Phosporus Restriction And Kidney Disease
Restricting phosphorus may be even more important for cats with kidney disease than restricting protein. We know that the high phosphorus content found in higher protein diets can accelerate the decline of function when it gets trapped in the work unit of the kidney.
There are two ways that phosphorus is reported in food. Look for 0.3-0.6% on a Dry Matter Basis or 0.7-1.26 grams per 1,000 kcal. Phosphorus content is generally not available on food labels, but can be obtained by calling the foods manufacturer. For easy reference, Dr. Lisa Pierson offers both a Phosphorus in Cat Food Chart and a Protein/Fat/Carbs Chart; on her site Catinfo.org.
Kidney values should be checked regularly, and the panel should include calcium and phosphorus levels. If the product of Calcium X Phosphorus is greater than 70 or Phosphorus is greater than 5 mg/dl in the blood, a phosphorus binder is needed. This binds the phosphorus from food in the gut rather than allowing it to be filtered by the kidney, which will often allow us to feed a protein replete diet that keeps cats well-muscled.
Does Kidney Failure Cause Pain
Normal functioning kidneys filter amyloid from the blood stream. In kidney failure amyloid proteins in the blood rise, and can separate and clump together forming amyloid deposits into a variety of tissue and organs, including joints and tendons. This can result in symptoms of:
- Patients who are on dialysis may have discomfort when on the dialysis machine.
Underlying chronic disease pain
- Pain is often a consequence of the underlying chronic disease that led to kidney failure, for example:
- People with poorly controlled diabetes may develop diabetic neuropathy pain.
- People who have peripheral vascular disease also may have pain in their extremities, and may develop claudication .
What Is Peritoneal Dialysis
Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of the abdominal cavity as the dialysis filter to rid the body of waste and to balance electrolyte levels. A catheter is placed in the abdominal cavity through the abdominal wall by a surgeon, and it is expected to remain in place for the long-term. The dialysis solution is then dripped in through the catheter and left in the abdominal cavity for a few hours after which, it is drained out. During that time, waste products leech from the blood flowing through the lining of the abdomen , and attach themselves to the fluid that has been instilled by the catheters. Often, patients instill the dialysate fluid before bedtime, and drain it in the morning.
There are benefits and complications for each type of dialysis. Not every patient can choose which type he or she would prefer. The treatment decision depends on the patient’s illness and their past medical history along with other issues. Usually, the nephrologist will have a long discussion with the patient and family to decide what will be the best option available.
Dialysis is lifesaving. Without it, patients whose kidneys no longer function would die relatively quickly due to electrolyte abnormalities and the buildup of toxins in the blood stream. Patients may live many years with dialysis but other underlying and associated illnesses often are the cause of death.
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There Is No Single Diet That Is Right For All Cats With Kidney Disease
We need to stop thinking that any one diet is good for all cats with chronic progressive kidney disease. The far more important question to ask may not be how much protein, but how good the protein is.
In addition, as cats have more progression of their kidney disease sometimes appetites diminish a bit. Since cats choose food based upon three characteristics: texture or mouth feel, aroma and taste, we must live by the golden cat rule: it is more important that she eats than what she eats. Attempting to impose our ideas about good food can imperil them should they not agree. Choose the best canned food your cat will enthusiastically consume.
Cats in the wild are wary of change. They will sniff a new prey before consuming it and if that food is perceived to cause discomfort or an upset tummy, they will NEVER eat it again. Some cats experience a bit of nausea from their kidney disease. It must be treated so that they dont associate that discomfort with the food you offer. If they do, that food will end up in the garbage along with any other variety you may select in the future.
Does Everyone Who Gets A New Kidney Have To Take Immunosuppressants
Almost everyone who has a transplant must take these drugs every day as directed. If your new kidney came from an identical twin, however, you may not have to take them. Even missing a single dose may make it more likely for you to have a rejection. The only time you should skip a dose is if your doctor or other health care team member tells you to do so. If you are not sure, call your doctor. Also, when you have a clinic visit, you should not take your immunosuppressant medicines until your blood is drawn for lab work.
