Supplements For Cats With Kidney Disease
Along with a new, healthier diet, your vet may recommend supplements.
Phosphorus binders are one common supplement for cats suffering renal failure.
Vitamin D supplements are another favorite.
Its important to avoid any home remedies or herbal supplements.
Your sweet kitty is depending on you to make good decisions regarding her care now that she is suffering from kidney disease.
Some herbal supplements will do much more harm than good. Its just not worth the risk.
Be sure to follow your vets dietary and supplement advice carefully.
What Is The Urinary Tract
The urinary tract consists of:
- The kidneys: The majority of humans have two kidneys, one on either side of the abdomen. Kidneys clear poisonous substances from the blood.
- The ureters: Urine passes from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. Each kidney has one ureter connecting it to the bladder.
- The bladder: This is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine.
- The urethra: A tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In males, the urethra travels down the middle of the penis to an opening at the end. In females, the urethra runs from the bladder to just above the vaginal opening. The urethra in females is shorter than in males.
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What Is The Treatment And Management Of Chronic Kidney Disease
There is no cure for chronic kidney disease. The four goals of therapy are to:
Strategies for slowing progression and treating conditions underlying chronic kidney disease include the following:
- Control of blood glucose: Maintaining good control of diabetes is critical. People with diabetes who do not control their blood glucose have a much higher risk of all complications of diabetes, including chronic kidney disease.
- Control of high blood pressure: This also slows progression of chronic kidney disease. It is recommended to keep blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg if one has kidney disease. It is often useful to monitor blood pressure at home. Blood pressure medications known as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers have special benefit in protecting the kidneys.
- Diet: Diet control is essential to slowing progression of chronic kidney disease and should be done in close consultation with a health care practitioner and a dietitian. For some general guidelines, see the Chronic Kidney Disease Self-Care at Home section of this article.
The complications of chronic kidney disease may require medical treatment.
- Allergic reactions
Diuretics also may cause a decline in kidney function especially if fluid is removed rapidly from the body.
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How Is Chronic Kidney Failure Diagnosed
There are two basic tests for kidney function: a complete urinalysis and a blood chemistry analysis.
A urinalysis is needed to evaluate kidney function. A low urine specific gravity is the earliest indication of kidney failure. An increase in protein in the urine also indicates decreased kidney function.
A blood biochemistry analysis assesses the function of various internal organs. Measuring the level of two waste products in the blood, namely blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine , indicates decreased kidney function. Tests to measure the blood levels of other substances such as albumin, globulin, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, and calcium, as well as the red and white blood cell counts are important in order to determine the extent of failure and the best course of treatment.
A recently developed blood test to assess levels of SDMA has been used to determine if early renal failure is occurring. SDMA concentrations increase above the normal reference interval well before serum creatinine becomes elevated. This will help your veterinarian provide treatment for your dog at a much earlier stage in the disease.
“SDMA concentrations increase above the normal reference interval well before serum creatinine becomes elevated.”
A dog diagnosed with low urine specific gravity as well as elevated BUN and CREA is said to be azotemic.
How To Prevent Kidney Disease In Cats
Research has not yet revealed the cause for most cases of kidney failure. However, there are a number of things that you can do to prevent it from happening to your cat.
- Feed him a diet high in protein and low in phosphorus. This will help his body retain necessary nutrients and maintain his energy level.
- Check your pet’s kidneys at least once a month by feeling the area where his kidneys are located. If you notice any swollen or hard lumps, take him to the vet immediately.
- Don’t overfeed your cat. Your pet should be slim but not skinny. Feeding them an appropriate amount of food will contribute to their overall health.
- Never feed him human food, which is high in sugar and fat. This will contribute to his weight gain and may cause kidney failure over time.
- Make sure that he is always drinking water. When cats are suffering from kidney disease, they become dehydrated on account of the toxins being filtered through their kidneys more than normal. Without enough water, your cat’s organs won’t be able to function properly
- Don’t let him spend a lot of time in the sun. This will dry out his skin and cause it to become cracked, which can lead to infection. Keep him indoors or offer him shade from the sun.
- Make sure that he is regularly groomed. Brush him on a regular basis so that any mats in fur are easily removed. This will stop any dirt and debris from clogging up his kidneys.
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Investigating The Underlying Cause
Urine can be tested for protein, blood cells, sugar and waste products, which may give clues to the underlying cause.
