Filtration Reabsorption And Secretion
The Kidneys Are Retroperitoneal Organs In The Abdomen
The kidneys are located behind the peritoneum, and so are called retroperitoneal organs. They sit in the back of the abdomen between the levels of the T12 and L03 vertebrae. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney to accommodate the liver. Both kidneys are bean-shaped and about the size of an adult fist.
Hypertension And Kidney Health
Hypertension which is another name for high blood pressure is the No. 2 cause of chronic kidney disease in the United States. In fact, 80 percent to 85 percent of people with chronic kidney disease have hypertension.
Chronic kidney disease can cause hypertension; likewise, hypertension can cause chronic kidney disease. Regardless of which came first, its vital to have blood pressure well-controlled and to take medications that help off-load pressure on the kidney.
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How Does The Urinary System Work
The urinary system’s function is to filter blood and create urine as a waste by-product. The organs of the urinary system include the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra.
The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to;keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.
Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Kidneys also regulate the acid-base balance and conserve fluids.
What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Failure
In early stages of kidney disease, many people experience few or no symptoms. Its important to note that chronic kidney disease can still cause damage even though you feel fine.
Chronic kidney disease and kidney failure can cause different symptoms for different people. If your kidneys arent working properly, you may notice one or more of the following signs:
- Poor appetite or metallic taste of food
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Areas Of The Abdominal Region
The region of the trunk that lies between the diaphragm above the pelvic inlet below is referred to as Abdomen that is divided into nine regions by two vertical and two horizontal lines. Each vertical line passes through mid-point between anterior superior iliac spine and symphysis pubis.
The upper horizontal line meets the 10th costal cartilage on each side whereas the lower horizontal line joins the tubercles on the iliac crests.
The Transpyloric Plane that lies at the level of Lumbar plexus L1 passes through the tips of 9th costal cartilages on the two sides .
The Inter-cristal plane passes across the highest points on iliac crests.
How Many Endocrine Glands Do We Have In Our Body
The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body, they are still considered to be one system because they have similar functions, similar mechanisms of influence, and many important interrelationships.
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Where Are My Kidneys
The kidneys are small bean-shaped organs approximately 6 cm wide and 12 cm long and consist of two main layers an inner layer called the medulla and an outer layer called the cortex. Most people have two kidneys that are situated at the back of the abdomen on either side of the spine.
Graphic showing a section through the right kidney with the main structures labelled.
What Are Clinical Trials And Are They Right For You
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.
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Symptoms Of Kidney Disease
Each person may have different symptoms of kidney disease. Here are the most common:
- Frequent headaches
- Itchiness all over the body
- Blood in the urine
- Relieve swelling
- Protect your bones
Your kidney doctor also may recommend a lower protein diet to minimize waste products in your blood. Regular follow-up kidney tests may be necessary to see if your disease remains stable or is progressing.
I think I can confidently say that we all want to live a healthy life without having to worry about our kidneys failing, Dr. Young says. I believe the most important part of my job is to try to prevent further damage to the kidneys and try to help people live as long as possible, as naturally as possible.
Steven Baldridge, RN, is a staff educator at University Hospitals Samaritan Medical Center.
What Could Go Wrong With The Kidneys
When the kidneys are not working correctly, waste products and excess fluid can build up and the levels of sodium, potassium, phosphate and calcium are not regulated correctly. When these substances gather together, this causes the symptoms of kidney disease, which can include high blood pressure, excessive tiredness, fluid retention and possibly lower back pain.
Kidney damage can occur for a number of reasons diabetes, high blood pressure, infections and a group of diseases that affect the glomerulus.;The kidneys also need an adequate supply of blood, so if there is something wrong with the blood vessels to the kidney, such as a narrowing, this will prevent the kidneys from working efficiently.;
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The Urinary System Is One Of The Bodys Systems Which Helps Us To Dispose Of The Waste Products Naturally Produced Within The Body The Main Structures In This System Are:
- Two kidneys which lie behind the other major organs in the lower back area. They are bean-shaped organs and measure about 11cm long, 6cm wide and 3cm deep. They have 5 main functions, which will be discussed at a later stage.
- Two ureters which run from the kidneys to the bladder carrying urine.
- One bladder which collects urine from the kidneys, via the ureters, and stores it temporarily.
- One urethra through which the urine is excreted out of the body, allowing the bladder to empty and dispose of the waste.
Symptoms Of Kidney Pain
- A dull ache that’s usually constant
- Pain under your rib cage or in your belly
- Pain in your side; usually only one side, but sometimes both hurt
- Sharp or severe pain that may come in waves
- Pain that can spread to your groin area or belly
Other symptoms that can happen with kidney pain
The symptoms of your kidney pain depend on its cause. With kidney pain you may also have:
- Blood in your urine
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Where Are The Kidneys And How Do They Function
There are two kidneys, each about the size of a fist, located on either side of the spine at the lowest level of the rib cage. Each kidney contains up to a million functioning units called nephrons. A nephron consists of a filtering unit of tiny blood vessels called a glomerulus attached to a tubule. When blood enters the glomerulus, it is filtered and the remaining fluid then passes along the tubule. In the tubule, chemicals and water are either added to or removed from this filtered fluid according to the body’s needs, the final product being the urine we excrete.
The kidneys perform their life-sustaining job of filtering and returning to the bloodstream about 200 quarts of fluid every 24 hours. About two quarts are removed from the body in the form of urine, and about 198 quarts are recovered. The urine we excrete has been stored in the bladder for anywhere from 1 to 8 hours.