Because of the large number of pills you may need to take each day, forgetting a dose is easy to do. You can do three things to help you remember your medicine:
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What Are Clinical Trials And What Role Do Children Play In Research
Clinical trials are research studies involving people of all ages. Clinical trials look at safe and effective new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving quality of life. Research involving children helps scientists
- identify care that is best for a child
- find the best dose of medicines
- find treatments for conditions that only affect children
- treat conditions that behave differently in children
- understand how treatment affects a growing childs body
Urinary System Parts And Their Functions:
Two kidneys. This pair of purplish-brown organs is located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to:
remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine
keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood
produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells
regulate blood pressure
The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units callednephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small bloodcapillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule.Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as itpasses through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
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What Is Dry Weight
What is dry weight?
Your normal weight without any extra fluid in your body is called “dry weight.” Extra fluid can be dangerous and cause extra strain on your body, including your heart and lungs.
When you have kidney failure, your body depends on dialysis to get rid of the extra fluid and wastes that build up in your body between treatments.;
When first starting dialysis, finding your dry weight may take a few treatments. Be sure to tell your dialysis care team if you experience cramping, dizziness, or nausea during or after treatment. These symptoms may happen if ;too much fluid is removed, or if fluid is removed too fast.
If you have too much extra fluid in your body, you may need longer or more frequent hemodialysis treatments. There is a limit to how much fluid can safely be removed during each dialysis treatment.;;
How is my dry weight calculated?
Your dry weight is measured in kilograms. One kilogram is 2.2 pounds.; Most hemodialysis patients are advised to limit their weight gain per treatment to no more than 1 kilogram per day between dialysis sessions. 1 kilogram may not sound like a lot.; However, when you think of it as almost 4-7 pounds of fluid that needs to be removed, you can start to see how important it is to limit how much fluid you take in ;between treatments.
How do I know if I am at my dry weight?
How do I maintain dry weight after dialysis?
What happens if I lose or gain weight?;
COVID-19 patients can become kidney patients.
What Is Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
It is a rare disease that occurs in 1 out of 700-1,000 individuals. Globally, there are over 12.5 million such cases, but only a fourth of them are believed to be aware of their condition.
Even so, as inherited kidney disorders go, ADPKD is among the most common. It is also one of the most common causes of end-stage kidney disease .
Numerous cysts grow in the kidneys, and the most common symptoms include pain in the back and between the ribs and hips, headaches, blood in the urine, high blood pressure, and kidney insufficiency.
Though a kidney disease, ADPKD can affect other organ systems leading to a multisystem disorder. Organs that can be affected include the liver, pancreas, prostrate and glands of the male reproductive tract.
The American non-profit National Organisation for Rare Diseases says ADPKD was earlier known as adult polycystic kidney disease, since it usually occurs in the fourth or fifth decade of life but it has been reported in children and infants as well.
ADPKD is caused by inherited mutations in one of the two genes that create proteins for the proper functioning of the kidneys and other parts of the body.
Even so, the precise role that these proteins play in the proper functioning of the kidney is not fully understood. Researchers believe they help in the development of tubes and blood vessels in the kidneys and other organs, and in increasing the flow of calcium through cell membranes.
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Why Does Kidney Disease Cause Weight Gain
Kidney disease doesnt just affect the kidneys, it affects the whole body. In the early stages, it can cause weight loss, while in the later stages it can cause weight gain. These variations are the result of different aspects of the disease. Heres some information to help you understand the issue of kidney disease and weight gain, courtesy of Dr. Allen Lauer, of Associates in Nephrology.
How Can I Tell If My Child Is Overweight
Being able to tell whether a child is overweight is not always easy. Children grow at different rates and at different times. Also, the amount of a childs body fat changes with age and differs between girls and boys.
One way to tell if your child is overweight is to calculate his or her body mass index . BMI is a measure of body weight relative to height. The BMI calculator uses a formula that produces a score often used to tell whether a person is underweight, a normal weight, overweight, or obese. The BMI of children is age- and sex-specific and known as the BMI-for-age.
BMI-for-age uses growth charts created by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Doctors use these charts to track a childs growth. The charts use a number called a percentile to show how your child’s BMI compares with the BMI of other children. The main BMI categories for children and teens are
- healthy weight: 5th to 84th percentile
- overweight: 85th to 94th percentile
- obese: 95th percentile or higher
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How Much Does A Kidney Weigh In Pounds
The average weight for a healthy, human kidney is 120-140 grams.1 pound= 453.59237 grams. So, the average weight for a healthy,human kidney is 0.26-0.30 pounds.