Doctors also need to know about:
- any other symptoms, such as signs of sepsis or signs of heart failure
- any other medical conditions
- any medication thats been taken in the past week, as some medicines can cause AKI
An ultrasound scan should reveal if the cause is a blockage in the urinary system, such as an enlarged prostate or bladder tumour.
Upset Stomach Nausea Vomiting
Why this happens:
A severe build-up of wastes in the blood can also cause nausea and vomiting. Loss of appetite can lead to weight loss.
What patients said:
I had a lot of itching, and I was nauseated, throwing up all the time. I couldn’t keep anything down in my stomach.
When I got the nausea, I couldn’t eat and I had a hard time taking my blood pressure pills.
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When To See A Gp
See a GP if you feel feverish and you have pain in your tummy, lower back or genitals that will not go away.
Contact a GP immediately if you think your child may have a kidney infection.
Kidney infections require prompt treatment with antibiotics.
Page last reviewed: 06 January 2021 Next review due: 06 January 2024
Signs Of Kidney Disease
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What Is The Prognosis
Despite all the advances in treatment of acute kidney failure, it is such a serious disease that many patients die from it. About 60% of dogs and cats with this disease either die or are put to sleep because of it. Dialysis is usually reserved for those patients in which medical treatment has failed and the chance of death without dialysis is almost 100%. In those patients, dialysis may allow up to half of them to recover, depending on the underlying cause of kidney failure. Of the ones that recover, some may recover completely, or they recover partially and end up with long-lasting kidney damage that can be treated at home.
Client handout reference from Ettinger: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 7th Edition
Signs Of Kidney Problems During Pregnancy
Preeclampsia affects only pregnant women after the 20th week of pregnancy and resolves shortly after the baby is delivered. Although it is by origin not a primary kidney problem, it does involve the kidneys. It is characterised by:
- Proteinuria, or protein in the urine
Other symptoms which may appear as part of preeclampsia or as preeclampsia progresses include:
- Headache that cannot be alleviated with painkillers
- Edema of hands, arms, face and/or feet
- Blurred vision, other visual disturbances or blind spots
- Confusion or disorientation
- Oliguria of 500ml or less over 24 hours
- Being unable to feel the baby move as much as previously
- Shortness of breath, possibly due to pulmonary edema
- Stroke. This is very rare
Good to know: If a pregnant person suddenly discovers that their watch, bracelets or rings no longer fit their arm or hand, or that their sleeves are suddenly tight, they should seek medical help immediately. Preeclampsia can lead to eclampsia and HELLP Syndrome and is considered a medical emergency.
For more information on, see this resource on .
If you are concerned that you or a loved one may have preeclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP Syndrome, download the Ada app for a free symptom assessment.
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Signs You May Have Kidney Disease
More than 37 million American adults are living with kidney disease and most dont know it. There are a number of physical signs of kidney disease, but sometimes people attribute them to other conditions. Also, those with kidney disease tend not to experience symptoms until the very late stages, when the kidneys are failing or when there are large amounts of protein in the urine. This is one of the reasons why only 10% of people with chronic kidney disease know that they have it, says Dr. Joseph Vassalotti, Chief Medical Officer at the National Kidney Foundation.
While the only way to know for sure if you have kidney disease is to get tested, Dr. Vassalotti shares 10 possible signs you may have kidney disease. If youre at risk for kidney disease due to high blood pressure, diabetes, a family history of kidney failure or if youre older than age 60, its important to get tested annually for kidney disease. Be sure to mention any symptoms youre experiencing to your healthcare practitioner.
Primary Outcomeacute Kidney Injury
We identified episodes of AKI using the ICD-9 diagnosis code 584.x. This administrative code for AKI has low sensitivity, but specificity of approximately 99%, suggesting that our cohort should include few false positives, and represents a more severe spectrum of AKI compared to serum creatinine criteria.19,20 For example, the median change in serum creatinine from baseline is estimated at 1.2 mg/dL compared with 0.2 mg/dL for patients without an administrative code for AKI.19
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Treatment Options For Chronic Diarrhea
Anti-diarrheal medications can relieve diarrhea, but these medications arent recommended as a long-term therapy.
Treatment for chronic diarrhea depends on the underlying cause. For example, if youre diagnosed with a medical condition like ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, pancreatitis, or celiac disease, your doctor will discuss treatment options with you and recommend the best course of action. Treatment might include prescription medications like an immunosuppressant or a corticosteroid.
Diarrhea may improve as your health improves.
