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Can A Kidney Stone Cause Incontinence

Study Subjects And Controls

Why do stents cause some kidney stone patients pain?

The present study enrolled a total of 1777 adult subjects who had been diagnosed with primary urinary incontinence between 1997 and 2001, and whose data were included in the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan. The inclusion criteria were: adult patients aged 18 years at the time of their enrollment in the National Health Insurance program between January 1, 1997 and January 1, 2001, and patients who had been diagnosed with urinary incontinence . Exclusion criteria were: presence of spinal cord injury plus cauda equina syndrome , presence of SCI plus neurogenic bladder and patients with urinary tract stones prior to inclusion in the study. Accordingly, no enrolled subjects had a previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. The number of radiologic imaging tests in subjects and controls was matched in order to reduce bias. All subjects were followed to the end of 2009 with a minimum follow-up of 8 years.

Inhibitors Of Stone Formation

Normal urine contains chelating agents, such as citrate, that inhibit the nucleation, growth, and aggregation of calcium-containing crystals. Other endogenous inhibitors include calgranulin , TammHorsfall protein, glycosaminoglycans, uropontin , nephrocalcin , prothrombin F1 peptide, and bikunin . The biochemical mechanisms of action of these substances have not yet been thoroughly elucidated. However, when these substances fall below their normal proportions, stones can form from an aggregation of crystals.

Sufficient dietary intake of magnesium and citrate inhibits the formation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones in addition, magnesium and citrate operate synergistically to inhibit kidney stones. Magnesium’s efficacy in subduing stone formation and growth is dose-dependent.

Related Conditions And Causes Of Urinary Incontinence

Fecal incontinence is light to moderate bowel leakage due to diarrhea, constipation, or muscle or nerve damage.

As described in the section above on causes of urinary incontinence, common conditions may contribute to chronic urinary incontinence, including: urinary tract infection , constipation, interstitial cystitis or other bladder conditions, nerve damage that affects bladder control, side effects from a prior surgery, and neurological disorders.

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What Is Ureteral Stent Placement

The urine formed in the kidney is carried to the bladder by a fine muscular tube called a ureter. The bladder then acts as a reservoir for the urine. However, sometimes the kidneys and ureter can become obstructed. This can be caused by a kidney stone, narrowing of the ureter or after an instrument has been inserted into the ureter or kidneys. This causes pressure to build up behind the kidney, causing the function of the kidneys to suffer. First designed in 1967, the ureteral stent, also known as a ureteric stent, is a thin, hollow tube. It is placed in the ureter to help urine pass from the kidneys to the bladder. This is often performed under a brief general anaesthetic via a telescope. A guidewire is inserted into the ureteric opening in the bladder and, using X-ray screening, is passed up into the kidney. They have both ends coiled to ensure they stay in place. Today, ureteral stents are inserted as an almost routine procedure in patients with ureteric obstruction. They can also be useful for many conditions such as hydronephrosis due to stone disease, pregnancy, UTIs and a malignant neoplasm. In general, they are considered safe and well-tolerated. However, there are different complications that may occur with short or long-term use of the stents.

Urinary incontinence and increased frequency in passing urine

-Blood in the urine

-A small amount of blood in the urine

-Risk of a stone forming around the stent

Kidney Stones Symptoms And Treatments

Can Kidney Stones Cause Urinary Incontinence?

Kidney stones are a fairly common condition that tend to affect people more during middle age . Stones can form in one or both kidneys and quite often can just pass through the urinary system undetected and without causing any pain. Sometimes large stones can get blocked and cause considerable pain called renal colic. In this instance a treatment to break up the stone or surgery may be required.

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Drinking Plenty Of Fluids

To aid the removal of the stone, it is important to drink plenty of clear fluids. Keeping well hydrated will also help to prevent stones from forming too. Drinking lots of water is particularly important if you have a stone that has formed from uric acid as this will help to break the stone down. In these instance you will be advised to try to drink around three litres of water a day and may also be given a medication to make your urine more alkaline, which will also help the stone break down.

How Is Urinary Incontinence Diagnosed

Your health care provider may use many tools to make a diagnosis:

  • A medical history, which includes asking about your symptoms. Your provider may ask you to keep a bladder diary for a few days before your appointment. The bladder diary includes how much and when you drink liquids, when and how much you urinate, and whether you leak urine.
  • A physical exam, which can include a rectal exam. Women may also get a pelvic exam.
  • Urine and/or blood tests
  • Imaging tests

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Kidney Stones And Incontinence

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Types Of Kidney Stones

Ways to Pass Kidney Stones – Quynh Dao Tonnu, PA C

There are four types of kidney stones. These include:

  • Calcium stones. These are the most common type of kidney stones. Certain diets or metabolic conditions or medications may contribute to an increase in calcium in urine.

