Melatonin And Sleep Disturbances In Ckd Patients
Melatonin has been the subject of numerous studies on CKD patients. For instance, patients with kidney disease, particularly those undergoing dialysis, often suffer from sleep disturbances. A 2012 paper described how the hormone could play a role in restoring the circadian rhythms of people with CKD.
According to the study, these individuals frequently have trouble sleeping.
Between 30% and 80% of individuals with end stage renal disease report disturbed sleep. A population study of daytime hemodialysis patients showed that 60% of these patients experienced subjective sleep problems. Patients on daytime hemodialysis and patients with CKD both have reduced total sleep time and reduced sleep efficiency in comparison with healthy subjects, wrote the researchers.
How Long Does It Take For Melatonin To Kick In
With the recommended dose of melatonin , it takes around one to two hours to induce sleep. Hence, you should take melatonin supplements two hours before your bedtime.
If you want to take melatonin to avoid getting jetlag, you need to start taking the pills a few days before you make your trip. Once you reach the new time zone, take the melatonin sleeping aid two hours before you go to bed.
A Sleep Hormone Produced In Response To Darkness
Armeen Poor, MD, is a board-certified pulmonologist and intensivist. He specializes in pulmonary health, critical care, and sleep medicine.
Melatonin, commonly referred to as the sleep hormone is a natural hormone your body produces in response to darkness. It is responsible for the timing of your circadian rhythm, also known as your sleep-wake cycle, and therefore plays an integral role in falling asleep, staying asleep and awakening.
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Researchers Have Found That Melatonin Can Protect Kidney Damage Caused By Obesity With Diabetes
Scientists from the University of Granada , the Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, and the University of Texas, USA, have made a breakthrough in research into kidney damage and its progression towards kidney failure, which is closely related to obesity with Type 2 diabetes and its complications.
In two new studies, recently published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine and Pharmaceuticals, researchers found that melatonin protects the kidney damage caused by diabesity.
What Happens If You Take Melatonin And Stay Awake
Although taking Melatonin can help you fall asleep and stay asleep, you may still find that you have difficulty sleeping. Practicing healthy sleep habits, such as not drinking alcohol or caffeine close to bedtime, keeping your bedroom cool and quiet, having a consistent sleep schedule, not exposing yourself to blue light and adding stress management techniques such as yoga or deep breathing may also help. In addition if you find yourself unable to sleep for over 20 minutes while in bed, try getting out of bed for a short time and do something relaxing, in low light, to get your mind off of sleep before going back to bed. If your sleep issues continue, we recommend speaking with your healthcare practitioner.
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Is It Safe For Kids
Melatonin is the second most used natural product for children.
Studies show that it can also help children with autism spectrum disorder , who tend to have lower levels of melatonin, and children with ADHD, who tend to have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep.
One recent study of 125 children and teens with ASD found that those who took larger doses — from 2 milligrams to 5 milligrams — of prolonged-release melatonin for 13 weeks were sleeping about an hour longer per night, with fewer sleep disturbances, by the end of the study.
âItâs generally safe, itâs not habit forming, and people donât really develop a tolerance for it,â Canapari said. âIt is my first-path sleep medication for children who need it.â
But other researchers say theyâre concerned about its safety.
In 2015, researchers from Australia published a study pointing to research that linked melatonin use on rodents to changes in when they start puberty. The report also notes that in the early 1990s, scientists were looking into high doses of melatonin as possible human birth control because of the way it could affect the reproductive system.
“Considering the small advances melatonin provides to the timing of sleep, and considering what we know about how melatonin works in the body, it is not worth the risk to child and adolescent safety,” warned lead author David Kennaway, head of the Circadian Physiology Laboratory at the University of Adelaide’s Robinson Research Institute.
Protective Effects Of Melatonin On Liver Fibrosis
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process of the liver in response to repeated and chronic liver injuries to hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Based on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, therapeutic approaches to liver fibrosis could target each step of the process, including hepatocyte apoptosis, cholangiocyte proliferation, inflammation, and activation of myofibroblasts to deposit extracellular matrix . Several studies have suggested that melatonin might be developed into a promising treatment for liver fibrosis. In addition, some studies demonstrated that melatonin attenuated liver fibrosis via limiting the expression of profibrogenic genes , directly suppressing hepatic stellate cells activation , and so on.
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Taking Sleeping Pills And The Risk Of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population
- 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
- 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
- 3School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
- 4Taiwanese Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Association, Taipei, Taiwan
- 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei, Taiwan
- 6PET Center and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
- 7School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
- 8Department of Medical Research, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
- 9Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
- 10Department of Medical Research, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
Background: Sleeping disorder has been associated with chronic kidney disease however, the correlation between sleeping pills use and CKD has not been investigated in-depth yet. This study elucidated the potential association of sleeping pill use with the risk of CKD and CKD progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis.
