Capillary Network Within The Nephron
The capillary network that originates from the renal arteries supplies the nephron with blood that needs to be filtered. The branch that enters the glomerulus is called the afferent arteriole. The branch that exits the glomerulus is called the efferent arteriole. Within the glomerulus, the network of capillaries is called the glomerular capillary bed. Once the efferent arteriole exits the glomerulus, it forms the peritubular capillary network, which surrounds and interacts with parts of the renal tubule. In cortical nephrons, the peritubular capillary network surrounds the PCT and DCT. In juxtamedullary nephrons, the peritubular capillary network forms a network around the loop of Henle and is called the vasa recta.
Differences Between The Adrenal Medulla And Cortex
Inside the Adrenal Gland: The Medulla and Cortex.
The Adrenal Medulla: The adrenal medulla comes from the neural crest . It contains homogenous sheets of cells organized into nests. Cells have large varied nuclei and abundant cytoplasm packed with numerous secretory granules containing catecholamines and other substances specific to chromaffin cells.
The Adrenal Cortex: The adrenal cortex is of mesodermal origin and is derived from the adrenogenital ridge . The adrenal cortex is organized into three layers, each with a different function:
Transection of a portion of normal adrenal tissue displaying the adrenal cortex , medulla , and surrounding fat.
- The most superficial layer is the zona glomerulosa, responsible for aldosterone production.
- The middle zone is the zona fasciculata, containing radial columns of lipid-laden cells that primarily produce cortisol.
- The inner layer, zona reticularis, stores cholesterol for steroidogenesis and the secretion of small amounts of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.
What Causes Adrenal Gland Disorders
The cause of adrenal gland disorders depends on the type of disorder you have. Causes can include:
- Medicines such as steroids
- A problem in another gland, such as the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland releases hormones that affect how the adrenal glands work.
- Changes in genes . These changes can cause the adrenal glands to make too much or too little of one or more hormones.
In many cases the cause of the problem isn’t clear.
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So What Exactly Are Kidneys And What Makes Them Soooo Special
Well for starters, the kidneys have many biological roles that keep your body healthy and within the homeostatic* zone we all are well aware that the body excretes urine for the purpose of removing waste products and to regulate fluid levels, but did you know the kidneys also help produce red blood cells, vitamin D, and balance pH levels?
*Homeostasis: The ability of a body to regulate its internal environment to preserve a constant equilibrium such as the ability of the human body maintain a constant body temperature.
What Hormones Do The Adrenal Glands Make
The adrenal glands mainly make the hormones adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol and aldosterone.
Adrenaline and noradrenaline are involved in the bodys stress response. They make the heart beat faster, send more blood to muscles and cause other changes in the body that prepare it for fight or flight.
Cortisol does many things, including influencing metabolism , changing blood sugar levels and slowing down the immune system.
Aldosterone plays a part in controlling blood pressure.
The adrenal glands also make weak sex hormones that travel to the testes or ovaries where they are converted into testosterone or oestrogen.
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Kidneys : Kidney Anatomy And Interesting Facts
Before we can start healing the kidneys we need to know exactly what we are treating, it is no good throwing any old herb, nutrient, or drug at them. In comparison it is just like changing the oil in a car, it is no good pouring any old oil, or liquid for that matter, hoping to get it right. There are many things to factor in to get it right, but also to prevent doing serious damage. So by knowing the inner working of your kidneys, having a good understanding of what they do and how they interact with the rest of the body, it puts you in a good position to heal the kidneys with precision.
What Are The Parts Of The Adrenal Glands
Both of your adrenal glands consist of two main parts:
- Medulla: The medulla is the inner part of your adrenal gland, and it releases the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline . These hormones help control your blood pressure, heart rate, sweating and other activities that are also regulated by your sympathetic nervous system.
- Cortex: The cortex is the outer part of your adrenal gland, and it releases corticosteroid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The adrenal cortex also stimulates the production of small amounts of male sex steroid hormones .
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What Are The Parts Of The Kidney
Your kidneys are highly complex organs with many parts. The main parts of your kidney anatomy include:
The renal capsule consists of three layers of connective tissue or fat that cover your kidneys. It protects your kidneys from injury, increases their stability and connects your kidneys to surrounding tissues.
The renal artery is a large blood vessel that controls blood flow into your kidneys. For most people at rest, the renal kidneys pump a little over 5 cups of blood to your kidneys each minute.
The outer layer of your kidney, where the nephrons begin. The renal cortex also creates the hormone erythropoietin , which helps make red blood cells in your bone marrow.
The renal medulla is the inner part of your kidney. It contains most of the nephrons with their glomeruli and renal tubules. The renal tubules carry urine to the renal pelvis.
