Why Are The Kidneys So Important
Most people know that a major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. This process is necessary to maintain a stable balance of body chemicals.
The critical regulation of the body’s salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.
The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions:
- remove waste products from the body
- remove drugs from the body
- balance the body’s fluids
- release hormones that regulate blood pressure
- produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
- control the production of red blood cells
Below you will find more information about the kidneys and the vital role they play in keeping your body functioning.
Which Is Not A Major Function Of The Kidney
|A) filtering minerals from blood||B) fluids balance|
|C) filtering wastes from blood||D) None of the above|
The three main functions of Kidneys are ::
* Regulating and filtering minerals from blood.
* Maintaining overall fluid balance.
In the context of IT services, what is the full form of BCP?
Vembanad lake, which is the largest lakes of India is in which state?
A database used by Microsoft Windows for storing configuration information is known as:
In 2019, ________introduced a clause as per which if one is applying for a visa to that country, one needs to furnish a social media track record of the past five years.
A market structure which is dominated by only a small number of firms is called:
In March 2019, K. Govindaraj has been unanimously re-elected as president of which of the following organisations?
|A) All India Tennis Association||B) Sports Authority of India|
|C) Basketball Federation of India||D) Table Tennis Federation of India|
|A) All India Tennis Association|
|B) Sports Authority of India|
|C) Basketball Federation of India|
|D) Table Tennis Federation of India|
Why Are The Kidneys Important
Your kidneys remove wastes and extra fluid from your body. Your kidneys also remove acid that is produced by the cells of your body and maintain a healthy balance of water, salts, and mineralssuch as sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and potassiumin your blood.
Without this balance, nerves, muscles, and other tissues in your body may not work normally.
Your kidneys also make hormones that help
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Other Functions Of Kidneys
Despite their small size each kidney is only about the size of your fist your kidneys perform a variety of essential functions. Most notably, kidneys remove dangerous toxins and excess water from your blood and eliminate them through your urine. Kidneys also perform other amazing physiological feats, from regulating the amount of fluid in your body to controlling the salt content of that fluid. Here are three more amazing kidney functions.
When Should I Call The Doctor
A nephrologist receives special training in kidney evaluation and treatment. You may benefit from a kidney specialists expert opinion if:
- You have trouble keeping your blood pressure levels in a normal range, even with medication.
- Your blood sugar levels fluctuate widely.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 01/10/2018.
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Emt/met In Regenerating Kidney Tubule Epithelium
Nephrons of the mammalian kidney do not regenerate after their destruction, but kidney tubule epithelium regenerates after injury. The epithelial cells have a low basal rate of maintenance regeneration, as evaluated by PCNA and Ki-67 staining for mitosis . A standard injury model to demonstrate injury-induced regeneration of tubule epithelium is ischemia followed by reperfusion, in which the blood supply to the kidney is temporarily clamped off and the kidney then allowed to reperfuse. Under these circumstances, epithelial cells die and are sloughed off their basement membrane, but are rapidly replaced .
Tubule epithelial cells undergo EMT to form proliferating mesenchymal cells that migrate to cover the denuded areas of the basement membrane . The mesenchymal cells express vimentin and -smooth muscle actin, as well as Pax-2, a transcription factor critical for kidney ontogenesis . In preparation for migration, integrins are relocated from basal to lateral borders, NCAM expression is increased, and Fn, HA, uPA, and MMP-2 and 9 are upregulated . Another molecule involved in mesenchymal migration is kidney injury molecule-1 , a transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily that is strongly upregulated in the post-ischemic rat kidney . After re-covering the denuded areas of the basement membrane, the mesenchymal cells undergo MET to restore the epithelium.
FIGURE 15.5. Kidney tubule epithelium regenerates by EMT/MET.
Bruce M. Carlson, in, 2015
Water And Electrolyte Balance
People consume water regularly in order to maintain life. More water is produced by the processing of food. If the amount of water added to the body is not matched by an equal amount going out, water accumulates rapidly and the person becomes ill and may even die. Excess water dilutes the body’s electrolytes, whereas water restriction concentrates them. The body’s electrolytes must be maintained at very precise concentrations. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the proper balance of water and electrolytes.