Sleeping pill use was related to an increased risk of CKD and ESRD. Further studies are necessary to corroborate these findings.
Melatonin And Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is a disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, which leads to right ventricular hypertrophy and failure . Maarman et al. reported that treatment with melatonin alleviated right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction, and also reduced interstitial fibrosis and plasma oxidative stress in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension. Torres et al. found that melatonin reduced pulmonary artery pressure and resistance and improved vasodilation of small pulmonary arteries in newborn sheep with pulmonary hypertension. In addition, melatonin increased nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced markers of pulmonary oxidative stress. Jin et al. reported that melatonin attenuated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Chronic hypoxia elevates the ratio of the weights of the right ventricle to left ventricle plus intraventricular septum , right ventricular systolic pressures , and median width of pulmonary arterioles. Treatment with melatonin reduced the elevation of RV/LV+S and RVSP and also inhibited pulmonary vascular remodeling. Additionally, melatonin reduced levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and nuclear factor-B . In an in-vitro study, it was found that melatonin inhibited the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth myocytes and reduced the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 and phosphorylation of Akt.
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When To Take Melatonin
It is essential to take melatonin at the correct time of day. Taking it too early or too late can alter a persons biological clock and shift their sleep and wake times.
The National Health Service recommend taking melatonin 12 hours before your desired bedtime which for most is around 8:00-9:00 pm.
People who are traveling and want to take melatonin to prevent jet lag should start taking this supplement a few days before they leave. This will help acclimatize their bodies to the new time zone. It is best to take melatonin 2 hours before bedtime at the destination.
A person may recover more quickly from jet lag if they take melatonin.
Taking melatonin may help with a few different health conditions, including:
- jet lag
- delayed sleep-wake phase disorder
- sleep problems in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism
- anxiety before and after surgery
One report suggests that melatonin may also provide the following benefits by:
- protecting the heart by reducing blood pressure in people with insomnia
- having protective effects against cancer and enhancing the impact of cancer treatments
- reducing the damaging effects of obesity on the body by lowering inflammation
- slowing mental decline in people with dementia
However, more research will be necessary to prove these benefits in clinical trials.
How Can I Naturally Create More Melatonin
If youre worried about taking melatonin or cant because of other factors like lifestyle or medications, there are still easy steps you can try to naturally increase its production. These include turning off your phone, computer, and TV at least 30 minutes to an hour before bed to reduce the amount of artificial light youre exposed to and wearing a sleep mask at night if you need to. You can also get plenty of natural sunlight during the day to strengthen your internal day-to-night cycle response.
Melatonin is a great temporary sleep aid to many people just make sure you dont overdo it!
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Works For Some Not For Others
Discovered in 1958, melatonin is a hormone that the body makes to help regulate our circadian rhythm, or natural body clock. Light is the switch that controls it: As daylight fades, levels of melatonin begin to rise about 1-3 hours before bedtime, nudging us to become sleepy. In the morning, when light hits the eyes, it signals the brain to halt melatonin production, and we grow alert.
âMelatonin is a sleep regulator, not a sleep initiator,â says Breus, author of The Power of When.
Since the 1980s, dietary supplement makers have billed melatonin made in a lab as a promising sleep aid. But studies show its effects on occasional insomnia for the general public are mild at best.
One review of 15 studies involving 284 otherwise healthy subjects found that those who took melatonin before bed fell asleep 3.9 minutes faster on average and slept 13 minutes longer. Another, of 19 studies involving 1,700 people, found that melatonin users fell asleep 7 minutes faster on average and slept 8 minutes longer.
âWhen you are already making melatonin naturally at night, taking a little bit more is kind of like spitting in the ocean. It doesnât do much,â says Cathy Goldstein, MD, an assistant professor of neurology at the University of Michigan Sleep Medicine Clinic.
âIt works for some people, but not for others,â he says. âYou just have to try it and find out which one you are.â
When To Steer Clear
Certain people should be more cautious about melatonin use, particularly if it triggers a negative reaction, including those with:
- Chronic insomnia. Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep that lasts a month or more shouldn’t be managed with melatonin, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the American College of Physicians. These groups recommend other more proven remedies , noting that there is not enough evidence that melatonin is safe and effective for long-term use.
- Restless Legs Syndrome . The tingling or “creepy-crawly” feeling in the legs that often keeps people awake could be worsened by melatonin. The supplement can intensify RLS symptoms because it lowers the amount of dopamine in the brain, according to the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation. If you’ve been diagnosed with RLS or suspect that you have the condition, talk to your HCP about lifestyle changes or medications that could help.
