What Are The Complications Of Kidney Stones
Complications of kidney stones include:
- recurring kidney stones, since people who have had kidney stones at least once, have 80 % chance of getting them again.
- obstruction or blockage in the urinary tract
- kidney failure
- an injury to the ureter while undergoing a surgery for the removal of the kidney stone
- urinary tract infection
- heavy bleeding during kidney stones operation
How Can I Prevent Kidney Stones
The best way to prevent most kidney stones is to drink enough fluids every day. Most people should drink eight to 12 cups of fluid per day. If you have kidney disease and need to limit fluids, ask your doctor how much fluid you should have each day. Limiting sodium and animal protein in your diet may also help to prevent kidney stones. If your doctor can find out what your kidney stone is made of, he or she may be able to give you specific diet recommendations to help prevent future kidney stones.
If you have a health condition that makes you more likely to have kidney stones, your doctor might tell you to take medicine to treat this condition.
Never start or stop any treatment or diet without talking to your doctor first!
How Can You Prevent Kidney Stones
Although its not always clear what causes kidney stones, Dr. Chang says theres at least one thing you can do to prevent them: Stay hydrated.
Drink plenty of fluids: six to eight glasses a day, he advises. This dilutes the urine, because what we dont want is really concentrated urine where calcium ions can bind together easily. Instead, we want those calcium ions to be distributed across a larger volume of urine, which theoretically should also flush out the kidneys better in the event that a stone is trying to form.
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Medications To Prevent Kidney Stones
In some cases, over-the-counter or prescription medications may help prevent kidney stones. As guidelines published by Informed Health in 2016 explained, medications are usually used for those at greatest risk for recurrent kidney stones. This includes people who got their first kidney stones in childhood or adolescence, those who have a strong family history of stones, those with certain underlying kidney conditions, and individuals with an overactive parathyroid gland. Since uric acid, struvite, and cystine stones are more likely than calcium stones to reoccur, people who’ve had one of these types of stones may be prescribed medications to prevent future attacks.
There are a few possible medications used to stop kidney stones from forming. Citrate salts bind to calcium in urine and prevent it from forming crystals or stones. Citrate salts can also prevent uric acid and cystine stones. They’re available without a prescription and come in many forms, including capsules, powders, and dissolvable tablets. Thiazide diuretics reduce how much calcium enters the urine from the bloodstream and promote the production of large amounts of urine that can dissolve substances before they form stones. Allopurinol inhibits the breakdown of purines into uric acid, minimizing the chances of uric acid stones.
Causes Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones happenÂ; when your pee has a high concentration of minerals and other substances — like calcium, oxalate, and uric acid — that come together to make crystals. Crystals stick together to make one or more stones. Stones happen when your urine doesnât have enough fluid and other substances to keep them from happening. Â;
A kidney stone can be as tiny as a grain of sand, and you can pass it without ever knowing. But a bigger one can block your urine flow and hurt a lot. Some people say the pain can be worse than childbirth.
Different things can bring on kidney stones, including what you eat and certain medications. If you or someone in your family has had a kidney stone, youâre more likely to have them.
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How Common Are Kidney Stones
Researchers have concluded that about one in ten people will get a kidney stone during their lifetime. Kidney stones in children are far less common than in adults but they occur for the same reasons. Theyre four times more likely to occur in children with asthma than in children who dont have asthma.
What Tests Do You Need To Diagnose Kidney Stones
Your doctor may arrange some initial urine and blood tests:
- A blood test to check that the kidneys are working properly.
- You may also have other blood tests to check the level of certain chemicals that may cause kidney stones if the level is high. Examples include calcium and uric acid.
- Urine tests to check for infection and for certain crystals.
If you have symptoms that suggest a kidney stone, special X-rays or scans of the kidneys and the tubes draining urine from the kidneys may be done. These tests may start with an X-ray and ultrasound scan. A CT scan may also be needed. These tests are used to detect a stone, to find out exactly where it is and to check that a stone is not blocking the flow of urine.
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Favorite Kidney Stone Blogs
CareBlog is the blog of the Urology Care Foundation, an organization dedicated to supporting urologic research and providing urologic health information to the public. The blog features information on kidney stones, as well as information on general urologic health .
Want to hear about kidney stones from people whove gone through the experience? Let this website, which was founded by Mike M. Nguyen, MD, MPH, an associate professor of urology at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, be your guide. You can read through essential information from experts, as well as patient accounts and contributor articles that answer questions you may be wondering about, such as: Do vegetarians get kidney stones? and Does drinking a lot of water help a stone pass faster?