Blood enters a glomerulus at high pressure. Much of the fluid part of blood is filtered through small pores in the glomerulus, leaving behind blood cells and most large molecules, such as proteins. The clear, filtered fluid enters Bowman space and passes into the tubule leading from Bowman capsule. In healthy adults, about 47 gallons of fluid is filtered into the kidney tubules each day. Nearly all this fluid is reabsorbed by the kidney. Only about 1.5 to 2% of the fluid is excreted as urine. For this reabsorption to occur, different parts of the nephron actively secrete and reabsorb different electrolytes, which pull the water along, and other parts of the nephron vary their permeability to water, allowing more or less water to return to the circulation. The details of these processes are a bit complicated.
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What Do The Kidneys Do
Your kidneys have many important functions. They clean toxins and waste out of your blood. Common waste products include nitrogen waste , muscle waste and acids. They help your body remove these substances. Your kidneys filter about half a cup of blood every minute.
In the process:
The kidneys also:
- Control the acid-base balance of your blood.
- Make sugar if your blood doesnt have enough sugar.
- Make a protein called renin that increases blood pressure.
- Produce the hormones calcitriol and erythropoietin. Calcitriol is a form of vitamin D that helps your body absorb calcium. Erythropoietin helps your body make red blood cells.
An adrenal gland sits on top of each kidney. It produces hormones, including cortisol, which helps your body respond to stress.
Cortisol also plays a role in:
About Chronic Kidney Disease
CKD is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood as well as they should. Because of this, excess fluid and waste from blood remain in the body and may cause other health problems, such as heart disease and stroke.
15% of US adults are estimated to have chronic kidney disease, that is about 37 million people.
Some other health consequences of CKD include:
- Anemia or low number of red blood cells
- Increased occurrence of infections
- Low calcium levels, high potassium levels, and high phosphorus levels in the blood
- Loss of appetite or eating less
- Depression or lower quality of life
CKD has varying levels of seriousness. It usually gets worse over time though treatment has been shown to slow progression. If left untreated, CKD can progress to kidney failure and early cardiovascular disease. When the kidneys stop working, dialysis or kidney transplant is needed for survival. Kidney failure treated with dialysis or kidney transplant is called end-stage renal disease . Learn more about ESRD.
Not all patients with kidney disease progress to kidney failure. To help prevent CKD and lower the risk for kidney failure, control risk factors for CKD, get tested yearly, make lifestyle changes, take medicine as needed, and see your health care team regularly.
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How Do The Kidneys Work
Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process: the glomerulus filters your blood, and the tubule returns needed substances to your blood and removes wastes.
The 4 minute video below outlines the internal gross anatomy of the kidneys
The following 6 minute video shows the microscopic anatomy of the kidney.
Can You Live Without A Kidney
You can live with just one kidney. Healthcare providers may remove one of your kidneys in a radical nephrectomy.
Someone may have only one kidney if they:
- Had a kidney removed due to cancer or injury.
- Made a kidney donation to someone else for a kidney transplant.
- Were born with only one kidney .
- Were born with two kidneys but only one kidney works .
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The 7 Functions Of The Kidneys
Most people know that the primary function of the kidneys is to eliminate waste products from the body by flushing them out with urine. However, did you know that there are at least 6 other fabulous functions you should thank your kidneys for?
Shaheen Motiwala, MD is one of our nephrologist at Florida Kidney Physicians who loves to educate patients. Here is a brief overview of the 7 primary functions of the kidneys to help patients become more familiar with how these amazing organs work.
Producing Hormones In The Kidneys
The kidneys play an endocrine function by synthesising and producing several hormones, including renin and erythropoietin. Renin is an important hormone that is involved in the regulation of blood pressure. When blood pressure drops, the kidneys release renin, which activates a cascade of other effector molecules that constrict the capillaries to raise blood pressure this is also known as vasoconstriction.
When the kidneys are not working correctly, they may secrete too much renin into the blood, raising blood pressure and occasionally leading to hypertension . As a result, many individuals with kidney dysfunction suffer from hypertension.
Erythropoietin functions by acting on the bone marrow to stimulate the production of red bloodcells. If kidney function deteriorates, an inadequate amount of erythropoietin is produced, significantly lowering the number of new red bloodcells produced. Consequently, many individuals with poor kidney function also develop anaemia.
