Can Children Get Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are found in children as young as 5 years. In fact, this problem is so common in children that some hospitals conduct ‘stone’ clinics for pediatric patients. The increase in the United States has been attributed to several factors, mostly related to food choices. The two most important reasons are not drinking enough fluids and eating foods that are high in salt. Kids should eat less salty potato chips and French fries. There are other salty foods: sandwich meats, canned soups, packaged meals, and even some sports drinks. Sodas and other sweetened beverages can also increase the risk of stones if they contain high fructose corn syrup.
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Causes Of Kidney Stones
A kidney stone can form when substances such as calcium, oxalate, cystine or uric acid are at high levels in the urine, although stones can form even if these chemicals are at normal levels.
Medications used for treating some medical conditions such as kidney disease, cancer or HIV can also increase your risk of developing kidney stones.;;
A small number of people get kidney stones because of certain medical conditions that lead to high levels of calcium, oxalate, cystine or uric acid in the body.;
Where Do Kidney Stones Come From
Kidney stones form develop when certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, become concentrated enough to form crystals in your kidneys. The crystals grow larger into “stones.” About 80% to 85% of kidney stones are made of calcium. The rest are uric acid stones, which form in people with low urine pH levels.
After stones form in the kidneys, they can dislodge and pass down the ureter, blocking the flow of urine. The result is periods of severe pain, including flank pain , sometimes with blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting. As the stones pass down the ureter toward the bladder, they may cause frequent urination, bladder pressure, or pain in the groin.
“If you experience any of these symptoms, see your primary care physician,” says Dr. Eisner. “He or she will likely perform a urinalysis and a renal ultrasound, abdominal x-ray, or CT scan to confirm kidney stones are the source of your pain and determine their size and number.”
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How Can I Prevent Kidney Stones
There are several ways to decrease your risk of kidney stones, including:
- Drink water. Drink at least six to eight 8-ounce glasses every day . Staying hydrated helps you urinate more often, which helps flush away the buildup of the substances that cause kidney stones. If you sweat a lot, be sure to drink even more.
- Limit salt. Eat less sodium. You may want to connect with a dietician for help with planning what foods you eat.
- Lose weight. If youre overweight, try to lose some pounds. Talk to your healthcare provider about an ideal weight.
- Take prescriptions. Your healthcare provider may prescribe some medications that help prevent kidney stones. The type of medication may depend on the type of stones you get.
Are There Any Foods Or Drinks That Help Treat Kidney Stones Are There Any Home Remedies
There are three liquids rumored to help with kidney stones:
- Cranberry juice. Although cranberry juice can help prevent urinary tract infections , it doesnt help with kidney stones.
- Apple cider vinegar. Vinegar is acidic and it can sometimes create changes to your urine, which helps with kidney stones. But, this doesnt always help. Talk to your healthcare provider about the use of vinegar.
- Lemon juice. Lemon juice is rich in citrate, which can help prevent kidney stones from forming. Citrates are found in several citrus fruits including lemons, limes, oranges and melons.
- Coffee. Studies show that coffee may decrease your risk of developing kidney stones.
Avoid soda and other drinks with added sugar or fructose corn syrup. They increase your risk.
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Is There Any Way To Make Them Pass Faster
The best home remedy to encourage the stone to pass is to drink lots of fluids, especially plain water and citrus juices such as orange or grapefruit. The extra fluid causes you to urinate more, which helps the stone move and keeps it from growing. You should aim for at least 2 to 3 quarts of water per day.
Smaller stones are more likely to pass on their own, so you should take steps to keep the stone from growing. This includes eating a diet thats low in salt, calcium, and protein.
However, you need all of these for your body to function properly, so talk with your doctor about an appropriate diet to help you pass the stone.
Passing a kidney stone can be very painful. Taking pain medication such as ibuprofen wont speed up the process, but it can make you a lot more comfortable while passing the stone. A heating pad can also help.
If you have a fever, significant nausea, or are unable to keep down liquids without vomiting, you should seek medical care.
Likewise, if you have only one kidney or known kidney problems or damage, see a doctor immediately.
An infected kidney stone is a surgical emergency. If you notice any signs of infection, go to the hospital.
How Common Are Kidney Stones
Researchers have concluded that about one in ten people will get a kidney stone during their lifetime. Kidney stones in children are far less common than in adults but they occur for the same reasons. Theyre four times more likely to occur in children with asthma than in children who dont have asthma.
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Types Of Kidney Stones
There are four major types of kidney stones, including:
- stones formed from calcium not used by the bones and muscles, combined with oxalate or phosphate these are the most common kidney stones
- stones containing magnesium and the waste product ammonia these are called struvite stones and form after urine infections
- uric acid stones these are often caused by eating very large amounts of protein foods
- cystine stones these are rare and hereditary.
F Grading The Evidence For Each Key Question
The overall strength of evidence for the RCTs will be evaluated by using methods developed by the AHRQs Evidence-based Practice Center Program as outlined in the Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews.35 For each of several important clinical outcomes within each comparison evaluated, the strength of the evidence will be evaluated based on four required domains: 1) risk of bias ; 2) consistency ; 3) directness ; and 4) precision . The risk of biasbased on study design and conductwill be rated low, medium, or high. Consistency will be rated as consistent, inconsistent, or unknown/not applicable . Directness will be rated as either direct or indirect, and precision will be rated as either precise or imprecise. A precise estimate is one that would yield a clinically meaningful conclusion. Other factors that may be considered in assessing strength of evidence include the dose-response relationship, the presence of confounders, the strength of association, and publication bias.
Based on these factors, the overall evidence will be rated as:
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Pain With Chronic Obstruction
If a stone fails to pass and obstructs for days, pain may get better. It does not so much magically disappear as fade. If under surveillance, physicians will tend to the problem. Sometimes, colic will gradually subside, no images made, and things simply go by with missed obstruction. This can destroy a kidney. So, if pain seems like a stone, one needs a physician to oversee matters. They will do images perhaps ultrasound and keep things safe.
How To Pass Kidney Stones
If you get a kidney stone, youll want to try to encourage your body to pass it naturally. Some people experience a lot of discomfort, while others feel nothing. Its better to be prepared for some discomfort, as most people do feel pain while passing kidney stones. If you experience a lot of pain, but still have relatively small stones, your doctor may be able to prescribe something to help. Regardless, there are a few things you can do to help encourage natural passage through your urethra.
The most important thing when passing, and preventing, kidney stones is to stay hydrated. When you stay hydrated, you discourage mineral build-up and help keep your urethra clear and free of infection. If you absolutely hate the thought of drinking plain water, try adding some lemon, lime, or other citrus fruits. Citrus has been shown to help break up kidney stones and make passing easier.1
Eat Diuretic Foods
Increasing the number diuretic foods that you eat will keep your body hydrated through food. Consider adding asparagus, beets, celery, cucumbers, watermelon and other diuretic foods to your regular diet.
Try Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple cider vinegar is primarily composed of acetic acid, which helps to actively dissolve kidney stones.3 Try adding it to your water, creating dressings, or mixing it into recipes for the best results.;
Mix Lemon Juice and Olive Oil
When to See a Doctor
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Ureteroscopy with Laser Lithotripsy
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Dietary Calcium And Kidney Stones
Only lower your calcium intake below that of a normal diet if instructed by your doctor. Decreased calcium intake is only necessary in some cases where absorption of calcium from the bowel is high.;
A low-calcium diet has not been shown to be useful in preventing the recurrence of kidney stones and may worsen the problem of weak bones. People with calcium-containing stones may be at greater risk of developing weak bones and osteoporosis. Discuss this risk with your doctor.
What Does Active Mean
Stone activity means new stones are forming or preexistent stones are growing. Obviously, any new stones means at some time or other the stone disease was active. But we use stone counts and growth to determine the need for and achievements of prevention efforts. So active or not is always placed in time, of which I can distinguish three periods: Remote, pre-treatment, and during treatment.
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Is It Safe To Have Another Lithotripsy
;Answered by: ;Dr Ashutosh Singh;; |;Consultant Nephrologist, Knoxville, USA
Q:;Within the last 17 years I have had 20 lithotripsy surgeries and I have a stone that is the size of 11 mm. Is it safe to have another lithotripsy? I was told you can only have so many lithotripsy surgeries, is this true?
A:Extra-corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy , a technique used to treat kidney and ureteric stones are known to be a safe procedure with no known established long-term side effects. However, it is important to mention here that, some studies both in animals and humans have pointed towards a small and an insignificant risk for a reversible damage to the parenchyma of the kidney, minimal impairment of kidney function and an insignificant rise in blood pressure. But most of these studies have had shortcomings in their conclusion, making it still debatable about the definite long term risks of ESWL. Some believe that changes in the technique of the shock wave parameters including the rate, intensity and focal positioning of the shock waves may help in minimizing these effects. My advice would be to undertake a repeat metabolic and chemical analysis of the recurrent forming stones and the 24-hour urine studies which would help in redefining your continued medical treatment. All of these are intended to reduce the chances of recurrent stone formation thereby minimizing the need for repeated surgical interventions.
What You Need To Know About Kidney Stones
Aug 07, 2019Cedars-Sinai Staff
Passing a kidney stone is said to be some of the most severe physical pain a person can experience.
You may picture someone passing a kidney stone in excruciating pain while a small rock moves through their bladder, but according to;Dr. Brian Benway, director of the Comprehensive Kidney Stone Program, pain peaks much earlier in the stone’s journey.
Nothing subtle about a kidney stone
“Contrary to popular belief, passing a kidney stone once it reaches the bladder isn’t the painful part,” says Dr. Benway.;
The pain usually starts once the stone has migrated from the kidney into the ureter, the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
“Basically, for the first-timer with a kidney stone, the symptoms are not subtle.”