With additional reporting by Lauren Bedosky.
Whos Most Likely To Get Kidney Stones What Are The Risk Factors
White men in their 30s and 40s are most likely to get kidney stones. However, anyone can develop kidney stones.
There are several risk factors for developing kidney stones. These include:
- Not drinking enough liquids.
- Having a diet that includes the substances that form the stones .
- Having a family history of kidney stones.
- Having a blockage in your urinary tract.
Certain medical conditions can also increase your risk of developing stones. This is because they may increase or decrease levels of the substances that make up a kidney stone. These conditions can include:
- Hypercalciuria .
Certain foods can also place you at risk of a kidney stone. These foods include:
- Meats and poultry .
- Sodium .
- Sugars .
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Diagnosis: Low Urine Ph
Citrate supplements, such as potassium citrate, will raise the pH of your urine, making stones, such as those composed of uric acid, less likely to form. If your blood potassium level is high, your doctor may prescribe sodium bicarbonate or Bicitra.
Lower protein intake
A diet high in protein will reduce urinary pH. As a general recommendation, limit your daily protein intake to 12 ounces per day of beef, poultry, fish and pork. Twelve ounces is equivalent in size to about three decks of cards. This will be plenty of protein to meet your bodys needs.
Increase fluid intake
No matter what your diagnosis, you should drink enough water to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day.
Changing Your Diet To Prevent Kidney Stones
The good news is that there are a number of things you can do to prevent kidney stones from forming, even if you’ve had them in the past . Many of these strategies center around dietary changes. Regardless of stone type, the most important thing you can do to prevent kidney stones is drink plenty of water. Aim for 23 quarts daily. Eating a diet that contains moderate amounts of protein is best, since high levels of protein increase the likelihood of calcium stones as well as uric acid and cystine stones in individuals with certain inherited conditions. A low-sodium diet reduces the amount of calcium in the urine and promotes proper fluid balance. While you might expect that individuals who get calcium stones would be advised to steer clear of calcium-rich foods, that’s not the case. It’s important to get plenty of dietary calcium, although calcium supplements and high-dose vitamin C supplements can increase the risk of calcium stones.
People who get calcium oxalate stones may need to follow a low-oxalate diet, although some experts now question whether this is actually necessary to prevent kidney stones . Those on a low-oxalate diet should aim to keep their oxalate intake to no more than 40 or 50 mg daily. Foods extremely high in oxalates that must be avoided on a low-oxalate diet include kiwis, oranges, spinach, potatoes, kidney beans, almonds, walnuts, brown rice, and soy products.
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Coronavirus: Kidney Damage Caused By Covid
COVID-19 the disease caused by the coronavirus thats led to the global pandemic is known to damage the lungs. But, as more people become infected, more understanding of the disease emerges.
Doctors and researchers are finding that this coronavirus officially called SARS-CoV-2can also cause severe and lasting harm in other organs, including the heart and kidneys. C. John Sperati, M.D., M.H.S., an expert in kidney health, discusses how the new coronavirus might affect kidney function as the illness develops and afterward as a person recovers.
Kidney Stones Symptoms And Treatments
Kidney stones are a fairly common condition that tend to affect people more during middle age . Stones can form in one or both kidneys and quite often can just pass through the urinary system undetected and without causing any pain. Sometimes large stones can get blocked and cause considerable pain called renal colic. In this instance a treatment to break up the stone or surgery may be required.
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Conditions Related To Kidney Stones
If you think you may have a kidney stone, its important to check with your doctor. Your doctor can perform imaging tests to look for other issues that may be causing your abdominal pain, such appendicitis, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and stomach ulcers.
Kidney stones are also often associated with UTIs, which develop when bacteria makes its way into your kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra and causes an infection. People with blockages in their urinary tract face a higher risk of UTIs.
Kidney stones and UTIs share a few symptoms, such as abdominal pain; cloudy, blood-tinged or foul-smelling urine; and a constant need to urinate. If the UTI spreads to the kidneys, you may feel other symptoms also associated with kidney stones, such as pain in the lower back, fever and chills, and nausea and vomiting.
Who Gets Kidney Stones And Why
The lifetime risk of kidney stones among adults in the US is approximately 9%, and it appears that global warming may be increasing that risk. There are four major types of kidney stones: calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate, uric acid, struvite , and cystine.
A risk factor for all stones, regardless of type, is dehydration. Anyone who is prone to kidney stones should pay attention to good hydration. A randomized trial has shown that drinking 2 liters of fluid a day reduces the likelihood of stone recurrence by about half. The American Urological Association guideline for medical management of kidney stones recommends that patients who form kidney stones should aim to drink more than 2.5 liters of fluid per day.