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How Do My Kidneys Filter Blood
Each kidney contains more than a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of:
- Glomeruli: Glomeruli are groups of tiny blood vessels that perform the first stage of filtering your blood. They then pass filtered substances to the renal tubules. The name for this process is glomerular filtration.
- Renal tubules: These tiny tubes reabsorb and return water, nutrients and minerals your body needs . The tubules remove waste, including excess acid and fluids through a process called diffusion. Your body sends the remaining waste through your kidneys collecting chambers. Eventually, it leaves your body as pee.
What Are The Functions Of The Kidneys In The Human Body
Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism. The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions: remove waste products from the body. remove drugs from the body. balance the bodys fluids. release hormones that regulate blood pressure.
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How Does The Urinary System Work
The urinary system’s function is to filter blood and create urine as a waste by-product. The organs of the urinary system include the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra.
The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.
Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Kidneys also regulate the acid-base balance and conserve fluids.
How Does Blood Flow Through My Kidneys
Blood flows into your kidney through the renalartery. This large blood vessel branches into smaller and smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephrons. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the tiny blood vessels of the glomeruli and then flows out of your kidney through the renal vein.
Your blood circulates through your kidneys many times a day. In a single day, your kidneys filter about 150 quarts of blood. Most of the water and other substances that filter through your glomeruli are returned to your blood by the tubules. Only 1 to 2 quarts become urine.
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Early Forms Of The Kidney
The common representation of mammalian kidney development includes three successive phases beginning with the appearance of the pronephros, the developmental homologue of the type of kidney found in only the lowest vertebrates. In human embryos, the first evidence of a urinary system consists of the appearance of a few segmentally arranged sets of epithelial cords that differentiate from the anterior intermediate mesoderm at about 22 days’ gestation. These structures are more appropriately called nephrotomes. The nephrotomes connect laterally with a pair of primary nephric ducts, which grow toward the cloaca . The earliest stages in the development of the urinary system depend on the action of retinoic acid, which sets the expression limits of Hox 4-11 genes that determine the craniocaudal limits of the early urinary system. The molecular response by the intermediate mesoderm is the expression of the transcription factors Pax-2 and Pax-8, which then induce Lim-1 in the intermediate mesoderm. Lim-1 is required for the aggregation of the mesenchymal cells of the intermediate mesoderm into the primary nephric ducts.
Early in the 5th week of gestation, the ureteric bud begins to grow into the most posterior region of the intermediate mesoderm. It then sets up a series of continuous inductive interactions leading to the formation of the definitive kidney, the metanephros.
Figure 2. Stages in the formation of the metanephros. At 6 weeks. At 7 weeks. At 8 weeks. At 3 months .
What Causes Kidney Damage
Your kidneys perform several important functions within your body. Many different disorders can affect them. Common conditions that impact your kidneys include:
- Chronic kidney disease: Chronic kidney disease may lessen your kidney function. Diabetes or high blood pressure usually causes CKD.
- Kidney cancer: Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer.
- Kidney failure : Kidney failure may be acute or chronic . End-stage renal disease is a complete loss of kidney function. It requires dialysis .
- Kidney infection : A kidney infection can occur if bacteria enter your kidneys by traveling up your ureters. These infections cause sudden symptoms. Healthcare providers treat them with antibiotics.
- Kidney stones: Kidney stones cause crystals to form in your urine and may block urine flow. Sometimes these stones pass on their own. In other cases, healthcare providers can offer treatment to break them up or remove them.
- Kidney cysts: Fluid-filled sacs called kidney cysts grow on your kidneys. These cysts can cause kidney damage. Healthcare providers can remove them.
- Polycystic kidney disease: Polycystic kidney disease causes cysts to form on your kidneys. PKD is a genetic condition. It may lead to high blood pressure and kidney failure. People with PKD need regular medical monitoring.
Countless other disorders can affect your kidneys. Some of these conditions include:
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How Is Chronic Kidney Disease Detected
Early detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease are the keys to keeping kidney disease from progressing to kidney failure. Some simple tests can be done to detect early kidney disease. They are:
It is especially important that people who have an increased risk for chronic kidney disease have these tests. You may have an increased risk for kidney disease if you: