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What Are The Risks Of Kidney Failure

Native Americans And Kidney Disease

Are You At FUTURE Risk Of Kidney Failure? Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Native Americans are more at risk for kidney failure than some other races. Native Americans are twice as likely to get kidney failure as whites.

Diabetes is the #1 cause of kidney failure. It causes nearly 40 percent of all cases in the United States. Native Americans get diabetes more often. They are twice as likely as whites to have diabetes. About 1 in 7 Native Americans age 18 or older has diabetes.

Diabetes affects Native Americans differently. Native Americans are twice as likely to die from their diabetes as whites.

High blood pressure is the #2 cause of kidney failure. It causes about 1 out of 4 cases of kidney failure in the United States.

Native Americans get high blood pressure more often. Almost 1 in 3 of Native American adults has high blood pressure.

Almost 1 in 3 Native Americans is uninsured. If diabetes, high blood pressure, and kidney disease are caught early, they can usually be managed. However, almost 1 in 3 Native Americans is not insured. As a result, their health care choices may be limited.

For more information, visit the Indian Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Referral To A Nephrologist

Guidelines for referral to a nephrologist vary between countries. Most agree that nephrology referral is required by Stage 4 CKD .

It may also be useful at an earlier stage when urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is more than 30 mg/mmol, when blood pressure is difficult to control, or when hematuria or other findings suggest either a primarily glomerular disorder or secondary disease amenable to specific treatment. Other benefits of early nephrology referral include proper education regarding options for kidney replacement therapy as well as pre-emptive transplantation, and timely workup and placement of an arteriovenous fistula in those people with chronic kidney disease opting for future hemodialysis.

What Are The Health Problems From Metabolic Acidosis In Ckd Or Kidney Failure

  • Increased bone loss : Metabolic acidosis can cause a loss of bone in your body. This can lead to a higher chance of fractures in important bones like your hips or backbone.
  • Metabolic acidosis prevents the release of growth hormone, which is needed for proper growth.
  • Progression of CKD: As acid builds up, kidney function decreases. And as kidney function decreases, more acid builds up to cause more kidney damage. This makes CKD worse.
  • Muscle loss: Excess acid in the body causes muscles to break down, which is called “muscle wasting.”
  • High blood sugar: Excess acid can cause your body to resist the effects of insulin, the hormone in your body that helps keep your blood sugar level from getting too high.
  • Death: Studies have shown a link between metabolic acidosis and an increased risk for death.

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What Is Kidney Transplantation

Kidney transplantation involves placing a healthy kidney into your body where it can perform all of the functions that a failing kidney cant. Kidneys for transplantation come from two sources: living donors and deceased donors. Living donors are usually immediate family members or sometimes spouses. This is possible because a person can live well with one healthy kidney.

Are There Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease


Yes, there are five stages of kidney disease. The stages are based on how well your kidneys are able to do their job to filter out waste and extra fluid from your blood. The stages range from very mild to kidney failure . Healthcare providers determine the stage of your kidney function according to the glomerular filtration rate . Your GFR is a number based on the amount of creatinine, a waste product, found in your blood, along with other factors including your age, race and gender.

Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Are African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian.
  • Are over 60 years of age.
  • Have a long history of taking painkillers, including over-the-counter products such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

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Complications Of Kidney Failure

Dialysis helps to replace some of the work that your kidneys used to do, but it is not the same as having working kidneys. This means that you need to take extra steps to stay healthy. It also means that you may be at risk for complications of kidney failure. Some of the most common complications of kidney failure include anemia, bone disease, heart disease, high potassium and fluid buildup. Work with your health care team to prevent and treat these complications.

Prevention & Treatment Of Kidney Disease

Kidney disease is closely linked to high blood sugar, high blood pressure and smoking. The best way to prevent or delay kidney damage is to:

  • keep your blood sugar and blood pressure at target
  • avoid smoking
  • take your medications as prescribed
  • have your blood cholesterol checked annually and keep it at target
  • follow a healthy meal plan
  • exercise regularly
  • talk to your doctor about getting screened

If you’ve already been diagnosed with kidney damage or kidney disease, you may need to limit certain foods to prevent waste products building up in your body. Your health-care team may suggest you limit protein foods or foods high in potassium, phosphate or sodium. Controlling your blood pressure is also very important. You should see a registered dietitian for diet advice that is right for you.

In advanced or “end-stage” kidney disease, dialysis may be needed to do the job of the kidneys.

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Diabetes And Kidney Failure

Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. Uncontrolled high blood sugar can damage kidneys. The damage can become worse over time.

Diabetic nephropathy, or kidney damage caused by type 1 or type 2 diabetes, cant be reversed. Managing blood sugar and blood pressure can help reduce damage. Taking medicines prescribed by your doctor is important, too.

If you have diabetes, your doctor will likely perform regular screenings to monitor for kidney failure.

