Kidney Stones Symptoms And Treatments
Kidney stones are a fairly common condition that tend to affect people more during middle age . Stones can form in one or both kidneys and quite often can just pass through the urinary system undetected and without causing any pain. Sometimes large stones can get blocked and cause considerable pain called renal colic. In this instance a treatment to break up the stone or surgery may be required.
Appendicitis Kidney Stones Abdominal Health Emergencies: Warning Signs Symptoms
It can be easy to blame your abdominal pain on indigestion or stress. But sometimes the pain is more serious, and youll need to see a doctor to diagnose appendicitis or any other more serious abdominal conditions. Learn which symptoms to watch out for and when you should get medical help.
Did you know that stomach pain is the most common reason for emergency room visits? When a person is unsure about what to do, it may be best to call a doctor to decide if an ER visit is necessary.
Ckd Kidney Failure Risk Up To 13 Percent Higher With Constipation
Dr. Keiichi Sumida and Dr. Csaba Kovesdy, from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, examined 3.5 million American veterans. These patients were first seen in 2004 and 2006 and then followed through 2013.
All participants had normal kidney function on their first examination, but as time progressed, some of the patients developed constipation and kidney disease.
Patients with constipation were 13 percent more likely to develop chronic kidney disease and 9 percent more likely to have kidney failure.
Researchers also established a proportional association between the degree of severity in constipation and CKD and kidney failure.
Increasingly severe constipation was linked to a higher risk of developing kidney disease.
Dr. Kovesdy points to the link between our intestinal health and our kidneys, suggesting his study sheds light on the causes of kidney disease, as well as treatment and prevention.
Our findings highlight the plausible link between the gut and the kidneys and provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of kidney disease progression. Our results suggest the need for careful observation of kidney function trajectory in patients with constipation, particularly among those with more severe constipation.
Dr. Csaba Kovesdy
The results will be published in the next issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
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The Link Between Gastrointestinal Issues And Kidney Stones
If youve been diagnosed with gastrointestinal issues, you may be surprised to know that they may increase your risk of kidney stones. Additionally, sometimes kidney stones can even cause symptoms that mimic gastrointestinal issues as well.
Thats why its so important to know the relationship between these two types of health conditions. At Preva Surgicare – Surgery Center Of The Woodlands in Texas, our urology experts can help you understand your risk for kidney stones, while our specialized Stone Relief Center can help you treat them.
How Does Constipation Happen
Constipation happens because your colon absorbs too much water from waste , which dries out the stool making it hard in consistency and difficult to push out of the body.
To back up a bit, as food normally moves through the digestive tract, nutrients are absorbed. The partially digested food that remains moves from the small intestine to the large intestine, also called the colon. The colon absorbs water from this waste, which creates a solid matter called stool. If you have constipation, food may move too slowly through the digestive tract. This gives the colon more time too much time to absorb water from the waste. The stool becomes dry, hard, and difficult to push out.
Pathway of food waste through colon, rectum and anus.
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Pharmacy First Scotland: Constipation Treatment From Your Pharmacy
Constipation isn’t usually serious and can be treated by a pharmacist. Your pharmacist may recommend that you contact your GP practice if required.
Also speak to your pharmacist if you think your child might be constipated. Laxatives are often recommended for children alongside diet and lifestyle changes.
You may be able to treat constipation yourself by making simple changes to your diet and lifestyle . If these changes don’t help and the problem continues, you should see your pharmacist.
However, you should see your GP for advice if:
- you notice any rectal bleeding
- you notice any unexplained weight loss
- you have persistent tiredness
- your constipation lasts longer than 14 days without improvement
Serotonin Type 4 Receptor Agonists
Serotonin type 4 receptor agonists stimulate peristalsis and accelerate gastrointestinal transit. Shin et al. reviewed 13 randomized controlled trials on highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonists in adults with chronic constipation and concluded that these drugs improved stool frequency and other symptoms of constipation, generally with minor neurological/psychiatric adverse events . However, the efficacy of these drugs has not yet been reported in CKD/ESKD patients. Since CKD-related constipation is often refractory, 5-HT4 receptor agonists may be used not as a sole therapy but as an additive therapy to other drugs.
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Causes Of Kidney Infection
A kidney infection usually happens when bacteria, often a type called E. coli, get into the tube that carries urine out of your body .
The bacteria travel up to your bladder, causing cystitis, and then up into your kidneys.
E. coli bacteria normally live in your bowel, where they cause no harm.
They can be transferred from your bottom to your genitals during sex or if you’re not careful when wiping your bottom after going to the loo.
A kidney infection can sometimes develop without a bladder infection. For example, if you have a problem with your kidney, such as kidney stones, or if you have diabetes or a weakened immune system.
