What Are Blood Tests
Blood tests help doctors check for certain diseases and conditions. They also help check the function of your organs and show how well treatments are working.
Specifically, blood tests can help doctors:
- Evaluate how well organssuch as the kidneys, liver, thyroid, and heartare working
- Diagnose diseases and conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, anemia , and coronary heart disease
- Find out whether you have risk factors for heart disease
- Check whether medicines youâre taking are working
- Assess how well your blood is clotting
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Biopsy For Kidney Disease
A biopsy means that a small piece of tissue is taken for testing in a laboratory. Biopsies used in the investigation of kidney disease may include:
- kidney biopsy the doctor inserts a special needle into the back, under local anaesthesia, to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. A kidney biopsy can confirm a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.
- bladder biopsy the doctor inserts a thin tube into the bladder via the urethra. This allows the doctor to view the inside of the bladder and check for abnormalities. This procedure is called a cystoscopy. The doctor may take a biopsy of bladder tissue for examination in a laboratory.
Your doctor may arrange other tests, depending on the suspected cause of your kidney disorder.
Additional Tests For Kidney Disease
If blood and urine tests indicate reduced kidney function, your doctor may recommend additional tests to help identify the cause of the problem.
Methods of renal imaging include ultrasound, computed tomography , and magnetic resonance imaging . These tools are most helpful in finding unusual growths or blockages to the flow of urine.
Your doctor may want to see a tiny piece of your kidney tissue under a microscope. To obtain this tissue sample, the doctor will perform a renal biopsya hospital procedure in which the doctor inserts a needle through your skin and into the kidney. The needle retrieves a strand of tissue about 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch long. For the procedure, you will lie on your stomach on a table and receive local anesthetic to numb the skin. The sample tissue will help the doctor identify the cause and severity of your kidney disease.
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Are There Any Risks From Cmps
A comprehensive metabolic panel is a safe procedure with minimal risks. Some kids might feel faint or lightheaded from the test. A few kids and teens have a strong fear of needles. If your child is anxious, talk with the doctor before the test about ways to make the procedure easier.
A small bruise or mild soreness around the blood test site is common and can last for a few days. Get medical care for your child if the discomfort gets worse or lasts longer.
If you have questions about the CMP, speak with your doctor or the health professional doing the blood draw.
Other Tests Of Kidney Function
The routine kidney blood test is a general marker of kidney function. If the blood test is abnormal it cannot say what is causing the kidney problem. Therefore, if you have an abnormal result you may need further tests to find the cause of a kidney problem. For example: urine tests, other blood tests, scans, X-rays, kidney biopsy, etc.
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Blood Tests For Kidney Disease
The best measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate , which can be estimated from a blood test that checks the blood for creatinine .
A normal GFR result is higher than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. If the result is persistently less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for at least three months, this confirms that the person has chronic kidney disease.
Blood tests can reveal other abnormalities of kidney function, such as:
- high levels of acids
- changes to the levels of calcium and phosphate.
What Do My Results Mean
Interpreting blood test results can be difficult. Your doctor or nurse will contact you if there is anything that needs discussing or if further action is needed.
A low eGFR suggests impaired kidney function. This may be due to acute or chronic kidney disease. Some of the causes of reduced kidney function include:
- diabetes mellitus
- high blood pressure
- urinary tract obstruction such as from a kidney stone
- reduced blood flow to your kidneys due to shock, dehydration, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis or complications of diabetes
- certain medicines such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, lithium, certain Chinese herbs, or some poisons
- polycystic kidney disease
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Urine Testing For Excess Protein
Excess protein may signal a problem. These urine tests help diagnose kidney disease:
- Urine dipstick a sample of your urine is tested for excess protein or proteinuria. Protein in the urine can be a sign that something is wrong with the kidneys ability to filter the blood properly.
- Urine culture to check for white blood cells, and bacteria.
- Urine output measurements the amount of urine you excrete in a day may help your doctor determine the cause of your kidney failure.
What Is The Function Of Your Kidneys
Your kidneys play an important role in eliminating wastes and helping to regulate the amount of water and electrolytes released in your pee .
- This allows your kidneys to maintain normal chemical balance in the body.
- Among the important substances the kidneys help to regulate are sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.
- The right balance of these substances is critical.
- When your kidneys are not working properly, the concentrations of these substances in the blood may be abnormal and waste products and fluid may build up to dangerous levels in the blood, creating a life-threatening situation.
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Diagnosis Of Kidney Disease
Early diagnosis and optimal management can often prevent kidney damage from becoming worse and reduce the risk of kidney failure.