Dr Bridget Gibson: Kidney Disease Risks Symptoms And Prevention

Early nephrology care lowers risk for kidney dialysis, failure

Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of a closed fist, located on either side of the spine near the middle of the back.

Kidneys function as your bodys treatment plant, processing up to 200 quarts of blood each day and removing about one to two quarts of waste products in urine. Keeping your kidneys healthy is very important to overall health.

Facts about kidneys

One in three American adults is at risk for kidney disease.

Two simple tests can detect kidney disease a urine test and a blood test.

Your kidneys secrete hormones that regulate red blood cell production, calcium, phosphorus and bone metabolism.

Risks of kidney disease

Its possible to lose kidney function so slowly that you dont notice until its too late to reverse disease. Thats why its important to know if you are at risk.

You may be at risk for kidney disease if you are over age 60 or if you are obese, have have diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease or a first degree relative with kidney failure.

Certain races have higher risk factors for kidney disease: African-American/Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaska Native.

Symptoms of kidney disease

It is important to note that most patients have no clinical symptoms. Most cases are found with checking blood work and urinalysis.

At later stages of chronic kidney disease, patients can notice puffiness around the eyes or swelling of hands and feet can indicate protein in the urine or sodium retention.

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Dialysis For Kidney Failure

Dialysis artificially removes waste from your blood. There are two forms of dialysis haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is further broken down into two main types, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis .The choice of dialysis method depends of factors such as your age, health and lifestyle. Over 2,000 Australian adults start renal replacement therapy each year.

Can Kidney Failure Be Prevented

While kidney failure from chronic kidney disease cant be reversed, you can do many things to help preserve the kidney function you have today. Healthy habits and routines may slow down how quickly kidneys lose their functional abilities.

If you have chronic kidney disease or kidney failure, youll want to:

  • Monitor your kidney function, with your doctors help.
  • Keep your blood sugar levels under control, if you have diabetes.
  • Keep your blood pressure levels in a normal range.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Make healthy diet choices, such as limiting foods high in protein and sodium.

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What Is Peritoneal Dialysis

Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of the abdominal cavity as the dialysis filter to rid the body of waste and to balance electrolyte levels. A catheter is placed in the abdominal cavity through the abdominal wall by a surgeon, and it is expected to remain in place for the long-term. The dialysis solution is then dripped in through the catheter and left in the abdominal cavity for a few hours after which, it is drained out. During that time, waste products leech from the blood flowing through the lining of the abdomen , and attach themselves to the fluid that has been instilled by the catheters. Often, patients instill the dialysate fluid before bedtime, and drain it in the morning.

There are benefits and complications for each type of dialysis. Not every patient can choose which type he or she would prefer. The treatment decision depends on the patient’s illness and their past medical history along with other issues. Usually, the nephrologist will have a long discussion with the patient and family to decide what will be the best option available.

Dialysis is lifesaving. Without it, patients whose kidneys no longer function would die relatively quickly due to electrolyte abnormalities and the buildup of toxins in the blood stream. Patients may live many years with dialysis but other underlying and associated illnesses often are the cause of death.

What Are The Complications Of Kidney Failure

Managing Chronic Kidney Disease

Your kidneys do many jobs to keep you healthy. Cleaning your blood is only one of their jobs. They also control chemicals and fluids in your body, help control your blood pressure and help make red blood cells. Dialysis can do only some, not all, of the jobs that healthy kidneys do. Therefore, even when you are being treated for kidney failure, you may have some problems that come from having kidneys that donât work well. Learn more about the complications of kidney failure.

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Feeling Faint Dizzy Or Weak

Why this happens:

Anemia related to kidney failure means that your brain is not getting enough oxygen. This can lead to feeling faint, dizzy, or weak.

What patients said:

I was always tired and dizzy.

It got to the point, like, I used to be at work, and all of the sudden I’d start getting dizzy. So I was thinking maybe it was my blood pressure or else diabetes was going bad. That’s what was on my mind.

What Do The Kidneys Do

When blood flows to the kidney, sensors within specialized kidney cells regulate how much water to excrete as urine, along with what concentration of electrolytes. For example, if a person is dehydrated from exercise or from an illness, the kidneys will hold onto as much water as possible and the urine becomes very concentrated. When adequate water is present in the body, the urine is much more dilute, and the urine becomes clear. This system is controlled by renin, a hormone produced in the kidney that is part of the fluid and blood pressure regulation systems of the body.

Kidneys are also the source of erythropoietin in the body, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Special cells in the kidney monitor the oxygen concentration in blood. If oxygen levels fall, erythropoietin levels rise and the body starts to manufacture more red blood cells.

Urine that is made by each kidney flows through the ureter, a tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. Urine is stored within the bladder, and when urination occurs, the bladder empties urine through a tube called the urethra.