Kidney And Urinary System Parts And Their Functions
Two kidneys.;This pair of purplish-brown organs;is located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. Their function is to:
Remove waste products and drugs from the body
Balance the body’s fluids
Release hormones to regulate blood pressure
Control production of red blood cells
The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
Two sphincter muscles.;These circular muscles;help keep urine from leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder.
Nerves in the bladder.;The nerves alert a person when it is time to urinate, or empty the bladder.
Urethra.;This tube allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.
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Causes Of Kidney Pain
Kidney pain has many possible causes. These organs are connected to others like your bladder and ureters, where you store and get rid of urine.
Kidney stones. Intense, sudden, stabbing pain may be a kidney stone. These are mineral deposits that can grow large enough to block a ureter, a tube that connects your kidney and bladder. If that happens, you’ll feel sharp pain or cramps in your back or side. It can also spread out to your groin. As you try to pee out the stone, you might feel waves of pain.
Kidney infection. Also called pyelonephritis, this infection could cause discomfort in one or both kidneys. You may feel pain in your back, in your side or both sides under your ribs, or in your groin. You’ll also have a fever. Urinary tract infections also cause discomfort in this organ.
Kidney swelling. This condition, called hydronephrosis, can happen if your kidneys are blocked. Your urine can’t drain the way it should and builds up in your kidneys. This can happen in one or both kidneys and sometimes it causes pain.
Kidney cysts. You may not feel a simple kidney cyst until it grows larger. Once it gets big, you might feel a dull pain in your side or back, or feel pain in the upper part of your belly.
Polycystic kidney disease. This genetic disease causes many cysts to grow in your kidneys. They may cause you to feel a pain in your back or side.
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Can Kidney Be An Endocrine Organ
Can kidney be an endocrine organ? Thus, the kidney is a prime endocrine target organ, apart from stimulating hormone production in nonrenal sites. Angiotensin-converting enzyme is present in abundance in the proximal tubule brush border of the kidney, as well as other sites.
Is kidney exocrine or endocrine?;The kidney is traditionally regarded as an exocrine gland, producing urine to regulate body fluid volumes and composition and to excrete nitrogenous wastes. In addition to these functions, it is now recognized that a number of hormones are produced within the kidney that have local and systemic actions.
Is the kidney a primary endocrine organ?;Organs such as the pancreas also secrete hormones as part of the endocrine system. Secondary endocrine organs include the gonads, kidneys, and thymus.
What endocrine organ is associated with the kidney?;Adrenal gland.
An adrenal gland is located on top of each kidney. Like many glands, the adrenal glands work hand-in-hand with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The adrenal glands make and release corticosteroid hormones and epinephrine that maintain blood pressure and regulate metabolism.
What Is The Function Of Our Kidneys
The kidneys are a very important organ in the body. They;are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist, located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your;spine. The kidneys are responsible for getting rid of waste products, drugs, and toxins through our urine.
Your kidneys also:
- Regulate amount of fluid within the body
- Help regulate blood pressure
- Produce hormones that affect blood and bones
- A kidney is composed of tiny units called nephrons
- Nephrons consist of glomeruli and tubules
- Glomeruli are small blood vessels that filter wastes and excess fluids
- Tubules collect the waste to form urine
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How Does Blood Flow Through My Kidneys
Blood flows into your kidney through the renalartery. This large blood vessel branches into smaller and smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephrons. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the tiny blood vessels of the glomeruli and then flows out of your kidney through the renal vein.
Your blood circulates through your kidneys many times a day. In a single day, your kidneys filter about 150 quarts of blood. Most of the water and other substances that filter through your glomeruli are returned to your blood by the tubules. Only 1 to 2 quarts become urine.
What Are Some Of The Causes Of Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is defined as having some type of kidney abnormality, or “marker”, such as protein in the urine and having decreased kidney function for three months or longer.
There are many causes of chronic kidney disease. The kidneys may be affected by diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Some kidney conditions are inherited .
Others are congenital; that is, individuals may be born with an abnormality that can affect their kidneys. The following are some of the most common types and causes of kidney damage.
Diabetes is a disease in which your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use normal amounts of insulin properly. This results in a high blood sugar level, which can cause problems in many parts of your body. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease.
High blood pressure is another common cause of kidney disease and other complications such as heart attacks and strokes. High blood pressure occurs when the force of blood against your artery walls increases. When high blood pressure is controlled, the risk of complications such as chronic kidney disease is decreased.
Glomerulonephritis is a disease that causes inflammation of the kidney’s tiny filtering units called the glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis may happen suddenly, for example, after a strep throat, and the individual may get well again.However, the disease may develop slowly over several years and it may cause progressive loss of kidney function.
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Where Are The Kidneys And Urinary Tract Situated
The two kidneys lie to the sides of the upper tummy , behind the intestines and either side of the spine. Each kidney is about the size of a large orange but bean-shaped. The ureters descend through the abdomen, one from each kidney, into the pelvis. Here they enter the bladder. The urethra is the tube leading from the floor of the bladder to the outside. A woman’s urethra is much shorter than a man’s. This may be why women are more likely to have urinary tract infections, as germs have less far to travel to cause an infection. In a man the urethra passes through the prostate gland and then through the penis. It also has several other glands associated with it. See separate leaflet called The Male Reproductive System for more details.