How Is Ckd Treated
Damage to your kidneys is usually permanent. Although the damage cannot be fixed, you can take steps to keep your kidneys as healthy as possible for as long as possible. You may even be able to stop the damage from getting worse.
- Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
- Keep a healthy blood pressure.
- Follow a low-salt, low-fat diet.
- Exercise at least 30 minutes on most days of the week.
- Keep a healthy weight.
- Do not smoke or use tobacco.
- Limit alcohol.
- Talk to your doctor about medicines that can help protect your kidneys.
If you catch kidney disease early, you may be able to prevent kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive.
Imaging Tests For Kidney Disease
Tests that create various pictures or images may include:
- x-rays to check the size of the kidneys and look for kidney stones
- cystogram a bladder x-ray
- voiding cystourethrogram where the bladder is x-rayed before and after urination
- ultrasound sound waves are bounced off the kidneys to create a picture. Ultrasound may be used to check the size of the kidneys. Kidney stones and blood vessel blockages may be visible on ultrasound
- computed tomography x-rays and digital computer technology are used to create an image of the urinary tract, including the kidneys
- magnetic resonance imaging a strong magnetic field and radio waves are used to create a three-dimensional image of the urinary tract, including the kidneys.
- radionuclide scan.
Get To Know The Signs Of Kidney Failure
Sohow do you turn up the volume on this silent killer? Dr. Calle says to payattention to these five signs of kidney failure:
But heres the problem : These symptoms seem to appear with no rhyme or reason. You could have all the symptoms at the same time or intermittently, or you may have one but not the others, Dr. Calle explains. It can feel like playing symptom Russian roulette.
Toplay it safe, see your doctor even if just one of these symptoms makes anappearance.
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Why Wait Until Your Kidneys Are Diseased
While the study was conducted on people with kidney disease, we could safely extrapolate the recommendations to those who want to avoid kidney disease and achieve optimal kidney function now, especially as we age.
In fact, additional research points to the actuality of physiological changes in the kidneys as we age. The research notes that a progressive reduction of the glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow are observed in conjunction with aging. The reason for these phenomena is a decrease in the plasma flow in the glomerulus, a bundle of capillaries that partially form the renal corpuscle.2
In addition, the aging kidneys experience other structural changes, such as a loss of renal mass, and decreased responsiveness to stimuli that constrict or dilate blood vessels. The study concludes with a notable summation:
age-related changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, such as reduced cardiac output and systemic hypertension, are likely to play a role in reducing renal perfusion and filtration. Finally, it is hypothesized that increases in cellular oxidative stress that accompany aging result in endothelial cell dysfunction and changes in vasoactive mediators resulting in increased atherosclerosis, hypertension and glomerulosclerosis.2
Are There Any Signs And Symptoms Of Kidney Disease
The short answer is that by the time you have noticeable symptoms of kidney disease, you are at a very late stage. Even at a late stage, you will have arrived at that point so slowly that you may not recognize any symptoms. The best way to know if you have kidney disease is to have regular blood and urine tests. If you have type 2 diabetes, this starts on day one of your diagnosis!
Signs and symptoms of late kidney disease include:
- Extreme tiredness
- Swelling in the feet and legs
- Changes in urination
- Loss of appetite or unexpected weight loss
- Nausea and vomiting
- Aching bones or muscle cramps
- Severe itching
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How Can Doctors Tell My Stage Of Ckd
To find out your stage of CKD, doctors will do tests, such as:
Please note: eGFR is an estimate of how well your kidneys are working. The way eGFR is calculated will be changing. Currently the test considers your age, sex and race, among other things. A task force led by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Nephrology is working on recommendations that may remove Black race as a factor in the eGFR calculation. The task force has been seeking the input of kidney disease experts to come up with the best way to make the eGFR test as accurate as possible. The American Kidney Fund advised the task force to remove race from the eGFR so there is no bias in testing kidney function. This would help to make sure that every person will receive health care that is fair and of the highest quality. When the NKF-ASN task force makes its recommendations, AKF will promptly review them and then update our educational materials.
About Chronic Kidney Disease
CKD is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood as well as they should. Because of this, excess fluid and waste from blood remain in the body and may cause other health problems, such as heart disease and stroke.
15% of US adults are estimated to have chronic kidney disease, that is about 37 million people.