  • Struvite stones. These types of stones form in response to an infection, like a bladder infection. Although rare, these stones can be more common in people prone to getting urinary tract infections.

  • Uric acid stones. These happen to people who drink too little fluids or who eat a high protein diet. Certain conditions can also lead to uric acid stones, such as type 2 diabetes, or gout.

  • Cystine stones. A hereditary condition causing the kidneys to produce too much of certain amino acids.

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Sclerotherapy Of Kidney Cysts

If a patient is experiencing symptoms such as pain and discomfort, treatment may be required. A procedure called sclerotherapy may be recommended. This involves draining the cyst with a fine needle under ultrasound-guidance. Alcohol is then instilled into the area to harden up the tissue. This is an outpatient procedure that is done under local anesthesia. The cysts can recur in up to 50 percent of cases following sclerotherapy.

How Do You Prevent Kidney Stones

Some people are more prone to develop kidney stones, based on heredity or their own history of stones. People who have had kidney stones in the past are more likely to develop another in the future.

However, there are some things that you can do to help prevent those hard mineral deposits from forming in the first place.

  • Stay Hydrated. Ensure youre drinking enough water to stay hydrated. By maintain a good amount of fluid in the body, the kidney is better able to filter calcium, making it less likely that a build up will occur.

  • Watch Your Diet. If you suffer from frequent kidney stones, avoid high protein diets, and reduce your sugar, and especially your salt consumption. Watch your calcium intake too to ensure youre not overdoing it .

  • Reduce Your Weight. Losing weight can reduce your risk for kidney stones. This is in part because reducing your weight may lead to a healthier diet, with less salty food or animal fats. Incorporate lots of fruits and vegetables into your diet and practice regular exercise to reduce the weight.

If you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above, make an appointment with your doctor to get it checked out.

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Prevention Of Urinary Tract Stones

In a person who has passed a calcium stone for the first time, the likelihood of forming another stone is about 15% within 1 year, 40% within 5 years, and 80% within 10 years. Measures to prevent the formation of new stones vary, depending on the composition of the existing stones.

Drinking large amounts of fluids8 to 10 ten-ounce glasses a dayis recommended for prevention of all stones. People should drink enough fluid to produce more than about 2 quarts of urine per day. Other preventive measures depend somewhat on the type of stone.

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Kidney Stone Symptoms Urge To Urinate

24-year-old Jack looks back on his experience with kidney stones, stating it was the worst pain ever. Ive had two back surgeries and would rather have another one than deal with stones. However, I waited until I literally would rather die than go through the pain of waiting, and it couldve been prevented if Id gone earlier to prevent the excruciating pain.

In 2016, it was revealed that one in seven people are now likely to require hospital treatment for kidney stones. Many people are set to suffer the consequences with a significant strain being placed on the NHS. The rise of obesity in the UK is thought to be one contribution to this. There is a direct link between being overweight or obese and the development of kidney stones. With obesity set to increase significantly over the upcoming years, the condition is expected to continue rising.

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What Causes A Kidney Infection

Most often, the bacteria that cause a kidney infection are the same as those that cause ordinary urinary tract infections. Bacteria found in bowel are the most common type. In rare cases, kidney infections can be caused from bacteria found on the skin or in the environment.

Bacteria enter the body from the skin around the urethra. They then travel up the urethra to the bladder. A kidney infection happens when the bacteria escape the bladder and urethra and travel up the ureters to one or both kidneys. Usually it is only one kidney that develops an infection.

Sometimes, conditions that create a reduced urine flow can contribute to kidney infections. Chiefly because bacteria can more easily travel up the ureters when urine flow slows or stops altogether.

A kidney infection can occur at any age and is much more common in women than men. This is because women are more at risk of developing a bladder infection, which can then spread to the kidneys. This happens because a womans urethra is closer to the anus allowing bacteria to be easily introduced from the bowel and to travel up the urethra.

Other common ways bacteria can find its way into the bladder include:

Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Stones

Stones, especially tiny ones, may not cause any symptoms. Stones in the bladder may cause pain in the lower abdomen. Stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis or any of the kidneys drainage tubes may cause back pain or renal colic. Renal colic is characterized by an excruciating intermittent pain, usually in the area between the ribs and hip on one side, that spreads across the abdomen and often extends to the genital area. The pain tends to come in waves, gradually increasing to a peak intensity, then fading, over about 20 to 60 minutes. The pain may radiate down the abdomen toward the groin or testis or vulva.

Other symptoms include nausea and vomiting, restlessness, sweating, and blood or a stone or a piece of a stone in the urine. A person may have an urge to urinate frequently, particularly as a stone passes down the ureter. Chills, fever, burning or pain during urination, cloudy, foul-smelling urine, and abdominal swelling sometimes occur.

