way to tell how much kidney function you have. You do not need to have another test to know your GFR. Your doctor can calculate it from your blood creatinine, your age, race, gender and other factors. Your GFR tells your doctor your stage of kidney disease and helps the doctor plan your treatment.
- Perform an ultrasound or CT scan to get a picture of your kidneys and urinary tract. This tells your doctor whether your kidneys are too large or too small, whether you have a problem like a kidney stone or tumor and whether there are any problems in the structure of your kidneys and urinary tract.
- Perform a kidney biopsy, which is done in some cases to check for a specific type of kidney disease, see how much kidney damage has occurred and help plan treatment. To do a biopsy, the doctor removes small pieces of kidney tissue and looks at them under a microscope.
Your doctor may also ask you to see a kidney specialist who will consult on your case and help manage your care.
For help making sense of your lab values, .
When Do I Have To Start Dialysis
For most people, the need for dialysis comes on slowly. Symptoms, such as losing your desire to eat and losing muscle, may begin so slowly that you dont notice them. Many people start dialysis when their kidney function is between 5 and 10. When kidney function is this low, you may have symptoms from kidney failure and starting dialysis may help relieve them. Starting dialysis can help you regain your appetite and maintain your strength, which is harder to rebuild than it is to retain. Your health care provider can help you decide the best time to begin treatment.
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Understanding Kidney Failure And How It Impacts The Body
Kidney failure interferes with the entire arrangement of the human body. The beginning of kidney failure depends on the loss of the kidneys.
One more name for kidney failure is renal failure or end-stage renal disease. As stated above, kidneys have functional parts that help with finishing kidneys everyday obligations. However, the focal obligation that is answerable for getting the entire equilibrium of the body is blood filtration. Kidneys are the filtering and disposing system of the body because the kidneys filtering units (the glomerulus and the tubules, filter the blood while eliminating the byproducts and excess liquids from the body.
Kidney failure is the last objective that records most instances of kidney disease. When kidneys become unfit to work as indicated by their functional order- filtration-reabsorption and disposal, this prompts hampering the kidneys filtering capabilities. A series of entanglements shows up as improper blood filtration is unhealthy to the organs of the body. Complexities like hypertension, aggravation, and waste products are stored in the blood. Different organs likewise face deterrents because of disabled kidney function.
There are two types of kidney failure:
- Acute kidney failure .
- Chronic kidney failure .
What Do Your Kidneys Do
You have two kidneys. They are bean-shaped organs that are located toward your back, on either side of your spine, just underneath the rib cage. Each kidney is about the size of your fist.
Your kidneys have many jobs, but their main job is to filter your blood, getting rid of toxins and excess salt and water as urine. If your kidneys are damaged and dont work as they should, wastes can build up in your blood and can make you sick. Your kidneys also balance the amount of salts and minerals in your body, make hormones that control blood pressure, make red blood cells and keep your bones strong.
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How Will I Know Which Medicines Are Right For Me
The only way to know which medicines are right for you is to talk to your doctor. Your doctor will choose medicines for you based on many factors, including:
- Other medicines you are taking
Talk to your doctor and other health care providers to understand all your prescribed medicines:
- Learn the names of the medicines your doctor prescribes
- Understand how each medicine works to keep you healthy
- Know when to take different medicines, such as before bed or after eating
- Know which medicines you can or cannot take together
Always talk to your doctor before you start or stop any medicines, including any vitamins and supplements.
Treatment For Kidney Disease
If detected early enough, the progress of kidney disease can be slowed and sometimes even prevented. In the early stages, changes to diet and medication can help to increase the life of your kidneys.
If kidney function is reduced to less than 10 per cent of normal, the loss of function must be replaced by dialysis or a kidney transplant. Dialysis is a treatment for kidney failure that removes waste products and extra water from the blood by filtering it through a special membrane .
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Stage 3 Kidney Disease Diet
Processed foods are extremely hard on the body. Since your kidneys are responsible for removing wastes and balancing electrolytes, eating too many of the wrong foods can overload your kidneys.
Its important to eat more whole foods like produce and grains, and to eat fewer processed foods and less of the saturated fats found in animal products.
A doctor may recommend decreasing your protein intake. If your potassium levels are too high from CKD, they may also recommend that you avoid certain high-potassium foods like bananas, potatoes, and tomatoes.
The same principle pertains to sodium. You may need to cut down on salty foods if your sodium levels are too high.
Weight loss is common in more advanced stages of CKD because of appetite loss. This can also put you at risk of malnutrition.
If youre experiencing appetite loss, consider eating smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day to make sure youre getting enough calories and nutrients.
Who Should See An Early Kidney Disease Specialist
You should be considered for evaluation in the Early RenalInsufficiency Program if you:
- Have modestly elevated levels of creatinine, a chemical used to measure kidney function
- Have a low glomerular filtration rate , which is a test used to determine kidney function
- Have diabetes with small or large amounts of protein in your urine
- Have high blood pressure with low-grade levels of protein in your urine
- View yourself at a high risk for development of renal disease
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What Are The Basics About Conservative Management
Conservative management for kidney failure means that your health care team continues your care without dialysis or a kidney transplant. The focus of care is on your quality of life and symptom control.The decision to start dialysis is yours. For most people, dialysis may extend and improve quality of life. For others who have serious conditions in addition to kidney failure, dialysis may seem like a burden that only prolongs suffering.