Some other health consequences of CKD include:
- Anemia or low number of red blood cells
- Increased occurrence of infections
- Low calcium levels, high potassium levels, and high phosphorus levels in the blood
- Loss of appetite or eating less
- Depression or lower quality of life
CKD has varying levels of seriousness. It usually gets worse over time though treatment has been shown to slow progression. If left untreated, CKD can progress to kidney failure and early cardiovascular disease. When the kidneys stop working, dialysis or kidney transplant is needed for survival. Kidney failure treated with dialysis or kidney transplant is called end-stage renal disease . Learn more about ESRD.
Not all patients with kidney disease progress to kidney failure. To help prevent CKD and lower the risk for kidney failure, control risk factors for CKD, get tested yearly, make lifestyle changes, take medicine as needed, and see your health care team regularly.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Kidney Failure In Dogs
As stated, your dog can suffer from acute renal failure or chronic renal failure. Some symptoms for acute renal failure are:
- Fluid retention in the abdomen and legs
- Painful kidneys
- Smaller or larger than normal kidneys
Sometimes your dog may even show slight changes in their bone structure by developing a swelling along the upper jaw which is due to imbalances in their bodies.
Unlike acute kidney failure, chronic renal failure happens much more slowly, occurring over the course of months and sometimes years. This condition is typically seen in older dogs, and usually by the time the symptoms have become obvious the condition is much harder to treat.
During chronic kidney failure, your dogs organs stop functioning optimally, leading to slow degeneration. Other signs and symptoms of kidney failure in dogs are sudden changes in your dogs health and well-being. If your dog begins to act sick very suddenly, this could be related to kidney failure and you should see your vet immediately.
What Causes Kidney Failure
When the kidneys lose function suddenly , its called acute kidney failure . This type of kidney failure is often temporary. Common causes of acute kidney failure can include:
- Autoimmune kidney diseases
- A urinary tract obstruction
- Uncontrolled systemic disease like heart or liver disease
Kidney failure usually doesnt happen overnight. Chronic kidney disease refers to a group of health conditions that affect how well your kidneys function over time. If left untreated, chronic kidney disease can lead to kidney failure.
The biggest causes of kidney failure from chronic kidney disease are:
- Diabetes: Unmanaged diabetes can lead to uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Consistently high blood sugar can damage the bodys organs, including the kidneys.
- High blood pressure: High blood pressure means blood travels through your bodys blood vessels with increased force. Over time, untreated high blood pressure levels can damage the kidneys tissue.
Other causes of chronic kidney disease include:
- Polycystic kidney disease, a hereditary condition where cysts grow inside your kidneys.
- Glomerular diseases, such as glomerulonephritis, which affect how well the kidneys can filter waste.
- Lupus and other autoimmune diseases that can affect multiple body systems.
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What Do The Kidneys Do
The kidneys have several jobs. One of the most important is helping your body eliminate toxins. The kidneys filter your blood and send waste out of your body in urine.
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of your fist. They sit under your ribcage, toward your back. Most people have two working kidneys, but people can live well as long as at least one is working correctly.
When the kidneys dont work effectively, waste products build up in your body. If this happens, you might feel sick. In the most serious situations, kidney failure can be life-threatening. However, many people can manage kidney failure with the right treatment.
Are You At High Risk
You can be at higher-than-average risk for kidney disease if you have high blood pressure, diabetes, a family history of kidney failure or if youre older than age 60. If you meet any of these criteria, its important to get tested for kidney disease every year. During this test, be sure to mention any symptoms youre experiencing to your healthcare provider.
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What Are Dialysis And Hemodialysis
Dialysis cleanses the body of waste products in the body by use of filter systems. There are two types of dialysis, 1) hemodialysis and 2) peritoneal dialysis.
Hemodialysis uses a machine filter called a dialyzer or artificial kidney to remove excess water and salt, to balance the other electrolytes in the body, and to remove waste products of metabolism. Blood is removed from the body and flows through tubing into the machine, where it passes next to a filter membrane. A specialized chemical solution flows on the other side of the membrane. The dialysate is formulated to draw impurities from the blood through the filter membrane. Blood and dialysate never touch in the artificial kidney machine.
For this type of dialysis, access to the blood vessels needs to be surgically created so that large amounts of blood can flow into the machine and back to the body. Surgeons can build a fistula, a connection between a large artery and vein in the body, usually in the arm, that allows a large amount of blood to flow into the vein. This makes the vein swell or dilate, and its walls become thicker so that it can tolerate repeated needle sticks to attach tubing from the body to the machine. Since it takes many weeks or months for a fistula to mature enough to be used, significant planning is required if hemodialysis is to be considered as an option.