Additional treatment options for chronic diarrhea include:
Home Remedies And Natural Remedies
Chronic diarrhea may develop after taking a prescription medication such as an antibiotic. Talk to your doctor about alternative drugs. If one isnt available, incorporate probiotics into your diet to restore stool bulk. These are available in yogurt and capsule form.
Fiber supplements are associated with relieving constipation. But certain fiber supplements can also relieve chronic diarrhea because of its water-holding effect. Taking psyllium on a daily basis can produce bulkier stools and lessen or eliminate diarrhea caused by IBS or medication.
Chronic diarrhea caused by an underlying medical condition isnt always preventable. But you can prevent chronic diarrhea due to infection by taking steps to keep your food and water supply clean. For example:
- Drink from a clean water source or filter your water.
- Thoroughly clean meat before cooking.
- Cook meat thoroughly.
- Wash your hands after handling food.
- Clean kitchen surfaces to prevent contamination.
- Wash fruits and vegetables before consuming them.
- Wash your hands after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, or attending to a sick person.
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Incidence Of Aki In Diarrheal Illness
Table Table11 shows demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics of adults admitted with a primary diagnosis of diarrhea in 2012. The most common ICD-9 diagnosis code associated with infectious diarrhea was 008 , which includes diarrhea caused by both bacterial and viral infections. For non-infectious diarrhea, the most common diagnosis codes were for diverticulitis and vascular insufficiency of the intestine . Patients admitted with infectious diarrhea were nearly 10 years older on average than patients admitted with non-infectious diarrhea. Nearly two-thirds of hospitalizations for diarrheal illness were in women. Persons admitted with a primary diagnosis of infectious diarrhea were more likely to be coded as having CKD, immunodeficiency and neurologic diseases relative to persons with non-infectious diarrhea. Persons admitted with non-infectious diarrhea were more likely to have a secondary diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease than those admitted for infectious diarrhea. A significantly higher proportion of persons with a primary diagnosis of non-infectious diarrhea were admitted in an elective capacity . Volume depletion was coded more commonly in persons with infectious diarrhea . Prevalence of sepsis and shock was similar . There were modest differences in race, income, and hospital characteristics across the infectious and non-infectious diarrhea categories.
When To See A Doctor
Because the liver is a regenerative organ, meaning it can repair itself, some liver diseases can go away without medical treatment. However, if liver disease is suspected, it is best to see a doctor as soon as possible to avoid complications or worsening of symptoms. Self-diagnosis is not recommended.
When not working in her family-owned food and bar business, Viola Horne can almost always be found with a cookbook in one hand and a whisk in the other. Horne never tires of entertaining family and friends with both comfort food and unusual delicacies such as garlic cheese smashed potatoes and banana bacon pancakes.
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Whats The Difference Between Normal Diarrhea And Severe Diarrhea
There are actually several different ways to classify diarrhea. These types of diarrhea include:
- Acute diarrhea: The most common, acute diarrhea is loose watery diarrhea that lasts one to two days. This type doesnt need treatment and it usually goes away after a few days.
- Persistent diarrhea: This type of diarrhea generally persists for several weeks two to four weeks
- Chronic diarrhea: Diarrhea that lasts for more than four weeks or comes and goes regularly over a long period of time is called chronic diarrhea.
How Do You Diagnose Diarrhea
For the majority of mild diarrhea cases, you wont need medical attention. These cases are self-limited and get better without medical intervention. The key to mild diarrhea is supportive therapy staying hydrated and eating a bland diet.
More serious cases of diarrhea may require medical attention. In these situations, there are a few diagnostic tests that your provider may order. These tests can include:
- Discussing a detailed family history, as well as physical and medical conditions, your travel history, and any sick contacts you may have.
- Doing a stool test on a collected stool sample to check for blood, bacterial infections, parasite and inflammatory markers.
- Doing a breath test to check for lactose or fructose intolerance, and bacterial overgrowth.
- Doing blood work to rule out medical causes of diarrhea such as a thyroid disorder, celiac sprue and pancreatic disorders.
- Doing endoscopic evaluations of your upper and lower digestive tract to rule out organic abnormalities .
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What Color Is Urine When Your Kidneys Are Failing
When kidneys are failing, the increased concentration and accumulation of substances in urine lead to a darker color which may be brown, red or purple. The color change is due to abnormal protein or sugar, high levels of red and white blood cells, and high numbers of tube-shaped particles called cellular casts.