What Causes A Bladder Infection
Bacteria that enter through the urethra and move into the bladder cause bladder infections. Normally, the body removes the bacteria by flushing them out during urination.
Bacteria can sometimes attach to the walls of the bladder and multiply quickly. This overwhelms the bodys ability to destroy them, resulting in a bladder infection.
According to the
- a frequent sensation of having to urinate, which is called urgency
- cramping or pressure in the lower abdomen or lower back
When bladder infections spread, they can also cause mid-back pain. This pain is associated with infection in the kidneys. Unlike muscular back pain, this pain will be persistent regardless of your position or activity.
A kidney infection will often cause fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. Youll typically feel quite ill. Kidney infections are more serious than bladder infections and require urgent medical attention.
What Causes A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are caused by microorganisms usually bacteria that enter the urethra and bladder, causing inflammation and infection. Though a UTI most commonly happens in the urethra and bladder, bacteria can also travel up the ureters and infect your kidneys.
More than 90% of bladder infection cases are caused by E. coli, a bacterium normally found in the intestines.
How Bad Can A Urine Infection Get
Untreated urinary tract infections may spread to the kidney, causing more pain and illness. It can also cause sepsis. The term urosepsis is usually used to describe sepsis caused by a UTI. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the bodys often deadly response to infection or injury.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Infection
If you have a kidney infection, you may notice one or more of the following symptoms:
- Pain in your back, side or groin
- Feeling like you have to urinate often, even if you just went
- Pain or burning when urinating
- Pus or blood in your urine
- Cloudy or bad-smelling urine
If you notice any of these symptoms, contact your health care provider as soon as possible. If you are currently taking medicine to treat a urinary tract infection , but you are still having any of these symptoms, contact your health care provider.
If your health care provider thinks you might have a kidney infection, he or she might ask you for a urine sample to look or bacteria or other signs of infection. You might also need to have a blood test or imaging tests, such as an X-ray, ultrasound or CT scan.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Uti
One of the most common symptoms of a UTI is a frequent and urgent need to pee. You might feel like you need to pee all the time, even if you just went. Other UTI symptoms include:
pain or burning when you pee
bad-smelling or cloudy urine
blood or pus in your urine
soreness, pressure, or cramps in your lower belly, back, or sides
If the infection goes to your kidneys, your UTI symptoms may also include:
pain in your mid-back
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Swollen Or Puffy Face
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys dont remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the face.
What patients said:
My sister, her hair started to fall out, she was losing weight, but her face was really puffy, you know, and everything like that, before she found out what was going on with her.
My checks were always puffy and tight. Sometimes they would even hurt.
When To Seek Immediate Medical Attention
UTIs are uncomfortable, but theyre not an immediate medical emergency. Some people make the mistake of assuming the same is true with a kidney infection.
Kidney infections are serious conditions and they do require medical attention. Untreated, a kidney infection can quickly cause long-term kidney damage or kidney scarring. These infections can also cause , which can lead to shock.
Because of this, a kidney infection can be fatal if allowed to progress. Dont take any chances by not having it treated by a medical professional.
What Are The Symptoms Of A Kidney Infection
Symptoms usually develop quickly, over a few hours or so, and may include:
- Pain in a loin or flank. .
- High temperature which may cause shivers.
- Feeling sick and/or being sick .
- Blood in the urine.
- There will also usually be symptoms of a bladder infection for example, pain on passing urine, and going to the toilet often.
Not all of the symptoms may develop, and sometimes a kidney infection can just cause vague symptoms. For example, just feeling generally unwell but not being able to say why.
In older people a kidney infection may cause confusion. This is why a urine test is often done when an elderly person suddenly becomes confused or appears generally unwell.
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What Is Kidney Infection
Infection in the urinary tract can involve the lower tract especially the bladder , prostate or the upper tract and kidney . It is usually a bacterial infection. The disease occurs in roughly three to seven of every 10,000 people in the United States. The occurrence in pregnant women is about 2 percent. It is readily treatable if diagnosed early.
A bacteria called Escherichia Coli causes about 90 percent of kidney infections. The bacteria migrate from the genitals through the urethra into the bladder and up the tubes that connect the bladder to the kidneys.
Some bacteria, such as staphylococcus infections, can enter the kidneys from the bloodstream.
