Blocked Ureter And Kidney Infection
A kidney stone that blocks the ureter can lead to a kidney infection. This is because waste products are unable to pass the blockage, which may cause a build-up of bacteria.
The symptoms of a kidney infection are similar to symptoms of kidney stones, but may also include:
- a high temperature of 38C or over
- chills and shivering
Kidney stones are usually formed following a build-up of certain chemicals in the body.
This build-up may be any of the following:
- uric acid a waste product produced when the body breaks down food to use as energy
- cysteine an amino acid that helps to build protein
Certain medical conditions can lead to an unusually high level of these substances in your urine.
Youâre also more likely to develop kidney stones if you donât drink enough fluids.
Rise In Kidney Stones In Teens A Cause For Concern
Researchers also report growing number of cases among women, blacks and children
FRIDAY, Jan. 15, 2016 — A growing number of teens, women and blacks are being diagnosed with kidney stones, and the trend is cause for alarm, researchers report.
Historically, middle-aged white men have been most likely to develop the painful condition, which involves small, hard mineral deposits that form in the kidneys, often when urine becomes concentrated.
The researchers analyzed data from South Carolina from 1997 to 2012, and found that the annual incidence of kidney stones among children and adults rose 16 percent during that time. The largest increases were among teens , females , and blacks .
During the study period, the risk of kidney stones doubled among children, and there was a 45 percent increase in the lifetime risk for women.
Teen girls had the highest rate of increase in kidney stones, and they were more common among females aged 10 to 24 than among males in the same age group. After age 25, kidney stones were more common in men, the study authors said.
Kidney stone incidence rose 15 percent more in blacks than in whites during each five-year period of the study, according to the findings, published online Jan. 14 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
What Are The Types Of Kidney Stones
The four major types of kidney stones are:
1. Calcium stones: The most common kind of kidney stone, these grow when calcium in the pee combines with other substances to form crystals.
2. Cystine stones: These are rare and form when there is too much cystine in the urine.
3. Uric acid stones: These form when there is too much uric acid in the pee. Uric acid can crystallize by itself or combine with calcium to form a stone.
4. Struvite stones: Also called staghorn calculi because they can look like a stag’s antlers. These are made of a mineral called struvite. Struvite stones are almost always due to an infection of the kidneys or urinary tract. They’re more common in females, can grow rather large, and can be more harmful to the kidneys than other stones.
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Identifying Groups Of Patients At Greatest Risk Of Kidney Stones
Researchers, clinicians and public health experts have been aware of the overall increase in kidney stones in children and adolescents, but the current study provided greater clarity on the specific groups of patients at greatest risk by analyzing age, race and sex characteristics among children and adults in South Carolina over a 16-year period, from 1997 to 2012.
Drawing on state medical records, the study team analyzed data from nearly 153,000 child and adult kidney stone patients from a total population of 4.6 million. Overall, the annual incidence of kidney stones increased 16 percent between 1997 and 2012. The greatest rates of increase were among adolescents , females , and African-Americans . Between 1997 and 2012 the risk of kidney stones doubled during childhood for both boys and girls, while there was a 45 percent increase in the lifetime risk for women.
The highest rate of increase in kidney stones was among adolescent females, and in any given year, stones were more common among females than males aged 10 to 24 years. After age 25, kidney stones became more common among men.
Among African-Americans, the incidence of kidney stone increased 15 percent more than in whites within each five-year period covered by the study.
Does It Hurt To Pee Out A Kidney Stone
Pain or burning during urination Once the stone reaches the junction between the ureter and bladder, youll start to feel pain when you urinate . Your doctor might call this dysuria. The pain can feel sharp or burning. If you dont know you have a kidney stone, you might mistake it for a urinary tract infection.
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Dehydration Inactivity And Sodium Play A Role
If a kidney stone is diagnosed, your childs urine is collected for 24 hours. Its then sent to a lab to test the mineral content and levels, the amount of each mineral in the urine and note the amount of urine produced which will evaluate for metabolic disorders such as diabetes.
Its rare for me to find a metabolic disorder, but almost every patient Ive seen has a low volume of urine. If youre not making enough urine, youre probably not taking in enough fluid, says Dr. Rhee.
Since fluids help flush minerals through your urinary system, not staying hydrated is associated with developing kidney stones. Lots of kids think they drink enough water, but especially if theyre active, they need to drink more, says Dr. Rhee.
So how much water is enough? For kids over 12, I recommend from 2 to 2 1/2 liters of water a day, Dr. Rhee says. For a younger child, 1 to 1 1/2 liters.
A sedentary lifestyle and a high sodium intake in your diet are also associated with the development of kidney stones, notes Dr. Rhee. Fast food and highly processed foods are key offenders.