These pyramid-shaped structures transfer urine to the ureters. Dehydration and certain medications especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrugs may damage your renal papilla.
This funnel-shaped structure collects urine and passes it down two ureters. Urine travels from the ureters to the bladder, where its stored.
This vein is the main blood vessel that carries filtered blood out of your kidneys and back to your heart. Each of your kidneys has a renal vein.
How Adrenal Gland Disorders Are Diagnosed
Testing for adrenal gland disorders is usually done by an endocrinologist. You will probably have your blood, urine, and/or saliva checked for levels of the hormones secreted by the adrenal gland. The doctor may also order one or more imaging tests of your adrenals such as an CT scan, MRI, or nuclear scan. If your health care provider believes your adrenal gland problem is due to a malfunction in another gland , such as a pituitary tumor, you might also need testing done on your pituitary gland.
The severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is most commonly identified during newborn screening.
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The Kidneys Are Retroperitoneal Organs In The Abdomen
The kidneys are located behind the peritoneum, and so are called retroperitoneal organs. They sit in the back of the abdomen between the levels of the T12 and L03 vertebrae. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney to accommodate the liver. Both kidneys are bean-shaped and about the size of an adult fist.
What Common Conditions And Disorders Affect The Adrenal Glands
There are several different adrenal gland disorders. They happen when your adrenal glands make too much or not enough of one or more hormones. Some adrenal conditions are temporary, whereas others are chronic .
Causes of adrenal gland disorders include:
- Genetic mutations .
- Damage to your adrenal glands through injury, infection or blood loss.
- An issue with your hypothalamus or pituitary gland, which both help regulate your adrenal glands.
- Certain steroid medications, such as prednisone and dexamethasone.
Adrenal gland conditions include:
- Addisons disease : This is a rare autoimmune disease that causes your adrenal glands to produce lower-than-normal levels of cortisol and aldosterone.
- Cushings syndrome: This condition happens when your adrenal glands produce too much cortisol. Its usually caused by a tumor or certain medications.
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: This is a condition youre born with where your body lacks an enzyme that your adrenal glands need to make hormones.
- Excessive hair growth : This condition happens when women and people assigned female at birth develop excessive hair growth due to high levels of androgen, which your adrenal glands make.
- Primary aldosteronism : This condition happens when your adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone.
- Massive bilateral adrenal hemorrhage : This is an acute condition that leads to adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the gland. Its usually associated with a severe infection called .
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Excess Of Aldosterone: Hyperaldosteronism
Hyperaldosteronism results from overproduction of aldosterone from one or both adrenal glands. This is characterized by increase in blood pressure that often requires many medications to control. Some people can develop low potassium levels in the blood, which can cause muscle aches, weakness and spasms. When the cause is adrenal oversecretion, the disease is called Conn syndrome.
The Kidneys Are Composed Of Three Main Sections
Each kidney consists of an outer renal cortex, an inner renal medulla, and a renal pelvis. Blood is filtered in the renal cortex. The renal medulla contains the renal pyramids, where urine formation takes place. Urine passes from the renal pyramids into the renal pelvis. This funnel-shaped structure occupies the central cavity of each kidney and then narrows as it extends out to join the ureter. Urine drains from the renal pelvis into the ureter.
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What To Know About Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is a condition that worsens over time and results in the progressive loss of kidney function . This can happen over months or years, though in some cases it happens much faster. Diabetes, high blood pressure, and even certain medications are all potential causes of CKD. Other possible causes include kidney injury from infection or trauma, as well as certain genetic conditions.
Chronic kidney disease can cause fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, frequent infections, easy bleeding, and changes in skin color. Swelling in the legs or ankles may occur in advanced stages of CKD due to fluid retention. People in this stage may also have difficulty urinating and have blood in their urine. Chronic kidney disease can progress to kidney failure, which occurs when the kidneys no longer function properly. This is a potentially fatal condition that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive.
Which Endocrine Gland Sits On Top Of The Kidney
Adrenal glandsAdrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of both kidneys. Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions.
Which gland is found on the kidney?
About the adrenal glands The adrenals are small glands that sit above each of the kidneys. The kidneys are located deep inside the upper part of the abdomen. Each adrenal gland has 2 parts. The outer part, the cortex, is where most tumors develop.
What is the outer layer of the kidney?
cortexThe cortex is the outer layer and contains the kidneys filtering structures. The medulla is the middle layer.
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How Can I Keep My Kidneys Healthy
Its important to have regular checkups and blood and urine tests to measure your kidneys health. You can reduce your risk of developing a kidney problem by:
- Avoiding or quitting smoking and using tobacco products. Your provider can help you find ways to quit.
- Cutting out excess salt, which can affect the balance of minerals in your blood.
- Increasing daily exercise, which can reduce high blood pressure.