Can Constipation Cause Internal Damage Or Lead To Other Health Problems
There are a few complications that could happen if you dont have soft, regular bowel movements. Some complications include:
- Swollen, inflamed veins in your rectum .
- Tears in the lining of your anus from hardened stool trying to pass through .
- An infection in pouches that sometimes form off the colon wall from stool that has become trapped and infected
- A pile-up of too much stool/poop in the rectum and anus .
- Damage to your pelvic floor muscles from straining to move your bowels. These muscles help control your bladder. Too much straining for too long a period of time may cause urine to leak from the bladder .
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Constipation And Back Pain
Constipation is defined as infrequent bowel movements or difficulty passing bowel movements. Normal bowel movements usually occur one to two times a day. With constipation, you may experience only three bowel movements a week.
Additional symptoms of constipation include:
- hard or lumpy stool
- feeling of fullness
- straining to pass fecal matter
Often, constipation swells the intestines with retained fecal matter. This can lead to discomfort in both the abdomen and back. This type of back pain is typically reported as a dull, aching type of discomfort.
- colon or rectal cancer
How Can Constipation Be Treated
Prevention is better than cure so it is best to avoid becoming constipated in the first place. This can be done by:
- Eating regular meals
- Include some high fibre foods at each meal
- Make sure you are having your full fluid allowance
- Move about and exercise regularly if possible
- Sit in the right position when using the toilet. Use a foot stool to bring your knees up .
Your doctor or nurse may suggest the use of medications such as laxatives to help your bowels. Take this as prescribed do not wait to become constipated before using.
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Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease
There are no symptoms of kidney disease in the early stages, so its easy for kidney disease to go undetected until it has progressed to a serious stage. It takes a while for symptoms to appear, as the symptomatic degeneration is slow. Symptoms dont usually appear until a lot of damage to your kidneys has taken place, and youve reached the end stages of Chronic Kidney Disease . As youre nearing kidney failure, you may notice symptoms that are caused by extra waste in your system.
The progression of kidney disease is categorized into five stages.
Stage 1: The kidneys have normal kidney function. There may be a few signs of mild kidney disease. The kidneys have at least 90% kidney function. Some abnormalities may be found through urinalysis or blood work. High likelihood of kidney disease may be determined based on genetic traits. Treatment may involve some dietary changes and mild blood pressure medication.
Stage 2: Kidney function is mildly reduced. There may be a few signs of mild kidney disease. The kidneys have 60-89% kidney function. Other findings, such as urinalysis, blood work, and genetic traits, point to kidney disease.
Stage 4: Although it is still possible to not have symptoms at this stage, theres an increased likelihood that youll experience fatigue, swelling, changes in appetite, back pain, changes in urine, hypertension, and slowed digestion. You will show signs of severe chronic renal insufficiency, with 15-29% kidney function.
The Role Of Your Kidneys
Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that are located in the upper abdominal area against the back muscles. The kidneys are relatively small , yet play a crucial role in the daily function of your body. Your kidneys are composed of a million tiny filters called nephrons. Similar to a water filtration plant, they regulate the health of your bloodstream by filtering out wastes and extra fluid in the body. Because the kidneys are responsible for keeping your bloodstream clean and free of toxins, you cannot survive without them.
The kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1-2 quarts of waste. As the blood is filtered, the waste is drained from the kidneys into the bladder as urine. Your body is a closed system you can only get rid of waste through sweating, breathing, and urinating/bowel movements. If there is a disruption to any of these systems, the repercussions can be serious.
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Bloating Or Fullness Constipation And Frequent Urge To Urinate
- Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Reviewed on 10/9/2020
Fullness, constipation and a frequent urge to urinate can occur with various conditions. It is possible that constipation is present along with a urinary tract infection. Less commonly, these symptoms can be related to more serious chronic conditions . Depression and other emotional conditions often produce symptoms that mimic those of physical problems. Be sure to talk to your doctor if you are experiencing worrisome symptoms.
While the list below can be considered as a guide to educate yourself about these conditions, this is not a substitute for a diagnosis from a health care provider. There are many other medical conditions that also can be associated with your symptoms and signs. Here are a number of those from MedicineNet:
How Is Constipation Treated
Most cases of mild to moderate constipation can be managed by you at home. Self-care starts by taking an inventory of what you eat and drink and then making changes.
Some recommendations to help relieve your constipation include:
- Drink two to four extra glasses of water a day. Avoid caffeine-containing drinks and alcohol, which can cause dehydration.
- Add fruits, vegetables whole grains and other high-fiber foods to your diet. Eat fewer high-fat foods, like meat, eggs and cheese.
- Eat prunes and/or bran cereal.
- Keep a food diary and single out foods that constipate you.
- Get moving, exercise.
- Check how you sit on the toilet. Raising your feet, leaning back or squatting may make having a bowel movement easier.
- Add an over-the-counter supplemental fiber to your diet .
