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How Does Kidney Function In Our Body

Medicines For Itching In Kidney Disease

How do your kidneys work? – Emma Bryce

Many medications for pruritus have been found to have conflicting results. Typical treatments for UP include gabapentin, pregabalin, and antihistamines.


One medicine that successfully lowers itch is gabapentin. This medication helped those with renal disease ranging from stage 3 CKD to ESRD. A dose of 100 mg was given to renal patients both those who were not undergoing dialysis.

Caution should be used when taking gabapentin. It has side effects that include drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, blurred vision, unsteadiness, and confusion. Surprisingly, those on dialysis had a lower rate of side effects.

Doses between 100 and 300 mg have been effective in hemodialysis patients. One study showed taking 300 mg of this medication three times per week for a month after dialysis had reduced itchiness.


Pregabalin can be a substitute for gabapentin. Small studies show that taking doses of 25 to 75 mg at nighttime is effective for hemodialysis patients who cannot tolerate gabapentin.


Antihistamines have little or no effect on pruritus even though they are still being prescribed today.

H-1 receptor antagonists have sedative effects but no specific effects on itching itself. Newer research shows it was doing basically what the placebo did.

How The Kidneys Work

Kidneys are a pair of organs shaped like kidney beans. In children, theyre each about the size of the childs fist.

The most important job of the kidneys is to filter liquid waste from the blood and get rid of it in the form of urine. Kidneys are part of the bodys urinary system.

Each kidney contains millions of tiny structures called nephrons. The nephrons act as filters and work continuously to perform several important functions in the body:

  • Filtering waste from the body

    The kidneys produce urine to carry the liquid waste and extra fluid they have filtered out of your childs body. The urine travels from the kidneys through tubes called ureters to your childs bladder, where urine is stored. When your child goes to the bathroom, urine passes out through the urethra.

  • Maintaining chemical and fluid balance

    The kidneys help balance the chemicals in your childs blood, such as sodium, potassium and calcium, by controlling the volume of fluid in the body.

    Proper balance is necessary for other systems in the body to work well. An imbalance may affect various organ systems.

What Are Some Of The Causes Of Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease is defined as having some type of kidney abnormality, or “marker”, such as protein in the urine and having decreased kidney function for three months or longer.

There are many causes of chronic kidney disease. The kidneys may be affected by diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Some kidney conditions are inherited .

Others are congenital that is, individuals may be born with an abnormality that can affect their kidneys. The following are some of the most common types and causes of kidney damage.

Diabetes is a disease in which your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use normal amounts of insulin properly. This results in a high blood sugar level, which can cause problems in many parts of your body. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease.

High blood pressure is another common cause of kidney disease and other complications such as heart attacks and strokes. High blood pressure occurs when the force of blood against your artery walls increases. When high blood pressure is controlled, the risk of complications such as chronic kidney disease is decreased.

Glomerulonephritis is a disease that causes inflammation of the kidney’s tiny filtering units called the glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis may happen suddenly, for example, after a strep throat, and the individual may get well again.However, the disease may develop slowly over several years and it may cause progressive loss of kidney function.

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What Happens If My Kidneys Fail

If your kidneys fail, that means they have completely stopped doing their job to filter waste from your blood. Kidney failure is also called end-stage renal disease. Waste may build up in your blood and cause health problems, such as:

If this happens, you will need to start dialysis or have a kidney transplant to live.

How Is Kidney Failure Diagnosed

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Doctors use a variety of tests to measure kidney function and diagnose kidney failure. If your doctors suspect you may be at risk for kidney failure, they may recommend:

  • Blood tests, which can show how well the kidneys are removing waste from the blood.
  • Advanced imaging, which can show kidney abnormalities or obstructions .
  • Urine tests, which measure the amount of urine or specific substances in the urine, such as protein or blood.

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Here’s How Kidneys Perform Their Important Work:

  • Blood enters the kidneys through an artery from the heart
  • Blood is cleaned by passing through millions of tiny blood filters
  • Waste material passes through the ureter and is stored in the bladder as urine
  • Newly cleaned blood returns to the bloodstream by way of veins
  • Bladder becomes full and urine passes out of the body through the urethra.
  • The kidneys perform their life-sustaining job of filtering and returning to the bloodstream about 200 quarts of fluid every 24 hours. Approximately two quarts are eliminated from the body in the form of urine, while the remainder, about 198 quarts, is retained in the body. The urine we excrete has been stored in the bladder for approximately one to eight hours.

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    How Do My Kidneys Filter Blood

    Each kidney contains more than a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of:

    • Glomeruli: Glomeruli are groups of tiny blood vessels that perform the first stage of filtering your blood. They then pass filtered substances to the renal tubules. The name for this process is glomerular filtration.
    • Renal tubules: These tiny tubes reabsorb and return water, nutrients and minerals your body needs . The tubules remove waste, including excess acid and fluids through a process called diffusion. Your body sends the remaining waste through your kidneys collecting chambers. Eventually, it leaves your body as pee.

