Acute Kidney Failure Complications
Acute kidney failure can sometimes cause complications. These include:
- Fluid buildup. Acute kidney failure can sometimes cause a buildup of fluid in your body. If fluid builds up in your lungs, this can cause shortness of breath.
- Chest pain. If the lining that covers your heart becomes inflamed, you may have chest pain.
- Acidic blood . If your blood has too much acid due to acute kidney failure, you can end up with nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and breathlessness.
- Muscle weakness. When your body’s fluids and electrolytes are out of balance, you can get muscle weakness. In serious cases, this can lead to paralysis and heart rhythm problems.
- Permanent kidney damage. Acute kidney failure can become chronic and your kidneys will stop working almost entirely or completely. This is called end-stage renal disease. If this happens, you will need to go on permanent dialysis or get a kidney transplant.
- Death. Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function that is so bad, it can cause death.
Reverse Kidney Damage Naturally
Despite the various medical advances made to help heal kidney damage, the most powerful way that you can improve your kidney health is with lifestyle changes, especially changes to your diet.
Ensuring that you eat enough potassium, phosphorous, calcium, and vitamin D is a good start, as these nutrients are fundamental to kidney health, but without controlling your high blood glucose and blood pressure, these changes are temporary.
Thats why we recommend a heavily plant-based diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains if youre suffering from high blood glucose and blood pressure. This diet is the first step to reverse insulin resistance, and can help vastly improve your cardiovascular health overall.
Eating potassium-rich foods can dramatically reduce your blood pressure, so include foods like tomatoes, potatoes, avocados, melons, oranges, bananas, nuts, seeds, dates, cruciferous vegetables into your diet on a daily basis.
One of the most effective ways to improve your kidney function is to reduce your intake of protein to approximately 0.8-1.0 g/kg body weight per day. Even though you may be tempted to eat a high-protein diet, understand that reducing your protein intake is a safe and highly effective way to reduce your risk of developing end stage renal disease .
To accomplish this, we recommend eating a low-fat, plant-based, whole-food diet because it is an effective way to eat whole foods and target 0.8-1.0 g/kg protein intake per day.
- Whole grains
How Can I Decide Which Treatment Is Right For Me
Choosing the kidney failure treatment that is best for you may be hard. To make it easier
- start learning about your treatment options early
- think about how each treatment will affect your daily routine and how you feel
Talk with your doctor and with people who are on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, or whove had a transplant, to find out the pros and cons of each treatment. Find out how the treatment changed their lives and the lives of those closest to them. Ask your doctor about the transplant waiting list, and about diet changes and medicines youll need with each treatment.
If youre thinking about conservative management, ask your doctor how youll feel and how treatment can help keep you comfortable.
Reflect on whats most important to you. If you plan to keep working, think about which treatment can make that easier. If spending time with family and friends means a lot to you, ask which treatment would give you the most free time. Find out which treatment would give you the best chance of feeling good and living longer.
You may wish to speak with your family, friends, health care team, spiritual advisor, or mental health counselor as you decide.
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Acute Kidney Failure Prevention
You can reduce your risk of getting acute kidney failure by practicing some healthy habits.
- Be careful when taking over-the-counter pain medications. Whether you are taking NSAID medications like aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen or other types of OTC pain medications like acetaminophen, itâs important to read and follow the recommended dosing instructions on the package. If you take too much of these meds, you could increase your chances of getting acute kidney failure.
- Follow your doctorâs advice. If you have a higher risk of getting acute kidney failure because of pre-existing kidney disease or other conditions, make sure to follow your doctor’s advice for treating and managing your condition.
- Keep a healthy lifestyle. Exercise, eating right, and drinking little or no alcohol can go a long way to preventing acute kidney failure.
What To Expect At Home
Appropriate treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the specific symptoms and biochemical abnormalities a cat has. Many patients require fluid therapy to combat dehydration. This can be achieved by increasing the water content of a pets diet and through intermittent subcutaneous fluid treatment .
Your veterinarian may also prescribe a special diet to help promote kidney function and counteract biochemical abnormalities that commonly occur in the body.
Additional recommendations are based on a pets individual needs and may include:
- Medications to lower blood pressure
- Nutritional supplements that reduce BUN and phosphorus levels
- Omega 3 fatty acids to protect the kidneys
- Medications to treat or prevent stomach ulcers
- Potassium supplements
- Medications decrease blood phosphorous levels
- Calcitriol to slow the progression of chronic renal failure
- Medications to treat anemia
- Anti-nausea medications
Kidney transplants may be an option for cats who meet specific criteria.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Kidney Disease
The challenge with CKD is that symptoms develop over time and many people dont experience symptoms in the early stages. However, if you have any of the following risk factors, talk to your doctor about getting screened for kidney disease:
- Diabetes can lead to damaged or weakened blood vessels, preventing the kidneys from filtering waste and toxins from your blood.