- Limiting your use of NSAIDs. NSAIDs can cause kidney damage if you take them too much.
- Watching your blood sugar levels if you have diabetes.
Whats Special About University Of Michigans Treatment For Adrenal Disease
Surgeons in the Division of Endocrine surgery at University of Michigan are experts in providing care for patients with adrenal disorders. Our surgeons offer treatment for both common conditions and the most advanced types of adrenal disease, including adrenal cancer. We are often referred patients with highly complex issues requiring state of the art surgical care not available elsewhere.
The care we provide, both in and out of the operating room, is based on years of research and personal experience. We are constantly evaluating new techniques and therapies to care for patients with adrenal disorders and to provide the best and most up-to-date care possible.
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Little Nephrons Why Are You So Cool
I dont want to get all nerdy on you, but this is important stuff, I promise not put anything in here that you dont need to know, so Ill get straight to the point. Basically when something goes wrong with your kidneys we are mainly talking about your nephrons . Thats it, thats all I wanted to say ).
However, I will just quickly show you this diagram to help you understand what a nephron looks like. See all the little wriggly lines and the ball to the right of the image? All of that constitutes one nephron. Each of the little sections that make up that ball and string do have their own names, but together they create the filtering units of the kidneys . Cool hey? It never ceases to amaze me that the body can create such machines on such a minute scale, then multiply it by one million, and then fit them all into a organ no larger than your fist.
They are almost part of the kidneys themselves! But this fact is rarely stated. Weird I know. Anyway, that is another entirely different blog post . But I will give you a hint the adrenal glands are your anti-stress glands and are mainly activated during stressful events. The stress increases the activity of the adrenal glands and the kidneys get stuck in the middle of it all
Well there you have it folks! I hope that has helped you gain insight into your body and how it functions, plus give you a good foundation for future posts. Look forward to our next chat.
To Your Health,
What Hormones Do My Adrenal Glands Produce
The adrenal cortex produces three hormones, from three different layers:
1. Mineralocorticoids: the most important of which is aldosterone. This hormone helps to maintain the bodys salt and water balance, which is important for maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone helps the kidney conserve salt when it is needed. It acts in the kidney to cause sodium and water to be retained, and potassium to be lost. This action is important if the body has low salt and water levels, that could risk a low blood pressure. However, too much aldosterone can cause high blood pressure and low potassium. Without aldosterone , the kidney loses excessive amounts of salt and, consequently, water, leading to severe dehydration and low blood pressure. In summary, if we do not have enough salt in the body, aldosterone production is switched on and the kidney retains salt, but if we have too much salt, the amount of aldosterone being made is reduced and the kidney can excrete the excess salt.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone , secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, primarily affects the release of glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens by the adrenal gland and, to a much lesser extent, also stimulates aldosterone release.
The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines:
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What You Need To Know
- Adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of both kidneys.
- Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions.
- Adrenal glands are composed of two parts the cortex and the medulla which are each responsible for producing different hormones.
- When adrenal glands dont produce enough hormones, this can lead to adrenal insufficiency .
- Adrenal glands may develop nodules that can be benign or malignant, which can potentially produce excessive amounts of certain hormones leading to various health issues.
What Do Your Adrenal Glands Do
Your adrenal glands are responsible for producing and releasing the following essential hormones:
These hormones can be categorized into two broad groups:
- Catecholamines: Catecholamines are a group of similar substances that your body releases into your blood in response to physical or emotional stress. The primary catecholamines are dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. The adrenal medulla, the inner part of your adrenal glands, produces and releases the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline.
- Steroid hormones: Steroid hormones help control metabolism, inflammation, immune system functions, salt and water balance, development of sexual characteristics and the ability to withstand injury and illness. The adrenal cortex, the outer region of your adrenal glands, produce and release glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens, which are all types of steroid hormones.
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Anatomy Of The Adrenal Glands
An adrenal gland is made of two main parts:
The adrenal cortex is the outer region and also the largest part of an adrenal gland. It is divided into three separate zones: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. Each zone is responsible for producing specific hormones.
The adrenal medulla is located inside the adrenal cortex in the center of an adrenal gland. It produces stress hormones, including adrenaline.
The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla are enveloped in an adipose capsulethat forms a protective layer around an adrenal gland.
When Should I See My Doctor About My Adrenal Glands
If you have concerning symptoms such as high or low blood pressure and unexplained weight loss or weight gain, reach out to your healthcare provider. While many conditions could cause these symptoms, it could be an issue with your adrenal glands.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Your adrenal glands produce many important hormones that are necessary for everyday bodily functions. If you have any adrenal disorder-related symptoms or want to know if you have any risk factors for developing an adrenal condition, dont be afraid to talk to your healthcare provider. Theyre there to help you.
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