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What Is The Outlook For Kidney Infections
With treatment, the outlook for kidney infections is very positive. It is vital that you take all of any prescribed medications for the infection. You may begin feeling better shortly after beginning a treatment, but still need to take the entire prescribed treatment.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/22/2019.
- National Kidney Foundation. Urinary Tract Infections Accessed 5/23/19.
- National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases . Pyelonephritis: Kidney Infection Accessed 5/23/19.
Prevention And Treatment Of Kidney Infection
Antibiotics are started as soon as the doctor suspects pyelonephritis and samples have been taken for laboratory tests. The choice of drug or its dosage may be modified based on the laboratory test results , how sick the person is, and whether the infection started in the hospital, where bacteria tend to be more resistant to antibiotics. Other factors that can alter the choice or dosage of drug include whether the persons immune system is impaired and whether the person has a urinary tract abnormality .
Outpatient treatment with antibiotics given by mouth is usually successful if the person has:
No nausea or vomiting
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What About Kidney Stones Are They Involved Here Somehow
Sort of. A kidney stone isnt an infection, but a collection of salt and minerals that hardens and turns into a stone. While some stones may be small others can be much larger. They may stay in the kidney, or begin to move into the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney and the bladder. When this happens, kidney stones can become extremely painful.
Kidney stones can be tricky, since they may have many of the same symptoms as a UTI or a kidney infection pain when urinating, needing to urinate often, and cloudy or strong smelling urine, blood in the urine, fever, nausea or vomiting. And while stones often pass on their own, larger stones sometimes need to be broken up, or removed.
Sometimes, kidney stones can lead to a urinary tract infection or a kidney infection, so its important to get them checked out by your doctor. And, since the symptoms are so similar, getting a checkup is probably a good idea anyway just to rule out the possibility of an infection, and to make sure the stone is moving along as it should.
Prevention Methods For Women
In addition to the above prevention methods, women can also:
- Avoid contraceptive methods that contain spermicide
- Avoid using a diaphragm as a birth control method
- Avoid the use of feminine products on genital regions, such as deodorant sprays and douches, which have the potential to irritate the urethra
- Receive vaccination against certain E. coli strains
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What Is A Urinary Tract Infection
A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary system. This type of infection can involve your urethra , kidneys or bladder, .
Your urine typically doesnt contain bacteria . Urine is a byproduct of our filtration systemthe kidneys. When waste products and excess water is removed from your blood by the kidneys, urine is created. Normally, urine moves through your urinary system without any contamination. However, bacteria can get into the urinary system from outside of the body, causing problems like infection and inflammation. This is a urinary tract infection .
What Causes Kidney Infections In Pregnancy
The likelihood of kidney infections can be increased in pregnant women due to mechanical and hormonal changes in the body. Women are more vulnerable to acute pyelonephritis during second and third trimesters . Up to 40% of women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria develop pyelonephritis during pregnancy .
The infection is usually caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli that travel through the urethra to the bladder and then to the kidneys. The other bacteria that can cause urinary tract infection are Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Staphylococcus .
The following factors may increase the risk of kidney infections in pregnancy :
- The distended pregnant belly may cause difficulties in hygiene. Also, the infections pass more easily into a womans body than into a mans, because of the short urethra, which is close to the anal opening. This leads to the easy transfer of bacteria from the rectal matter at the anal opening to the urethra.
- Kidney enlargement: High concentration of progesterone hormone secreted during pregnancy causes dilation of ureters, slowing down the flow of urine, leading to its accumulation in the bladder. It causes the kidneys to enlarge and gives time for the bacteria to multiply and trigger the infection.
- Compression of the ureters and bladder: The growing uterus puts pressure on the ureters and the bladder, making it difficult for the urine to flow.
- Increased pH of urine and glycosuria enhances bacterial growth during pregnancy.
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The Symptoms Of Kidney Infections In Women
28 September, 2018
Because of womens anatomy, were more prone to kidney infections. Just a simple urinary tract infection can become complicated, travel to one of the kidneys, and cause the unpleasant consequences that some of us are unfortunate enough to already know about.
In this article, well take a look at the symptoms of kidney infections in women so you can be more prepared.