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Kidney Problem Symptoms Causes And Types
Some kidney problems can be early signs of chronic kidney disease , the type of kidney damage that can get worse over time and lead to kidney failure. Finding and treating these problems early can help prevent CKD from becoming kidney failure. Other kidney problems can lead to CKD if they are not treated. Knowing your body and contacting your health care provider when you notice something isnt right can help you prevent bigger problems in the future.
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Kidney Diseases Are Common Harmful And Often Treatable
Common: Between 8 and 10% of the adult population have some form of kidney damage, and every year millions die prematurely of complications related to Chronic Kidney Diseases .
- The first consequence of undetected CKD is the risk of developing progressive loss of kidney function that can lead to kidney failure which means regular dialysis treatment or a kidney transplant is needed to survive.
- The second consequence of CKD is that it increases the risk of premature death from associated cardiovascular disease . Individuals who appear to be healthy who are then found to have CKD have an increased risk of dying prematurely from cardiovascular disease regardless of whether they ever develop kidney failure.
Treatable: If CKD is detected early and managed appropriately, the deterioration in kidney function can be slowed or even stopped, and the risk of associated cardiovascular complications can be reduced.
Take Care Of Your Kidneys
Not all people with kidney disease progress to kidney failure. Follow these tips to help lower your risk for developing kidney failure:
- Keep your blood pressure below 140/90 .
- If you have diabetes, stay in your blood sugar range as much as possible.
- Work with your health care team to monitor your kidney health.
- Take medicines as prescribed.
- Work with a dietitian to develop a kidney-healthy eating plan. If you have diabetes, find tips on how to eat well to manage both diabetes and CKD.
- Get activephysical activity helps control blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Learn about the many benefits of physical activity.
Stage 5 Kidney Disease Diet Foods To Avoid
The kidney failure diet may have more restrictions but it is a sure way to preserve kidney function. Read on to learn what stage 5 kidney disease diet foods to avoid.
Avoid Sugary Foods and Drinks
Knowing that sugary foods and drinks elevate blood sugar, these foods should be avoided during stage 5 kidney disease to improve kidney function.
Added sugar is found in processed foods, drinks, and even some healthy foods. Juices have a lot of sugar and should be eliminated from the diet.
Simple sugars increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and provide no nutrition. The following foods should be avoided
- White bread
Artificial sweeteners are no better than regular sugar. They have been shown to increase sugar cravings.
Avoid High Sodium Foods
High sodium foods need to be avoided in those with stage 5 kidney disease. This can preserve kidney health, lower blood pressure, and prevent fluid imbalances.
High sodium foods to avoid include
- Table, sea, and garlic salt
- Soy sauce
- Bottled sauces like Teriyaki sauce
- Canned and dehydrated foods and soups
- Frozen dinners that are not listed as low sodium
- Processed meats like ham, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, and deli meats
- Take out, restaurant, and fast food
For a full list of foods high in sodium see this post.
Possibly Avoid Foods Fortified with Calcium
During stage 5 kidney disease if calcium levels are elevated, foods fortified with this nutrient will need to be eliminated from the diet.
Limit High Potassium Foods
Correction Of Phosphate Balance
If you have stage four or five kidney disease, you can get a build-up of phosphate in your body because your kidneys cannot get rid of it. Phosphate is a mineral that, with calcium, makes up most of your bones. Phosphate is obtained through diet, mainly dairy foods. The kidneys usually filter out excess phosphate. If phosphate levels rise too much, it can upset the normal calcium balance of the body. This can lead to thinning of the bones and furring of the arteries.
You may be asked to limit the amount of phosphate in your diet. Foods high in phosphate include red meat, dairy produce, eggs and fish. Your GP or dietitian should be able to advise you about how much phosphate you can eat. However, there is no advantage in reducing your intake of these foods unless you have a raised phosphate level. Always ask a healthcare professional before changing your diet.
If reducing the amount of phosphate in your diet does not lower your phosphate level enough, you may be given medicines called phosphate binders. These medicines bind to the phosphate in the food inside your stomach and stop it from being absorbed into your body.
To work properly, phosphate binders must be taken just before meals. The most commonly used phosphate binder is calcium carbonate, but there are also alternatives that may be more suitable for you.
The side effects of phosphate binders are uncommon but include:
- itchy skin
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