Chronic kidney disease often has very few symptoms, or only general symptoms, such as tiredness, headaches and feeling sick. The doctor may begin by reviewing your medical history and performing a physical examination.
The diagnostic tests for kidney disease chosen by your doctor depend on factors including your symptoms, age, medical history, lifestyle and general health. Tests for kidney disease include:
What Do Kidney Blood Tests Do
The kidneys main function is to excrete waste from your body, so if your kidneys arent working properly, there are likely to be higher than normal levels of waste products in your blood. Kidney blood tests therefore look at the blood levels of these waste products to see how well your kidneys are performing their excretion function.
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Symptoms Of Kidney Disease
Kidney disease is called a silent disease as there are often few or no symptoms. In fact, you can lose up to 90 per cent of your kidneys functionality before experiencing any symptoms. Some signs and symptoms include:
- a change in the frequency and quantity of urine you pass, especially at night
- blood in your urine
- changes in the appearance of your urine
- puffiness around your legs and ankles
- pain in your back
- pain or burning when you pass urine
- high blood pressure.
If your kidneys begin to fail, waste products and extra fluid build up in your blood. This, and other problems, gradually leads to:
- tiredness and inability to concentrate
- generally feeling unwell
- bad breath and a metallic taste in the mouth.
Why Would I Need A Kidney Function Test
A kidney function test may be requested as a routine blood test to find out about your general health. It is also requested for a variety of other more specific situations. It may be done to:
- check if you have acute or chronic kidney disease
- check for early detection of kidney disease if you have risk factors such as diabetes mellitus
- assess your risk of heart attack and stroke
- check for dehydration
- assess how your kidneys are functioning before and after starting certain medicines.
Chronic kidney disease is increasingly common as you get older and doesn’t have symptoms in the early stages. Therefore a kidney function test at various stages can be helpful to find problems sooner. Read more about chronic kidney disease.
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Imaging Tests For Kidney Disease
Tests that create various pictures or images may include:
- x-rays to check the size of the kidneys and look for kidney stones
- cystogram a bladder x-ray
- voiding cystourethrogram where the bladder is x-rayed before and after urination
- ultrasound sound waves are bounced off the kidneys to create a picture. Ultrasound may be used to check the size of the kidneys. Kidney stones and blood vessel blockages may be visible on ultrasound
- computed tomography x-rays and digital computer technology are used to create an image of the urinary tract, including the kidneys
- magnetic resonance imaging a strong magnetic field and radio waves are used to create a three-dimensional image of the urinary tract, including the kidneys.
- radionuclide scan.
What Other Testing Might Be Required
Depending upon your petâs clinical signs, and the results of the initial screening tests, further testing for kidney disease may include any of the following:
A urinary protein/creatinine ratio is recommended if the urine dipstick evaluation suggests that an excessive amount of protein is being lost in the urine. A urine sample is sent to a veterinary referral laboratory, and the ratio of protein to creatinine in that sample is calculated. An increased protein/creatinine ratio can indicate kidney damage.
Urine culture may be performed if the urinalysis findings are suggestive of a bacterial infection as the cause of the kidney disease.
Leptospirosis titers may be recommended if this organism is suspected of causing the kidney disease. See handout Antibody Titers for more information.
Occasionally ultrasound examination and/or kidney biopsy may be recommended to evaluate the kidneys.
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Diagnosing Kidney Disease In Adults
At NYU Langone, specialists called nephrologists diagnose and manage kidney disease. In this chronic condition, the kidneys slowly lose their ability to filter waste from the blood. If this condition isnt managed, it can lead to kidney failure, in which one or both kidneys no longer function. Some people may experience acute kidney failure, in which the organs fail in less than two days.
The kidneys are small, bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist, located under the rib cage in the back. They have several important functions, including removing digested food, chemicals, medication, and other waste products from the blood. These are then excreted in urine.
The kidneys also balance the bodys levels of fluids and electrolytes, such as phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. These are essential for the proper functioning of the heart, muscles, and other structures. The kidneys also make hormones that help regulate blood pressure, stimulate the production of red blood cells, and strengthen bones.
When the kidneys are not able to function properly, the body retains toxins and excess fluid and can fail to make enough red blood cells, which carry oxygen to organs and tissue.
Some people with chronic kidney disease experience no symptoms. They may receive a diagnosis only after having blood or urine testing for another condition.
Tracking Your Lab Results
Ask your care team for a copy of your lab results. You can use your results to get a better handle on how you are doing over time. There are two ways to do this. First, you can just keep a simple table with the results, as often as you get them. Or, you can GRAPH your lab tests so you can see the ups and downs. Here, we show results by month for a year. You can even color-code your resultsred for out-of-range and green for values that are in the normal range.