“The pain is usually sudden and quite severe on one side of your back and it can cause immediate nausea and vomiting,” says Dr. Benway
“Basically, for the first-timer with a kidney stone, the symptoms are not subtle.”
This sudden pain will begin to ebb and flow after the first few hours, gradually getting better after a few days. Dr. Benway says you shouldn’t wait for the pain to easeseek evaluation right away.;;
“Along with pain, kidney stones can sometimes be associated with infection, which will present itself as a fever,” he says.
“Go to the ER right away if you have strong pain with nausea or fever.”
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Treating the stone
Capturing the stone
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Multiple Kidney Stones In Both Kidneys
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Prevention Of Recurrent Stone Disease
Many randomized controlled trials have studied dietary or pharmacological interventions to reduce risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis. And, although recommendations to modify different dietary components and to consider selected pharmacological therapy have been included as part of large clinical guidelines on the management of nephrolithiasis,19,20 these guidelines have referenced few of these RCTs.
Dietary therapy for prevention of recurrent stone disease
Pharmacological therapy for prevention of recurrent stone disease
Previous systematic reviews of RCTs of pharmacological therapies have reported that although thiazide diuretics22-24 and citrate therapy24,25 reduce stone recurrence, evidence was insufficient for the efficacy of other pharmacological treatments.22,24,26,27 However, these reviews did not include numerous, more recent RCTs. In addition, these reviews did not evaluate evidence that compared different pharmacological treatments with each other or that compared combinations of pharmacological treatments versus monotherapy, and did not account for baseline fluid and diet intake or fluid and dietary cointerventions. Previous reviews also left unresolved the potential impact of patient demographics, comorbidities, biochemical measures, and stone characteristics on pharmacological treatment outcomes.
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Confused With Other Pains
I am rarely confused, nor are patients. Renal colic, gallstone passage, acute pancreatitis, and myocardial infarction can seem alike at the beginning. So physicians and patients need be careful. But in all my decades of work, colic had more or less always been stone passage.
If lodged at the junction of the bladder and ureter, a stone mimics infection urinary frequency, urgency, burning. This is not typical stone pain, but may well lead to an image that discloses the stone.
What Are The Most Common Types Of Kidney Stones
The most common type of kidney stone is a calcium oxalate stone. This type happens when calcium and oxalate combine in your urine. It can happen when you have high quantities of oxalate, low amounts of calcium and arent drinking enough fluids.
Stones caused by uric acid are also fairly common. These come from a natural substance called purine, which is a byproduct of animal proteins .
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Chemistry Of Stone Formation
Several models of kidney stone formation have been proposed; the two dominating mechanisms for the initiation of stones are commonly described by the terms free particle and fixed particle . Although these models encompass all the possible hypothetical models of how stones begin, no single model can rationalize the evidence observed from all patients with stones many factors probably contribute. Regardless of the model, the chemical processes of nucleation and crystal growth are essential for the initiation and development of all stone types. Stone formation is caused by an abnormal combination of factors that influence the thermodynamic driving force and the kinetic processes involved in the crystallization of the various stone-forming minerals. The principal thermodynamic driving force for both stages is the degree of supersaturation of the fluid within which initiation occurs,. Whether this takes place intracellularly or extracellularly, the laws of crystallization chemistry must apply.
Crystal growth and agglomeration
Once a crystal nucleus is established inside the kidneys, exposure to the urine enables the stone to grow by encrustation,. There are two basic pathways for the establishment of a stone nucleus, both of which can be active in any stone former, although stones from idiopathic stone formers are generally formed attached to plaques, .
The renal interstitium of a calcium oxalate stone former with Randalls plaque
Prevention Of Future Stones
Once your health care provider finds out why you are forming stones, he or she will give you tips on how to prevent them. This may include changing your diet and taking certain medications. There is no “one-size-fits-all” diet for preventing kidney stones. Everyone is different. Your diet may not be causing your stones to form. But there are dietary changes that you can make to stop stones from continuing to form.
Drink enough fluids each day.
If you are not producing enough urine, your health care provider will recommend you drink at least 3 liters of liquid each day. This equals about 3 quarts . This is a great way to lower your risk of forming new stones. Remember to drink more to replace fluids lost when you sweat from exercise or in hot weather. All fluids count toward your fluid intake. But it’s best to drink mostly no-calorie or low-calorie drinks. This may mean limiting sugar-sweetened or alcoholic drinks.
Knowing how much you drink during the day can help you understand how much you need to drink to produce 2.5 liters of urine. Use a household measuring cup to measure how much liquid you drink for a day or two. Drink from bottles or cans with the fluid ounces listed on the label. Keep a log, and add up the ounces at the end of the day or 24-hour period. Use this total to be sure you are reaching your daily target urine amount of at least 85 ounces of urine daily.
Reduce the amount of salt in your diet.
Eat the recommended amount of calcium.
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