Should You Go To Er For Kidney Stones
If you do suspect a kidney stone, a trip to an emergency room is advisable, especially if you are experiencing intense, uncontrollable pain. At the hospital, doctors can make the diagnosis and provide treatment for an active kidney stone. Imaging such as x-rays, or a CT scan, will confirm if a stone is present.
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Kidney Stones Feel Like A Stomachache
MYTH BUSTED: Kidney stones are more along the lines of a contraction, and some people it is more severe than labor, so go ask your mom if labor is just like a stomachache and send us her reaction. Trust us, the pain can range from a stabbing sensation to pain along the lines of menstrual cramps. Its definitely not a tummy ache.
Help For Your Kids Kidneys
Problems with diet or fluid intake and imbalances in certain electrolytes and urinary substances contribute to most cases of childhood kidney stones. Some children may be more prone to developing stones if other family members have also had them.
Encourage your child to drink less soda the sugars it contains have been linked to stones and plenty of water, Dr. Nguyen says. This keeps things flowing through the urinary tract. School-age kids should aim for five cups per day, while teens may need up to 11 cups.
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Kidney Stone Causes Symptoms Treatments & Prevention
Your kidneys remove waste and fluid from your blood to make urine . Sometimes, when you have too much waste and not enough fluid in your blood, these wastes can build up and stick together in your kidneys. These clumps of waste are called kidney stones.
How Are Kidney Stones Treated
Treatment depends on the type of kidney stone and its size. Some people only need to drink a lot of water and take pain medicines to pass a kidney stone. Those with larger stones may need surgery or other treatments to help remove the stones.
There are different types of stones. A stone that passes in pee and is caught in a strainer can be tested to see what type it is. Knowing that can help doctors find the cause and offer advice how to treat it and prevent other stones.
To help pass a small stone, drink plenty of water and take medicine to ease the pain. Often, over-the-counter medicines such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen are enough. But sometimes, doctors prescribe pain medicine.
The doctor might ask you to strain your pee for a few days to collect the kidney stones. Examining them can help the doctor decide if you need more treatment.
Teens whose kidney stones block the urinary tract or cause severe pain or dehydration may need care in a hospital. They might get intravenous fluids and pain medicine to help the stones pass and treat dehydration.
Large stones rarely pass on their own. To get rid of large stones and stones that are damaging the kidneys, doctors can do a procedure to break up the stone. This lets the smaller pieces pass on their own or be removed with a scope or surgery.
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What Are The Causes And Risk Factors Of Kidney Stones
Anyone can get a kidney stone, but some people are more likely than others to have them. Men get kidney stones more often than women do. Kidney stones are also more common in non-Hispanic white people than in people of other ethnicities. You may also be more likely to have kidney stones if:
- You have had kidney stones before.
- Someone in your family has had kidney stones.
- You dont drink enough water.
- You follow a diet high in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
Causes Of Kidney Stones In Teens
Some of the common causes of kidney stones in teens and children are increased levels of oxalate, calcium, and phosphate in the urine. The following factors may increase the risk of kidney stones in teens .
- Certain dietary factors, such as too little water intake and certain foods, may influence the number of minerals and their concentration in the urine.
- Family history of kidney stones
- Personal history of kidney stones
- Excessive consumption of sugary drinks and caffeinated beverages may cause urine to become more concentrated.
- Excess sodium in the diet
- Obesity and lack of physical activity
- Immobility after surgery
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More Us Teens Diagnosed With Kidney Stones
By Amy Norton, Reuters Health
5 Min Read
NEW YORK – More teenagers are being diagnosed with kidney stones now than in years past, a study from one U.S. state suggests.
The research, which followed Minnesota children from 1984 to 2008, found that the rate of kidney stones climbed six percent each year among teenagers.
Between 1984 and 1990, the annual rate was 13 cases for every 100,000 12- to 17-year-olds. That figure nearly tripled, to 36 per 100,000, between 2003 and 2008.
Researchers say they are not sure of the reasons — or even whether teenagers are actually suffering the stones at a higher rate. It may be that more cases are being diagnosed since doctors started using highly sensitive CT scans that can detect smaller kidney stones.
There has been much speculation about how the incidence of kidney stones might be changing over time in the pediatric population, lead researcher Dr. Moira E. Dwyer, of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, said in an email.
But until now, she added, there has not been a sound epidemiologic study to confirm or refute suspicions.
Dwyer and her colleagues report their findings in the Journal of Urology.
Kidney stones develop when the urine contains more crystal-forming substances — like calcium, uric acid and a compound called oxalate — than can be diluted by the available fluid.
Small stones usually pass through the urine without any special treatment, though kids may need pain medication and plenty of fluids to help the stones along.