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Causes And Treating Painful Urination In Women
There is nothing more uncomfortable than feeling pain while peeing. If you have ever had a painful urination problem, then I am quite sure you never want to relive that moment. And yet this is a problem that affects many people. The medical term for pain, discomfort or burning when urinating is Dysuria. In this article, I am going to show you the probable causes of the burning sensation you experience while peeing and how to prevent it.
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Alternative And Complementary Therapies
There are no effective alternative or complementary methods or therapies for curing a kidney infection.
But there may be ways you can increase your comfort while being treated with antibiotics, such as placing a heating pad on your abdomen, back, or side to ease any pain in those areas.
Drinking plenty of fluids can also help flush the bacteria causing the infection from your system.
And getting plenty of rest will help in your recovery from the infection.
When To See A Doctor
Its always a good idea to reach out to a doctor if youre experiencing those UTI symptoms, because remember, UTIs can affect the kidneys without prompt treatment. But this is especially important if youre susceptible to recurrent UTIs. As you can see, there are various treatment optionsand potential preventive methodsthat may be able to keep that terrible burning to a minimum.
Additional reporting by Laura Adkins.
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Who Gets Urinary Tract Infections
Anyone can get a urinary tract infection, but they are more common in women. This is because the urethra in females is shorter and closer to the anus, where E. coli bacteria are common. Older adults also are at higher risk for developing cystitis. This increased risk may be due to incomplete emptying of the bladder. There are several medical conditions that can be related to this, including an enlarged prostate or a bladder prolapse .
If you get frequent urinary tract infections, your healthcare provider may do tests to check for other health problems such as diabetes or an abnormal urinary systemthat may be contributing to your infections. People with frequent UTIs are occasionally given low-dose antibiotics for a period of time to prevent the infection from coming back. This cautious approach to treating frequent UTIs is because your body can develop a resistance to the antibiotic and you can get other types of infections, such as C. diff colitis. This practice is used very infrequently.
Kidney Function And Kidney Disease
The primary task of the kidneys is to maintain the fluid balance in the body. They accomplish this task through increasing or decreasing the amount of fluid excreted in the urine. Electrolytes like sodium and potassium are an important component of fluid management. When you eat or drink liquids, the fluid eventually makes its way to the kidneys. A complex mechanism of fluid and electrolyte transfers, mediated by hormones and other chemicals, results in the movement of fluid into the kidneys and bladder, from which the urine is excreted. Kidney disease damages these mechanisms.
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Is Screening Recommended For Uti Or Kidney Infection
In general, screening is not recommended for urinary tract infections and kidney infections in men and nonpregnant women.
While pregnant, screening may be recommended for women because bacteria in the urine without symptoms of infection are associated with a higher rate of progression to an overt urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. These infections can potentially compromise fetal growth and health.
Screening for bacteria in the urine without any symptoms is also recommended for any individual prior to undergoing instrumentation of the urinary tract or in men undergoing prostate procedures. The presence of bacteria in the urine with or without infection can possibly lead to an increased chance of developing urinary tract infection. Treating these bacteria can substantially reduce the infectious complications of such procedures.
Risk Factors In Women
Women are particularly susceptible to urinary tract infections because their urethra is shorter, meaning the infection can spread throughout the urinary tract more easily. Additionally, the anal and urinary openings of a woman are in closer proximity, increasing the risk of bacteria spreading between the two.
In addition to the above, women are also susceptible to the following risk factors for UTIs:
- Sexual intercourse can contribute to the spread of genital or anal bacteria, especially with a new sexual partner when the rate of sexual activity is typically higher. However, UTIs are not a sexually transmitted disease
- Spermicides and birth control methods which use spermicides can affect the natural balance of healthy bacteria within the vagina
- Antibiotics can also alter the natural bacterial balance within the vagina
- Diaphragms can place pressure on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s urethra, resulting in the possibility of the bladder not emptying properly
- Pregnancy. As the uterus grows in pregnancy, it can put added weight on the bladder, leading to the possibility of the bladder not emptying properly
- Menopause can cause hormonal changes which affect the vaginaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural bacterial balance
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Diagnosis Of Kidney Infection During Pregnancy
Your physician will ask you a few questions and check your past medical records to know your health history. The following diagnostic tests are used for further evaluation :