The trends are just as important as the numbers you get. Are your numbers staying the same? Going up? Going down? Looking at the trends will help you see whether your actions to help slow your CKD are paying off.
U.S. Air Force photo by Osakabe Yasuo
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How Do I Prepare For A Creatinine Blood Test
A creatinine blood test doesnt require much preparation. Fasting isnt necessary. You can and should eat and drink the same as you do normally to get an accurate result.
However, its important to tell your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medications youre currently taking. Some drugs may increase your creatinine levels without causing kidney damage and interfere with your test results. Let your doctor know if you take:
- chemotherapy drugs
- cephalosporin antibiotics, such as cephalexin and cefuroxime
Your doctor may ask you to stop taking your medication or to adjust your dosage before the test. Theyll also take this into consideration when interpreting your test results.
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What Does The Kidney Do
Your kidneys main function is to filter waste products out of your bloodstream. As blood is circulated through the kidneys, waste substances are extracted and then excreted into the urine, which then passes out of the body. Besides being a filter, your kidneys also:
- Regulate your bodys water balance by excreting excess water via urine
- Maintaining the acid/alkaline balance of the body
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Kidney Disease And Cardiovascular Risks
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with chronic kidney disease. Compared to the general population, people with chronic kidney disease are two to three times more likely to have cardiovascular problems such as:
This increased risk is partly caused by factors common to both chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure. However, researchers are discovering that chronic kidney disease is, in itself, an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and a history of cardiovascular disease is a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease.
The kidneys regulate water and salts, remove certain wastes and make various hormones. Kidney disease increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in many ways, including:
Why Might I Need A Kidney Function Test
Some conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure , affect how well the kidneys work. If you have one of these conditions, your healthcare provider may use kidney function tests to help monitor these conditions.
You may also need a kidney function test if you have symptoms that indicate possible kidney problems. These symptoms might include:
- Blood in your urine .
- Problems with starting to pee.
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Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test
A basics metabolic panel is a blood test that allows a medical professional to understand just how well the body is functioning. This type of blood test checks for things like proper kidney functioning, high glucose levels, proper calcium levels and whether certain proteins are present in the body that can cause kidney or liver damage
What Happens During A Kidney Urine Test
You complete 24-hour urine tests at home. For a 24-hour urine test, your provider will give you a container to collect urine. On the day of the test:
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Can I Stay With My Child During A Cmp
Parents usually can stay with their child during a blood test. Encourage your child to relax and stay still because tensing muscles can make it harder to draw blood. Your child might want to look away when the needle is inserted and the blood is collected. Encourage your child to relax by taking slow deep breaths or singing a favorite song.
How To Get Rid Of Swollen Feet In Kidney Failure
A kidney failure patient becomes a target of various health complications and symptoms that makes it more critical for the patient to survive the disease. Symptoms and complications of kidney failure complicate the journey of the renal failure patient to procure good health and vitality of the kidneys.
One of the common symptoms that occur in episodes of every kidney harming disease is Edema. Edema is a condition that depicts swelling within any part of the human body. When kidney failure occurs, kidneys become unable to filter liquid waste out of the body due to insufficient filtration. Excess fluids accumulate in the body tissues leading to pain and inflammation in various parts of the body.
According to Ayurveda, the human body is a combination of three vital doshas- Vata, pitta, and Kapha. Edema is known as Shotha in Ayurveda, and it is stated as a Kapha type of disorder.
Kidney failure treatment in Ayurveda can help reduce the inflammation in the body using natural healing capabilities. The amalgamation of authentic kidney-friendly herbs reduces the rate of accumulation of excess fluids in the tissues.
However, underlying ayurvedic herbal medicines provided in kidney failure treatment in Ayurveda can help reduce swelling in the affected parts of the body.
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Unknown Reasons Of Low Blood Platelet Count
its called idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.thrombo- means related to platelets, -cytopenia means lack of cells, purpura means a rash of purple spots on the skin caused by internal bleeding due to lack of platelets.Low platelets count by unknown reasons is the commonest in children.If you have a blood infection with some BacteriaBacteria inside the blood will kill platelets and cause low platelets in blood test, persons used to eat raw or undercooked meat are prune to such bacteria-caused low platelets.Escherichia coli is the commonest bacteria causing low blood platelets.Recommendations: Platelets count test, Stool examination, Urine examination, and Anaerobic blood culture.A woman has a blood clot will use up a large numbers of platelets and decrease them in testsThrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is the meidcal term for low blood platelets count after forming large clots in the body, whereas the term thrombotic means by clotsHigh prothrombintest or elevated D-dimer test can predict the blood clots
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