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Kidney Disease Effects: How Kidney Disease Can Hurt Your Body

The effects of Renal Disease / Kidney Disease, also known as Chronic Kidney Disease or CKD, usually begin with damage to a persons kidneys and other parts of the body long before the person experiences any symptoms of the disease.

The longer the disease goes undetected and untreated, the more damage will be done. For this reason, patients at high risk for CKD should have their kidney function tested on a regular basis.

Cytokine Storms Can Destroy Kidney Tissue

Who’s at Risk for Kidney Disease

The bodys reaction to the infection may be responsible as well. The immune response to the new coronavirus can be extreme in some people, leading to what is called a cytokine storm.

When that happens, the immune system sends a rush of cytokines into the body. Cytokines are small proteins that help the cells communicate as the immune system fights an infection. But this sudden, large influx of cytokines can cause severe inflammation. In trying to kill the invading virus, this inflammatory reaction can destroy healthy tissue, including that of the kidneys.

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What Is Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease, sometimes called CKD, is an umbrella term for several conditions that affect the kidneys, but it generally means permanent and usually progressive damage to the kidneys caused by a variety of conditions.

Learn Your ABCs of Kidney Disease

Johns Hopkins nephrologists Drs. Sumeska Thavarajah and Daphne Knicely offer a free educational class most months, from 5 6 p.m. at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. For more information, call .

Swelling In Hands Or Feet

Why this happens:

Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, and/or hands.

What patients said:

I remember a lot of swelling in my ankles. My ankles were so big I couldn’t get my shoes on.

Going to work one morning, my left ankle was swollen, real swollen, and I was very exhausted just walking to the bus stop. And I knew then that I had to see a doctor.

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Can Kidney Disease Be Prevented

Seeing your healthcare provider on a regular basis throughout your life is a good start for preventing kidney disease. About one in every three people in the United States is at risk for kidney disease. Identify and manage any risk factors for developing kidney disease.

  • Control your high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is 120/80.
  • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Follow a low-fat, low-salt diet.
  • Dont smoke.
  • Be active for 30 minutes at least five days a week.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Take nonprescription pain relievers only as directed. Taking more than directed can damage your kidneys.

How Do I Adjust To Dialysis

Learn about your kidneys

Starting dialysis often means creating a new normal for yourself and your family. Thereâs a lot to think about, from choosing a treatment option, to finding new ways to enjoy your favorite activities, to managing a new diet. The FIRST30 program is all about helping you through this period of adjustment. Here, youâll find videos featuring people like you, who once were new to dialysis, as well as a checklist of important questions to ask your health care team.

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What You Need To Know

You have two kidneys, located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Each is about the size of your fist. Tiny structures called nephrons are inside each kidney and they filter the blood. There are about a million of them.

The kidneys are responsible for removing wastes, toxins and extra water from the body balancing important salts and minerals in the blood and releasing hormones to help control blood pressure, manage anemia and help maintain strong bones. The waste and extra water removed by the kidneys become urine. The urine flows through tubes called ureters. It goes to your bladder, which stores the urine until you go to the bathroom.

When the kidneys are damaged, they can’t filter blood as they should. The result can be a build-up of wastes in your body, as well as other problems that can harm your health.

One in three American adults is at high risk for developing kidney disease today. Yet most arent able to identify the signs and symptoms. One in nine American adults has kidney disease and most dont know it.

At first, kidney disease is silent. Symptoms often dont appear until the kidneys are badly damaged. Many people don’t have any symptoms until their kidney disease is advanced. Blood and urine tests are the only way to know if you have kidney disease.

How Can I Prevent Diabetic Kidney Disease Or Keep It From Getting Worse

To prevent diabetic kidney disease or keep it from getting worse, you can:

  • Control your blood sugar
  • Quit smoking or using tobacco
  • Be active most days of the week
  • Stay at a healthy weight

Diabetic kidney disease does not happen fast. Sometimes it takes many years. This means that you can take steps now to help protect your kidneys. Even if your kidneys are already damaged, you can control your diabetes to help keep them from getting worse.

Control your blood sugar

Keeping your blood sugar in a healthy range can help protect your kidneys. Healthy foods, being active, and certain medicines can help you keep a healthy blood sugar level. However, you will need to check your blood sugar often to know how you are doing.

When you have doctors appointments, you will probably have a blood test to check your hemoglobin A1C. This is a blood test that tells your doctor how your blood sugar levels have been over the last two or three months. Ask your doctor what your A1C number should be. Most people with diabetes should have an A1C less than 7%.

To check your blood sugar at home, you will use a blood glucose meter . You can get a meter at your local drug store, hospital, clinic or online. Your doctor can help you find a meter that is right for you and show you how to use it. Many insurance policies will help pay for your meter and other testing supplies.

In most cases, people with diabetes should aim for a blood sugar level:

Control your blood pressure

Control your cholesterol

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