- If needed, take a very mild over-the-counter stool softener or laxative . Mineral oil enemas, like Fleet®, and stimulant laxatives, like bisacodyl or senna , are other options. There are many laxative choices. Ask your pharmacist or doctor for help in making a choice. Do not use laxatives for more than two weeks without calling your doctor. Overuse of laxatives can worsen your symptoms.
- Do not read, use your phone or other devices while trying to move your bowels.
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Potential Factors Inducing Constipation In Ckd
A vast number of factors are vital for normal intestinal motility, such as the nervous system , immune system, endocrine system, bile acid metabolism, mucus secretion, gut microbiota, and products of intestinal fermentation . Disturbances in any of these systems may contribute to the symptoms of constipation. In the setting of CKD, the pathogenesis of constipation is more complex and multifactorial. Discussions on the potential pathogenic link between CKD-related gut dysbiosis and constipation/intestinal dysmotility are of importance.
How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
You may be asked to provide a urine sample to check for signs of kidney stones. If you suspect and have seen stones in your urine, it may be helpful to collect these for your GP so they can diagnose the type of stone causing the issue more easily. One method for collecting stone is to urinate through a piece of gauze so that the stones dont pass through.
If you are experiencing significant pain then you may be referred to a urologist who can perform some more detailed exams to determine the extent of your kidney stone. These tests may include:
Various scans including CT , X-rays and Ultrasound Intravenous Urogram or Intravenous Pyelogram a contrast is injected into your vein and then a series of x-rays will be taken. This contrast dye can highlight if their are any blockage in the kidney or urinary tract
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Symptoms Of Faecal Impaction
The symptoms of impaction are similar to the symptoms of constipation. But other more serious symptoms can occur. These include:
- back pain due to the mass of poo pressing on the nerves in your lower back
- a swollen tummy
- high or low blood pressure
- a fast heart rate
- explosive diarrhoea or diarrhoea that you have no control over
- feeling and being sick
How Long Will I Need To Take Laxatives For
If you’ve had constipation for a short time, your pharmacist will usually advise you to stop taking the laxative once your stools are soft and easily passed.
However, if your constipation is caused by an underlying medical condition or a medicine you’re taking, your GP may advise you to take laxatives for much longer, possibly many months or even years.
If you’ve been taking laxatives for some time, you may have to gradually reduce your dose, rather than coming off them straight away. If you have been prescribed a combination of laxatives, you’ll normally have to reduce the dosage of each laxative, one at a time, before you can stop taking them. This can take several months.
Your GP will advise you about when it’s best to stop taking long-term laxatives.
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How Do I Increase Fibre In My Diet
- Choose a higher fibre breakfast cereal such as plain whole wheat biscuits or plain shredded whole grain. Porridge oats are also a good source of fibre.
- Choose wholemeal or granary breads or higher fibre white bread and wholegrains like whole wheat pasta, bulgur wheat or brown rice.
- Choose potatoes with their skins on such as boiled new potatoes
- Add pulses like beans, lentils or chickpeas to stews, curries and salads.
- Include plenty of vegetables with meals either as a side dish or added to sauces, stews or curries.
- Have some fresh or dried fruit or fruit canned in natural juice for dessert.
- For snacks try fresh fruit, vegetable sticks, rye crackers, oatcakes or unsalted nuts or seeds.
- High fibre dietary supplements can be used to increase your fibre intake if changing your diet is difficult and you can discuss this with your Kidney Dietitian.
If you are following a low potassium diet or are taking a blood thinning medication called Warfarin then please contact your Kidney Dietitian for more individual advice on how to safely increase your fibre intake.
This information sheet has been provided by your healthcare professional to give you initial advice. You can ask for a referral to the Kidney Dietitians for individual advice and support.
When To See A Gp
See a GP if you feel feverish and have pain that will not go away in your tummy, lower back or genitals.
Contact a GP immediately if you think your child may have a kidney infection.
If you cannot get a GP appointment and need urgent medical attention, go to your nearest urgent care centre .
If you do not have a local UCC, go to your nearest A& E.
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How Common Is Constipation
You are not alone if you have constipation. Constipation is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal complaints in the United States. At least 2.5 million people see their doctor each year due to constipation.
People of all ages can have an occasional bout of constipation. There are also certain people and situations that are more likely to lead to becoming more consistently constipated . These include:
- Older age. Older people tend to be less active, have a slower metabolism and less muscle contraction strength along their digestive tract than when they were younger.
- Being a woman, especially while you are pregnant and after childbirth. Changes in a womans hormones make them more prone to constipation. The baby inside the womb squishes the intestines, slowing down the passage of stool.
- Not eating enough high-fiber foods. High-fiber foods keep food moving through the digestive system.
- Taking certain medications .
- Having certain neurological and digestive disorders .