- Frequent high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels over time, including hardening and narrowing of arteries around the kidneys, preventing them from functioning as they should.
- Cardiovascular disease can lead to narrow or blocked blood vessels, reducing the supply of oxygen-rich blood supplied to the kidneys, which may lead to kidney disease.
- If you have a family history of kidney disease, you may be at higher risk for developing CKD. Talk to your doctor to learn more.
Its never too soon to get tested if you fall within this at-risk population. The sooner your doctor can confirm a diagnosis, the sooner you can start a treatment plan to preserve your kidney function.
I What Do Kidneys Function
Kidneys play an important role in filtering waste products from the blood, regulating blood pressure, boosting the red blood cell production, and balancing electrolyte in your body. Particularly, sensors in kidney cells take part in regulating and controlling how much water is excreted and how the concentration of electrolytes is. Kidneys keep patients with illness and people after exercise from dehydration because they hold the water and increase the concentration of urine. When you have adequate water, the urine is clear. Kidneys have erythropoietin , a hormone that makes red blood cells by stimulating the bone marrow. Kidneys also have some special cells that are responsible for monitoring oxygen concentration in blood.
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What Are The Treatment Options For Kidney Failure
If you have kidney failure , you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to live. There is no cure for ESRD, but many people live long lives while on dialysis or after having a kidney transplant.
There are just a few options for treating kidney failure, including kidney transplant and several types of dialysis. Your doctor can help you figure out which treatment is best for you. Learn more about the treatment options for kidney failure.
What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Kidney Failure Can It Be Prevented
The outlook for kidney failure depends upon the underlying condition that caused it. Kidney function may return to normal, especially if it is due to an acute obstruction and that obstruction is relieved. Other causes of decreased kidney function leading to kidney failure are due to underlying disease and occur slowly over time.
Prevention is the best chance to maintain kidney function, and controlling high blood pressure and diabetes over a lifetime can decrease the potential for progressive kidney damage. Chronic kidney failure may be managed to help monitor electrolyte and waste product levels in the bloodstream. Major abnormalities can be life-threatening, and treatment options may be limited to dialysis or transplant.
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What Questions Should I Ask About Peritoneal Dialysis
You may want to ask your health care provider these questions:
- Is peritoneal dialysis the best treatment choice for me? Why? If yes, which type is best?
- What type of training do I need, and how long will it take?
- What does peritoneal dialysis feel like?
- How will peritoneal dialysis affect my ____ ?
- Will I be able to keep working?
- Will I be able to care for my children?
- How much should I exercise?
- Where do I store supplies?
- How often do I see my doctor?
- Who will be on my health care team? How can the members of my health care team help me?
- Who do I contact if I have problems?
- Who can I talk with about finances, sex, or family concerns?
- Can I talk with someone who is on peritoneal dialysis?
Should You Undergo A Kidney Biopsy
A kidney biopsy is the most reliable tool to accurately diagnose the specific cause of your kidney problem. It cannot only distinguish the different types of glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome, but also determine the chances of recovery of kidney function . Therefore, it can be very helpful to guide treatment decisions. But the decision to undergo a kidney biopsy is not an easy one, in particular for an older patient. Like any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, and those risks are greater in patients in poor health, those with other chronic conditions like diabetes, heart disease or hypertension, and those who take multiple medications.
Helping patients and their families make a decision that is right for them is one of our teams most important goals. Regardless of your choice, we will continue to work with you to manage your condition as effectively as possible.
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Acute Kidney Failure Diagnosis
Your doctor will start with a physical exam. Then, theyâll order tests of your blood, urine, and kidneys.
Blood tests. These measure substances in your blood.
- Creatinine is a waste product in your blood thatâs made by muscle activity. Normally, itâs removed from your blood by your kidneys. But if your kidneys stop working, your creatinine level rises.
- Urea nitrogen is another waste product in your blood. Itâs created when protein from the foods is broken down. Like creatinine, your kidneys remove this from your blood. When your kidneys stop working, your urea nitrogen levels rise.
- Serum potassium is a substance found in your blood that balances water levels in your bloodstream. Kidney disease can cause either high or low potassium levels.
- Serum sodium is another substance in your blood that helps with fluid balance in your body. High sodium levels can mean that your kidneys arenât working properly because your body canât get rid of the right amount of sodium.