Should I Cut Calcium Out Of My Diet If I Develop Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones
If you develop kidney stones composed of calcium, you may be tempted to stop eating foods that include calcium. However, this is the opposite of what you should do. If you have calcium oxalate stones, the most common type, its recommended that you have a diet higher in calcium and lower in oxalate.
Foods that are high in calcium include:
- Cows milk.
Its also important to drink plenty of fluids to dilute the substances in your urine.
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As Always Consult Your Physician
If you feel you may be suffering from kidney stone symptoms, your first course of action should always be to consult your physician. Dr. Cornell is a well-respected, board certified urologist serving the greater Houston area. Contact our office today to get a referral if you are suffering from urinary or kidney pain.
How Can I Get An Appointment
If you would like a referral to the Kidney Stones Clinic, talk to your primary care provider. If you have a referral, please call option 2 to schedule an appointment.
Before your clinic visit well ask you to collect your childs pee for 24 hours. It will be tested in the laboratory before your clinic visit. We also will ask you to schedule an ultrasound for the same day as your clinic visit. Results from the urine tests and ultrasound will help our doctors tailor treatment to your child.
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Better Detection Dietary Changes
Doctors are still trying to figure out why the rate among teens is surging. Many blame changes to our diet, especially an increase in salt, phosphates, and protein. Technology has also made it easier to pick up very small stones using CT scans and ultrasound.
Alicia Neu, chief of pediatric nephrology at the Johns Hopkins Childrens Center, said improved imaging has allowed doctors to detect the condition earlier.
Ten, 20, 30 years ago, if that child presented with mild abdominal pain or back pain and maybe a little bit of blood in the urine, we might not have seen the stone and diagnosed them either with viral gastroenteritis or constipation, she said.
Nevertheless, the substantial growth in patients led Johns Hopkins to establish a pediatric stone program about a decade ago, and patient volume has continued to increase.
Doctors are seeing similar growth across the country, and specialized pediatric kidney centers are sprouting up to meet demand. CHOP has had a Pediatric Kidney Stone Center since 2014. Childrens Hospital Los Angeles established a comprehensive stone program two years ago to deal with the sharp increase in the number of young patients with kidney stones.
Weve had basically a triple in the number of stone cases that we do over the past two years, said Scott Sparks, assistant professor of clinical urology who directs the program.
What Causes Kidney Stones In Children
Certain foods and beverages may increase the chances of having a kidney stone in children who are more likely to develop them.
When children cant move for a long time, for example when a child is in a cast after surgery, the chances of developing a kidney stone are higher. When children arent moving, their bones may release extra calcium into the blood.
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How Will My Childs Kidney Stones Be Treated
Some smaller stones in the kidney and ureter may pass in the urine just by drinking more fluids and taking certain medications, but other stones may need to be broken up and removed by surgery.
At Nationwide Childrens, my pediatric urology colleagues and I have undergone several years of additional training in all forms of stone removal surgery for children and adolescents. This includes shock wave procedures and other minimally invasive techniques with the latest and most advanced surgical equipment for stone surgery, including specialized pediatric-sized telescopes and laser technology for removing kidney stones.
In cooperation with the pediatric nephrologists at Nationwide Childrens, we are the best place in central Ohio and beyond to care for any child with kidney stones.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Stones And How Do You Treat It
Dr. Alon: It depends on the age of the child. Young children may have general complaints of a tummy ache and sometimes throw up. Older children and adolescents will have pain in the flank, back or lower abdomen, and the pain will often be excruciating. In some cases, blood may be present in the urine.
Most of the time kidney stones will pass on their own. The pain will go away once passed. On average, it takes hours or days to pass a kidney stone. Medications can help dilate the urinary passage to help move the stone out of the system. If its too big or if its been longer than a week than an urologist will likely intervene to remove the stone. Kidney stones left untreated can deteriorate kidney function.
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What Is The Treatment For Kidney Stones
Most often, non-surgical approaches are taken when treating small kidney stones, with most of the focus on managing the childs pain. Children waiting to pass stones at home should urinate into a coffee filter, loose tea filter or urine strainer, so that the stone can be collected and brought into the urology center to be analyzed under a microscope.
Today, minimally invasive treatment is used for almost all large or obstructing kidney stones. Although the majority of smaller stones will pass without a medical procedure, large stones that are unlikely to pass through on their own must be broken up by a process known as lithotripsy. Extracorporeal lithotripsy, also called ESWL, uses shock waves from an outside source to break the stones into smaller fragments that can be swept away in urine. This is the most common procedure used to break up large stones.
Sometimes a stone will form or get stuck in the bladder. If this happens, then the child may need a cystoscopy. With this procedure, a small telescope is passed up the urethra to the bladder. The stone is then removed by passing a basket-like device up the scope to retrieve it. This is often done when stones are larger or have irregular shape and is done under general anesthesia.
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