Anyone with symptoms of kidney stones should be referred to a urologist. The initial evaluation will often include blood, urine, and imaging studies. Decisions about testing, and ultimately treatment, should be made jointly by the physician and the patient. Lets look at specific risk factors and treatment for each of the major stone types.
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What Are The Causes Of Kidney Stones Or How Do Kidney Stones Occur
After your body absorbs the nutrition it needs, the remaining waste products travel through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The waste products get removed from your body through urine. When there is too much of waste and too less liquid in the urine, crystals begin to form which stick together and form solid masses or kidney stones. The reasons of kidney stones forming in the body varies.
There are four main types of kidney stones:
- Calcium Stones: Calcium stones are the most common form of kidney stones. They are formed when there is too much calcium in the urine. They may form due to an overactive parathyroid gland, an inherited condition called hypercalciuria, kidney disease, some cancers, or a condition called sarcoidosis.
- Struvite Stones: These are horn-shaped and can grow quite large. They are usually caused by urinary tract infection.
- Uric Acid Stones: Uric acid stones are softer than other types of kidney stones. They may occur due to a high-protein low-fibre diet. Patients suffering from gout are found to be at a higher risk to get uric acid stones.
- Cystine Stones: They are caused by a rare hereditary disorder called cystinuria. Cystine stones are larger than other forms of kidney stones and tend to recur.
In about 85% of the cases, small kidney stones pass out in the urine without medical intervention. Stones bigger than 5 mm may require medical intervention. Stones as small as 2 mm have been know to cause discomforting symptoms.
When Life Hands You Kidney Stones
And as the saying goes, “make lemonade.” It’s important to consider dietary remedies alongside prescription medications.
Next time you drive past a lemonade stand, consider your kidneys. Chronic kidney stones are often treated with an alkali citrate, such as potassium citrate to help prevent certain stones, if urine citrate is low and urine pH levels are too low . Citrus juices do contain citrate , but large amounts might be needed. Also, be careful of sugar. Lemon juice concentrate mixed with water can be considered. Alkali citrate can be prescribed and is available over-the-counter. Alkali citrate can be given with a mineral, such as sodium, potassium or magnesium to help prevent stone formation. The aim is to increase urine citrate and increase urine pH . The goal is to keep pH in balance. Speak with a doctor or other healthcare professional about which treatment options are right for you, including over-the-counter products and home remedies. People with kidney disease may need to watch their intake of sodium, potassium or other minerals, depending on the stage of kidney disease or other factors.
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Who Is At Risk Of Kidney Stones
There are some underlying diseases of the kidneys, of the intestines, of hormones, thyroid and calcium management issues that the body has that are associated with stone risk, Dr. Chang says.;However, I would say that, with the vast majority of patients, were not able to identify any of these. In those patients, we dont know why their body is making stones. We just know that it is.
Men are more likely than women to get them. Eleven percent of men versus 6 percent of women will have kidney stones at least once during their lifetime, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. But symptoms and treatment are identical regardless of gender.
Why Do Doctors Examine The Contents Of The Stone
There are four types of stones. Studying the stone can help understand why you have it and how to reduce the risk of further stones. The most common type of stone contains calcium. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet. The kidney usually removes extra calcium that the body doesn’t need. Often people with stones keep too much calcium. This calcium combines with waste products like oxalate to form a stone. The most common combination is called calcium oxalate.
Less common types of stones are: Infection-related stones, containing magnesium and ammonia called struvite stones and stones formed from monosodium urate crystals, called uric acid stones, which might be related to obesity and dietary factors. The rarest type of stone is a cvstine stone that tends to run in families.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Stones How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
The common symptoms of kidney stones in men and women include:
- Foul smelling urine
- Discoloured urine: pink, red, brown urine or blood in the urine
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
- Fever and chills
- Shifting pain in the lower abdomen and groin
- Varying intensity of pain that comes and goes
Although the exact causes leading to the formation of the stones have not been established yet, a number of factors have been identified which increases the risk of kidney stones.
Kidney Stone Signs And Symptoms
Kidney stones are conglomerations of crystals that form when concentrations of minerals in the urine become very high. As their name implies, stones almost always start in the kidneys. They may cause problems there, or may not be noticed until they move into the ureter . Once stones enter into the ureter the can obstruct the drainage of urine which generally causes symptoms such as pain in the upper back or lower abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and blood in the urine. Many stones will pass down the ureter, into the bladder and then be voided with urine. Occasionally stones can remain lodged in the ureter or within the bladder.
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