Urine tests. Your doctor will check your pee for blood and protein. Theyâll also look for certain electrolytes. The results help your doctor understand whatâs causing your kidney failure.
Urine output measurement. This measures how much urine you pass in 24 hours. You will get a container to take home, pee into, and then return to the lab after a full 24 hours. It can help your doctor determine why youâre having kidney failure.
Kidney Damage From High Blood Pressure
One of the most common causes for kidney damage is high blood pressure, which can occur as a result of a wide number of different risk factors .
Think of your kidneys as one of your bodys natural filtration pumps, which function ideally at normal blood pressure. Hypertension due to heart disease, high cholesterol, or any number of other conditions that can increase your blood pressure puts an excess strain on this filtration system.
Over a long time exposed to high blood pressure, the blood vessels in the kidneys can be damaged, worn down, or hardened, which limit the kidneys ability to filter your blood and perform its vital functions.
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Kidney Damage From Diabetes
Kidney damage from diabetes can occur in people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or any other condition that can cause hyperglycemia .
When poorly managed, these conditions can lead to consistently high blood glucose levels, which in turn can damage the blood vessels and nephrons in your kidneys.
What Is A Kidney Transplant
A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney from another person into your body. The kidney may come from someone who has died or from a living donor who may be a close relative, spouse or friend. It can even come from someone who wishes to donate a kidney to anyone in need of a transplant. However, a kidney transplant is a treatment, not a cure, and it is important to care for the new kidney with the same care as before receiving the transplant. For more information on kidney transplants, .
For the full PDF brochure, Choosing a Treatment for Kidney Failure .
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How Soon Should I Start Learning About What Type Of Treatment To Have
Start learning early about treatment optionsbefore you need one. Youll have time to
- learn about the different treatment options
- talk with other people who are living with dialysis, a transplant, or conservative management
- work with your health care team to create a kidney failure treatment plan
- prepare yourself mentally and physically for the changes ahead
Creating a treatment plan and sharing it with your family gives you more control.
What Are The Basics About Peritoneal Dialysis
You do peritoneal dialysis at home. Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of your belly to filter wastes and extra fluid from your body. This lining, called the peritoneum, surrounds your abdominal cavity and replaces part of your kidney function.
Youll need to have minor surgery a few weeks before you start peritoneal dialysis. A doctor will place a soft tube, called a catheter, in your belly. The catheter stays in your belly permanently. When you start peritoneal dialysis, youll empty a kind of salty water, called dialysis solution, from a plastic bag through the catheter into your belly. When the bag is empty, you can disconnect your catheter from the bag so you can move around and do your normal activities. While the dialysis solution is inside your belly, it soaks up wastes and extra fluid from your body. After a few hours, you drain the used dialysis solution through another tube into a drain bag. You can throw away the used dialysis solution, now filled with wastes and extra fluid, in a toilet or tub. Then you start over with a fresh bag of dialysis solution. The process of emptying the used dialysis solution and refilling your belly with fresh solution is called an exchange.
You can choose which type of peritoneal dialysis will best fit your life.
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Causes Of Acute Renal Failure
- An obstruction or blockage along the urinary tract.
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Usually caused by an E. coli infection, kidney failure develops as a result of obstruction to the small functional structures and vessels inside the kidney.
- Ingestion of certain medications that may cause toxicity to the kidneys.
- Glomerulonephritis. A type of kidney disease that involves glomeruli. During glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli become inflamed and impair the kidney’s ability to filter urine.
- Any condition that may impair the flow of oxygen and blood to the kidneys, such as cardiac arrest.
Diagnosis Of Chronic Kidney Disease
Blood and urine tests
Blood and urine tests are essential. They confirm the decline in kidney function.
When loss of kidney function reaches a certain level in chronic kidney disease, the levels of chemicals in the blood typically become abnormal.
Urea and creatinine, metabolic waste products that are normally filtered out by the kidneys, are increased.
Blood becomes moderately acidic.
Potassium in the blood is often normal or only slightly increased but can become dangerously high.
Calcium and calcitriol in the blood decrease.
Phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels increase.
Hemoglobin is usually lower .
Potassium can become dangerously high when kidney failure reaches an advanced stage or if people ingest large amounts of potassium or take a drug that prevents the kidneys from excreting the potassium.
Analysis of the urine may detect many abnormalities, including protein and abnormal cells.
Ultrasonography is often done to rule out obstruction and check the size of the kidneys. Small, scarred kidneys often indicate that loss of kidney function is chronic. Determining a precise cause becomes increasingly difficult as chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage.
Removing a sample of tissue from a kidney for examination may be the most accurate test, but it is not recommended if results of an ultrasound examination show that the kidneys are small and scarred.
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