You have the right to decide how your kidney failure will be treated. You may want to speak with your family, doctor, counselor, or renal social workerwho helps people with kidney diseaseto help you make this decision.
If you decide not to begin dialysis treatments, you may live for a few weeks or for several months, depending on your health and your remaining kidney function. Many of the complications of kidney failure can be treated with medicines, but only dialysis or transplant can filter wastes from your blood. As your kidney function declines, you may want to consider adding hospice, or end-of-life, care. You can have hospice care in a facility or at home. The hospice program is designed to meet end-of-life physical and emotional needs. Hospice care focuses on relieving pain and other symptoms.
What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Kidney Failure Can It Be Prevented
The outlook for kidney failure depends upon the underlying condition that caused it. Kidney function may return to normal, especially if it is due to an acute obstruction and that obstruction is relieved. Other causes of decreased kidney function leading to kidney failure are due to underlying disease and occur slowly over time.
Prevention is the best chance to maintain kidney function, and controlling high blood pressure and diabetes over a lifetime can decrease the potential for progressive kidney damage. Chronic kidney failure may be managed to help monitor electrolyte and waste product levels in the bloodstream. Major abnormalities can be life-threatening, and treatment options may be limited to dialysis or transplant.
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What Are The Basics About Hemodialysis
Hemodialysis can replace part of your kidney function. In hemodialysis, your blood goes through a filter outside your body and filtered blood is returned to your body. Hemodialysis
- filters your blood to remove harmful wastes and extra fluid
- helps control blood pressure
- helps balance important minerals, such as potassium, sodium, and calcium in your blood
Hemodialysis isnt a cure for kidney failure, but it can help you feel better and live longer. You will also need to change what you eat, take medicines, and limit the amount of water and other liquids you drink and get from food.
Before you can start hemodialysis, youll need to have minor surgery to create a vascular accessa place on your body where you insert needles to allow your blood to flow from and return to your body during dialysis.
You can have hemodialysis at a dialysis center or in your home. Hemodialysis is usually done at a dialysis center three times a week, with each session lasting about 4 hours.
What About Prescription Kidney Diets
Most savvy cat owners know that their feline needs to eat a high-quality diet rich in protein, but what about cats with kidney disease? The old belief was to restrict protein in cats with kidney disease, but now veterinarians know better.
Feline kidney disease treatment often includes a diet consisting of highly digestible protein that meets or exceeds minimum standards, is restricted in phosphorus, and is high in omega-3 fatty acids.
Prescription cat food that focuses on kidney support, such as Blue Natural Kidney and Mobility diet, fits the nutritional needs of cats with kidney disease. The earlier you can transition your cat to a specialized diet for kidney support, the more quickly you can support your cats special nutritional needs and maintain quality of life.
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What Are Dialysis And Hemodialysis
Dialysis cleanses the body of waste products by body by use of filter systems. There are two types of dialysis, 1) hemodialysis and 2) peritoneal dialysis.
Hemodialysis uses a machine filter called a dialyzer or artificial kidney to remove excess water and salt, to balance the other electrolytes in the body, and to remove waste products of metabolism. Blood is removed from the body and flows through tubing into the machine, where it passes next to a filter membrane. A specialized chemical solution flows on the other side of the membrane. The dialysate is formulated to draw impurities from the blood through the filter membrane. Blood and dialysate are never touched in the artificial kidney machine.
For this type of dialysis, access to the blood vessels needs to be surgically created so that large amounts of blood can flow into the machine and back to the body. Surgeons can build a fistula, a connection between a large artery and vein in the body, usually in the arm, that allows a large amount of blood to flow into the vein. This makes the vein swell or dilate, and its walls become thicker so that it can tolerate repeated needle sticks to attach tubing from the body to the machine. Since it takes many weeks or months for a fistula to mature enough to be used, significant planning is required if hemodialysis is to be considered as an option.
Treatment For Kidney Failure
When you have kidney failure , it means your kidneys have stopped working well enough for you to live without treatment. There is no cure for kidney failure, but with treatment many people with kidney failure are able to keep doing activities they want or need to do. Talk to your doctor about which treatment is best for you.
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What Are My Treatment Options For Kidney Failure
You can choose one of three treatment options to filter your blood and take over a small part of the work your damaged kidneys can no longer do. A fourth option offers care without replacing the work of the kidneys. None of these treatments will help your kidneys get better. However, they all can help you feel better.
- Hemodialysis uses a machine to move your blood through a filter outside your body, removing wastes.
- Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of your belly to filter your blood inside your body, removing wastes.
- Kidney transplant is surgery to place a healthy kidney from a person who has just died, or from a living person, into your body to filter your blood.
- Conservative management treats kidney failure without dialysis or a transplant. Youll work with your health care team to manage symptoms and preserve your kidney function and quality of life as long as possible.
Doing well with kidney failure is a challenge, and it works best if you
- stick to your treatment schedule.
- review your medicines with your health care provider at every visit. You are the only one who knows how your body is responding to each of your medicines. Its really important that your provider knows which medicines you are taking.
- are active most days of the week.