- Dementia. This progressive cognitive deterioration is often associated with insomnia, which can tax both patients and their caregivers. But melatonin may do more harm than good among those with dementia since the condition causes people to metabolize the supplement more slowly, resulting in daytime drowsiness. In people with moderate or severe dementia, melatonin supplementation may increase the risk of falls, according to 2015 guidelines from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
If you’ve been drinking alcohol, it’s also not safe to take melatonin.
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Side Effects Of Melatonin: 8 Groups Should Avoid Taking Melatonin
September 28, 2020// by Terry Cralle//
Melatonin, also known as the hormone of darkness is a hormone responsible for the regulation of your sleep-wake cycle. However, promoting and regulating sleep is only one of its physiological functions.
This hormone plays an important role in bodily functions, the functions of organs like the kidney or liver, and helps regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular issues. Melatonin is also shown useful in cases of tumors and cancers, where it prevents oxidative stress to promote the growth of cancerous cells.
Now, all of this sounds rather impressive, and sure enough, because melatonin is a naturally produced hormone coming from the very brain, no one would suspect it harmful. However, melatonin supplements, on the other hand, are raising some eyebrows in the medical community.
Over the past few years, melatonin supplements have been studied concerning their possible side effects. Turns out, melatonin intake can cause a dozen of adverse effects, which can pose a long-term danger. In the following paragraphs, well take a look at the major side effects, every melatonin producing company would hide from you. So, lets get started!
Medications That Can Harm The Kidneys
No matter what kind of medicine you take, whether OTC or prescription, it is destined to take a trip through your kidneys. Taking a drug the wrong way or in excessive amounts can damage these vital, bean-shaped organs and lead to serious complications. In the worst-case scenario, it could necessitate a kidney transplant.
Compared with 30 years ago, patients todayhave a higher incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, take multiple medications, and are exposed to more diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the potential to harm kidney function, according to Cynthia A. Naughton, PharmD, senior associate dean and associate professor in the department of pharmacy practice at North Dakota State University. All of these factors are associated with an elevated risk of kidney damage.
An estimated 20% of cases of acute kidney failure are due to medications. The technical term for this scenario is nephrotoxicity, which is growing more common as the aging population grows, along with rates of various diseases.
The kidneys get rid of waste and extra fluid in the body by filtering the blood to produce urine. They also keep electrolyte levels balanced and make hormones that influence blood pressure, bone strength and the production of red blood cells. When something interferes with the kidneys, they cant do their job, so these functions can slow down or stop altogether.
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What Happens When Your Body Is Depleted Of Melatonin
Naturally, your body will produce sufficient amounts of melatonin for a healthy sleep-wake cycle. Unfortunately, modern lifestyle changes can play a role in causing insufficient melatonin production, which can cause you to have problems falling asleep or waking up in the morning feeling tired and groggy.
The following factors play a role in melatonin deficiency:
- Blue light in the evening
- Time changes/jet lag
Blue Light in the Evening
Artificial blue light, primarily from electronics with a high blue light component reduces the release of melatonin.
Light from televisions, computers, and smartphones, is known to play a large factor in poor sleep due to nighttime melatonin deficiency.
A good rule of thumb is to turn off all electronics at least two hours before bed.
Time Changes/Jet lag
Flying through different time zones or even the annual changeover of summer and wintertime can mess up your sleep-wake cycle.
The production of melatonin is slowly produced and adapted to the new time but generally takes a few days.
In order to combat jet lag, go to sleep during regular nighttime hours at your destination time, even if it is daytime where you came from. You may need to take supplements to help induce sleep when this most likely will not be natural.
If you consume caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, soda, or energy drinks late in the day, the caffeine contained in them can affect the production of melatonin.
Side Effects Of Melatonin Interactions
- Sleepiness and drowsiness with sedative medication the interaction between sedative medications or depressants and melatonin can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness and drowsiness. It is essential you avoid taking melatonin with medications like lorazepam, clonazepam, zolpidem, etc.
- Wakefulness with caffeine combining melatonin with caffeine may result in decreased melatonin effects. Caffeine will overpower melatonin, so instead of sleepy, one might feel more wakeful and alert.
- Increased blood sugar with diabetes medication because melatonin increases blood sugar levels, and the diabetic medication lowers it, it can completely overpower the effectiveness of diabetes medication. This can lead to some serious issues in diabetic patients, who should avoid taking melatonin with insulin, glimepiride, glipizide, rosiglitazone, etc.
- Bleeding risk with anticoagulants because melatonin slows down blood coagulation, it should be smart to avoid taking it together with medication that has the same effects. The combination of anticoagulants with melatonin may cause bleeding and bruising. Such medications include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, enoxaparin, heparin, diclofenac, etc.
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