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    Can Ckd Be Cured

    There is no cure for CKD, which means that any damage to your kidneys cannot be reversed. However, if CKD is diagnosed early, there is a lot you and your doctors can do to slow down damage to your kidneys, such as making healthy lifestyle changes. Even small changes can make a big difference in keeping your kidneys working for as long as possible.

    Why Are The Kidneys So Important

    How does Kidney Function in our body?

    Most people know that a major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. This process is necessary to maintain a stable balance of body chemicals.

    The critical regulation of the body’s salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.

    The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions:

    • remove waste products from the body
    • remove drugs from the body
    • balance the body’s fluids
    • release hormones that regulate blood pressure
    • produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
    • control the production of red blood cells

    Below you will find more information about the kidneys and the vital role they play in keeping your body functioning.

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    Is Kidney Failure Permanent

    Usually, but not always. Some kinds of acute kidney failure, also known as acute renal failure, get better after treatment. In some cases of acute kidney failure, dialysis may only be needed for a short time until the kidneys get better.

    In chronic or end stage kidney failure, your kidneys do not get better and you will need dialysis for the rest of your life. If your doctor says you are a candidate, you may choose to be placed on a waiting list for a new kidney.

    Dehydration And Dry Skin

    People with ESRD often have dry skin, but the connection between dry skin and itching is not so clear. What has been determined is that dry skin makes the itching worse and more severe.

    Getting less fluid can cause itchy skin to get worse. Hydration is important for kidney health especially if you are on dialysis. The fluid removed during dialysis needs to be replenished. So getting enough hydration between treatments could help lessen the intensity of the itch.

    Dry skin becomes dangerous when it turns into nephrogenic systemic fibrosis . This condition results in the hardening of the skin causing it to become thick and tight. It also can scar the lungs and kidneys. Too much gadolinium causes this condition. Kidney patients are exposed to this during imaging and dialysis expose kidney patients to this compound. NSF is also responsible for kidney itch.

    Some people with kidney disease also have nerve damage that prevents them from sweating enough. This could lead to dry skin and is another reason to keep hydrated.

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    Should You Check Your Kidney Function

    If youre concerned about symptoms that youre experiencing, its important to make a trip to your doctor for a check-up.

    If you simply want to know a bit more about your kidney health, you have the option to take a kidney function test from the comfort of your own home. With LetsGetCheckeds Kidney Function Test you can monitor your kidney function and performance and receive your online results within 5 days.

    You should consider taking a Kidney Function Test if any of the below are applicable to you:

    • You suffer from high blood pressure
    • You suffer from diabetes

    Can Hbp Cause Kidney Failure

    10 Most Common Habits that Damage Your Kidneys

    Your kidneys and circulatory system depend on each other for good health. The kidneys help filter wastes and extra fluids from blood, using a lot of blood vessels. When the blood vessels become damaged, the nephrons that filter your blood dont receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function well. This is why high blood pressure is the second leading cause of kidney failure.

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    Improving Your Kidney Function Can Be Simple

    So you see for many, improving kidney function doesnt need to be difficult. In most cases, simply by stepping to the side and getting out of your own way, checking your thoughts, fears, and excuses at the door, you can catalyse massive changes in your health, by simply allowing the healing to take place.

    Rubbing Lanterns Wont Help Improve Your Kidney Function, But Heres What Can

    Now stay with me I am not saying that that you can cure all by thinking just happy thoughts, wishing, and getting out of the way, no definitely not. There are many practical things you can do every day, with little to no fuss that are very effective in helping increase kidney function. Very helpful indeed.

    Note: thinking positive however sure wont hurt, in fact it will go a long way your mindset is the single biggest determining factor on how quickly you heal.

    So in tune with todays theme of simplicity, I would like to share with you 10 effortless tips that can be applied immediately to help your kidney function, no need to leave home, and no need to spend a dime.

    What Is Peritoneal Dialysis And How Does It Work

    In this type of dialysis, your blood is cleaned inside your body. The doctor will do surgery to place a plastic tube called a catheter into your abdomen to make an access. During the treatment, your abdominal area is slowly filled with dialysate through the catheter. The blood stays in the arteries and veins that line your peritoneal cavity. Extra fluid and waste products are drawn out of your blood and into the dialysate. There are two major kinds of peritoneal dialysis.

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    Over Time High Blood Pressure Harms Renal Blood Vessels

    The nephrons in the kidneys are supplied with a dense network of blood vessels, and high volumes of blood flow through them. Over time, uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause arteries around the kidneys to narrow, weaken or harden. These damaged arteries are not able to deliver enough blood to the kidney tissue.