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How Much Does Your Skin Weigh
13 January 2011
You might guess the brain or lungs — or some other hefty internal organ — but you’d be off by a large margin. And that’s because the heaviest organ is not one that most people would consider an organ at all, nor would one expect it to be so heavy.
We’re talking about your skin.
The skin consists of three layers: the epidermis , dermis and subcutaneous tissue. The thickness of skin varies greatly throughout the body.For example, the delicate skin around your eyes is only as thick as a few sheets of paper; the pads on your feet are about as thick as a pencil eraser. It may have different characteristics in many areas, but it’s all one organ.
But skin isn’t all “fleshy” stuff. As an organ, skin is made up of everything that covers one’s body, including the nails and hair . In total, skin accounts for about 16 percent of a person’s total body weight.
Most adults’ skin weighs in at 20 pounds or more. Of course, the weight of skin varies depending on its owner, with skinnier people ‘s skin weighing less than their heavier brethren. If you were to tear off and spread out the average adult’s skin, it would cover approximately 22 square feet .
After the skin, here are the five heaviest organs in the body:
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Calcium Phosphate Stone Formers
From Systemic diseases
Primary hyperparathyroidism and renal tubular acidosis raise average urine alkalinity and foster calcium phosphate kidney stones. Many uncommon genetic diseases do the same.
Idiopathic calcium phosphate stone formers share a common set of traits. Perhaps because urine contains far more phosphate than oxalate, they form more frequent and larger stones than idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Often the stones originate as crystal plugs at the terminal ends of the kidney tubules.;More crystals deposit over the end of the plug open to the urine, to make the final stone. Crystal plugs damage the cells that line the tubules and cause local scarring.;
How Much Do Your Organs Weigh
Michael Menna, DO, is board-certified in emergency medicine. He is an attending emergency medicine physician at White Plains Hospital in White Plains, New York and also works at an urgent care center and a telemedicine company that provides care to patients across the country.
Organ weight is a complex subject. There are many factorsincluding body weight, height, lean body mass, and racethat cause organ weights to vary widely.
To figure out accurate ranges for organ weights, a lot more data need to be collected. Furthermore, this data needs to come from different types of people. Right now, such data are not routinely collected.
Organ weights used for reference need to come from forensic autopsies, which are usually performed in cases of suspicious, sudden, or traumatic death where a dead person’s organs are otherwise healthy.
Diseased organs assessed during hospital autopsies, however, shouldnt be used to determine reference values because the disease can actually affect the weight of an organ. Furthermore, the number of autopsies performed is plummeting, giving researchers fewer opportunities to access and assess organ weights.
Despite being poorly appreciated and minimally researched, organ weights and size are still used by healthcare professionals to determine the cause of death and disease as well as to guide certain treatments.
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Determinants Of Renal Weight
We applied a multiple linear regression to assess the associations between mean renal weight and the predefined variables sex, age, body height, body weight, smoking habit, known hypertension and renal blood degree. A log-transformation of renal weight was performed to fulfill the conditions of the regression. As shown in Table , a positive association was found between renal weight and body weight, body height and the degree of renal congestion. The analysis also demonstrated a negative association between renal weight, sex and the age at death. There was a difference between men and women: in men, renal weight slightly increased till the age of 52.5years, and decreased sharply hereafter. In women, the relationship was flatter and decreased gradually after the age of 50years . Renal weight was not associated with smoking habit or known arterial hypertension. The model included two interactions between the explanatory variables, respectively between body height and body weight and body height and age .
Table 3 Multiple regression analysis showing associations between the outcome variable renal weight and predefined clinical variables
How Can I Help My Child Develop Healthy Habits
You can play an important role in helping your child build healthy eating, drinking, physical activity, and sleep habits. For instance, teach your child about balancing the amount of food and beverages he or she eats and drinks with his or her amount of daily physical activity. Take your child grocery shopping and let him or her choose healthy foods and drinks, and help plan and prepare healthy meals and snacks. The 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines explain the types of foods and beverages to include in a healthy eating plan.
Here are some other ways to help your child develop healthy habits:
- Be a good role model. Consume healthy foods and drinks, and choose active pastimes. Children are good learners, and they often copy what they see.
- Talk with your child about what it means to be healthy and how to make healthy decisions.
- Discuss how physical activities and certain foods and drinks may help their bodies get strong and stay healthy.
- Children should get at least an hour of physical activity daily and should limit their screen time outside of school work to no more than 2 hours each day.
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