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Can Kidney Stones Cause Bladder Incontinence

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Symptoms Of Renal Cysts

How Do I Know If I Have a Kidney Stone – Chelsie Ferrell, PA

Most simple renal cysts do not cause any symptoms. They may slowly grow over time, but it is not necessary to monitor them with repeat studies. Patients with minimally complex lesions typically require annual follow-up with a kidney ultrasound and possibly MRI.

Sometimes kidney cysts may cause pain and discomfort due to their size or because of an infection. Other symptoms may include fever, changes in urinary habits, and blood in the urine. In this situation, treatment may be required. If infection is present, antibiotic treatment is usually effective. In patients with persistent pain, percutaneous drainage and ablation with sclerotherapy, or surgical decortication of the cyst may be beneficial.

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Who Is At Risk For Urinary Incontinence

In adults, you are at higher risk of developing UI if you

  • Are female, especially after going through pregnancy, childbirth, and/or menopause
  • Are older. As you age, your urinary tract muscles weaken, making it harder to hold in urine.
  • Are a man with prostate problems
  • Have certain health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, or long-lasting constipation
  • Are a smoker
  • Have a birth defect that affects the structure of your urinary tract

In children, bedwetting is more common in younger children, boys, and those whose parents wet the bed when they were children.

How Will My Doctor Find Out What Kind Of Stone I Have

Try to catch a stone in a strainer. The best way for your doctor to find out what kind of stone you have is to test the stone itself. If you know that you are passing a stone, try to catch it in a strainer.

Your doctor may ask for a urine sample or take blood to find out what caused your stone. You may need to collect your urine for a 24-hour period. These tests will help your doctor find ways for you to avoid stones in the future.

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Are Kidney Stones Painful

Kidney stones can range from being uncomfortable, to extremely painful, and the amount of pain, and location of that pain can change as the stone moves through your urinary tract.

Why are kidney stones so painful? It makes sense when you think about it. The stone is trying to pass through the tube from the kidney to the bladder, which is extremely small. As the stone enters the tube, it may block urine, causing it to build up and create pressure and pain. In addition, the ureter contracts as the stone moves through it, pushing it closer to the bladder to get rid of it, which also causes pain.

You may feel this pain in the back or sides, where the kidneys are located or, as the stone moves closer to the bladder, you may feel it in your abdomen or groin, and urination may feel painful, much like when you have a urinary tract infection.

What Are The Complications Of Urinary Retention And Its Treatments

Can Kidney Stones Cause Urinary Incontinence?

Some complications of urinary retention and its treatments may include:

  • Urinary Tract Infections Because urine is normally sterile and the normal flow of urine usually prevents bacteria from infecting the urinary tract, developing urinary retention means an abnormal urine flow gives bacteria at the opening of the urethra a chance to infect the urinary tract.
  • Bladder damage If your bladder is stretched too far or for extended periods, the muscles may become permanently damaged and lose their ability to properly contract.
  • Kidney damage Sometime urinary retention can cause urine to flow back into the kidneys. This is called reflux and can damage or scar the kidneys.
  • Urinary incontinence Transurethral surgery to treat an enlarged prostate can result in urinary incontinence in some men. Its often temporary with most men gaining bladder control in a few weeks or months after surgery. The removal of tumours or cancerous tissue in the bladder, prostate, or urethra may also result in urinary incontinence.

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Are There Any Treatments

Yes. Urine leakage can often be stopped or lessened after the doctor finds the cause. Some treatments that have helped other people include drugs, behavioral therapy, special exercises, biofeedback, electrical stimulation and surgery.

DRUGS: Several drugs are available for treating incontinence, depending on what is causing your problem. Some of these drugs, called “bladder relaxants,” prevent urine leakage by decreasing bladder contractions. Another type of drug helps some kinds of incontinence by strengthening muscle contractions at the outlet of the bladder. Estrogens also have been helpful for some women after menopause. A nasal spray that causes you to make less urine is also used for day and nighttime urine leakage .

BEHAVIORAL THERAPY: You can work with a specially trained therapist who will help you to control your urine leakage.

EXERCISE: You can learn to do special exercises to strengthen the muscles that prevent leakage of urine from the bladder.

BIOFEEDBACK: These techniques also help you to gain control over your bladder and to strengthen the sphincter muscle.

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION: This method can help you to strengthen your sphincter muscle and keep your bladder from contracting when you do not want this to happen.

Are We Moving Forward

Progress has been made recently in the development of drug-eluting expandable metal stents and biodegradable stents. Currently, engineering technologies are being investigated to provide stents with better biocompatibility and drug-elution characteristics. This may help prevent common complications and will be an important step forward. To prevent complications after surgery, please ensure you are given a clear date as to when the stent needs to be removed. The indications for stent insertion should be considered carefully in each patient. If you feel any unbearable pain or discomfort after the procedure, ensure you contact a Doctor.

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