    • Damaged kidney arteries don’t filter blood well. Kidneys have small, finger-like nephrons that filter your blood. Each nephron receives its blood supply through tiny hair-like capillaries, the smallest of all blood vessels. When the arteries become damaged, the nephrons don’t receive the essential oxygen and nutrients. Then the kidneys lose their ability to filter blood and regulate the fluid, hormones, acids and salts in the body.
    • Damaged kidneys fail to regulate blood pressure. Healthy kidneys respond to a hormone called aldosterone which is produced in the adrenal glands, to help the body regulate blood pressure. Kidney damage and uncontrolled high blood pressure contribute to a negative spiral. As more arteries become blocked and stop functioning, the kidneys eventually fail.

    Introduction To Your Kidneys

    How Do Our #Kidneys Work? Kidney Responsibilities, Function and Why Kidney’s #Fail

    Learn where your kidneys are located in your body, what they do, what happens if they stop working and how you can keep your kidneys healthy.

    Your kidneys are vital organs. This means you cannot survive without them. They filter waste from your blood and do other important jobs, such as helping control your blood pressure and make red blood cells. Most people are born with two kidneys, but some people are born with just one. You can live with one healthy kidney.

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    What Is Kidney Failure

    Kidney failure means one or both kidneys can no longer function well on their own. Sometimes, kidney failure is temporary and comes on quickly. Other times, it is a chronic condition that can get worse slowly over a long time.

    Kidney failure may sound serious, and it is. But treatments such as dialysis and kidney transplant help many people with limited kidney function continue to live fulfilling lives.

    Other Ways Itching In Kidney Disease Can Affect Your Skin

    Itching is not the only thing that can occur in kidney disease. Other dermatological conditions include the following:

    • Scratching and scratch marks
    • Perforations of the skin

    Scratching and Scratch Marks

    Too much scratching can also develop into secondary skin conditions. It can rub off the top layer of skin. Impetigo can also occur as a result of scratching. This is a skin infection caused by bacteria, specifically Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Thick, Callous Skin

    Lichenification is skin that has become thick and leathery due to constant scratching or rubbing.

    Lumps and Bumps on the Skin

    Kidney itching can cause hard, itchy bumps known as prurigo nodularis. They also appear as prurigo lesions. Try not to scratch these. They can cause more skin lesions to appear.

    Color Changes to your Skin

    During ESRD the skin will change color. It can become a pallor or yellow hue. The yellow color is related to anemia and hormone imbalances. Pallor is a slate-grey discoloration. It occurs when iron is trapped in skin cells.

    Nail changes

    Kidney disease can result in small, narrow, and thickened fingernails. Nails can also discolor and split in half.


    In CKD the kidneys are not able to properly filter and remove toxins. This can lead to the buildup of fluid in the body. It will often result in swelling in the legs, hands, face, feet, and/or ankles.



    Tight Skin

    Calcium Deposits Beneath Skin

    Perforation of the Skin

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    What Are The Types Of Kidney Function Tests

    Your healthcare provider may order one or a few different types of kidney function tests. You may have blood tests for kidney function, such as:

    • Blood urea nitrogen measures nitrogen in your blood.
    • Estimated GFR calculates filtration rates based on your protein levels, age, gender, size and race.
    • Serum creatinine looks for the buildup of creatinine, a waste product from muscle tissue breakdown.

    Your healthcare provider may also use 24-hour urine tests, including:

    • Microalbuminuria looks for a specific protein called albumin.
    • Urinalysis evaluates your urine for blood, proteins and function.

    How Can I Keep My Kidneys Healthy

    Kidneys play a very vital function in our overall body systems &  helps ...

    Its important to have regular checkups and blood and urine tests to measure your kidneys health. You can reduce your risk of developing a kidney problem by:

    • Avoiding or quitting smoking and using tobacco products. Your provider can help you find ways to quit.
    • Cutting out excess salt, which can affect the balance of minerals in your blood.
    • Increasing daily exercise, which can reduce high blood pressure.
    • Limiting your use of NSAIDs. NSAIDs can cause kidney damage if you take them too much.
    • Watching your blood sugar levels if you have diabetes.

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    How Does Blood Flow Through My Kidneys

    Blood flows into your kidney through the renalartery. This large blood vessel branches into smaller and smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephrons. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the tiny blood vessels of the glomeruli and then flows out of your kidney through the renal vein.

    Your blood circulates through your kidneys many times a day. In a single day, your kidneys filter about 150 quarts of blood. Most of the water and other substances that filter through your glomeruli are returned to your blood by the tubules. Only 1 to 2 quarts become urine.


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