What Are The Pros And Cons Of Capd And Automated Peritoneal Dialysis
With either CAPD or automated peritoneal dialysis, you gain a sense of control over your treatments and dont need the help of a partner. After youre trained, you can do CAPD and automated peritoneal dialysis by yourself. With peritoneal dialysis, youll have boxes of dialysis solution taking up space in your home.
- You dont need a machine to do CAPD.
- You can do CAPD at the times you choose, as long as you complete the required number of exchanges each day.
- You can do CAPD in many locations.
- You can travel as long as you bring dialysis supplies with you or have them delivered to where youre going.
- CAPD can disrupt your daily routine.
- CAPD is a continuous treatment, and you need to do all exchanges 7 days a week.
Automated peritoneal dialysis pros
- You can do exchanges at night while you sleep.
- You may not have to perform exchanges during the day.
- You can travel as long as you bring dialysis supplies with you or have them delivered to where youre going.
Automated peritoneal dialysis cons
- You need a machine. If you travel, you may have to carry your cycler with you.
- Your connection to the cycler limits your movement at night.
How Will My Veterinarian Determine The Degree Kidney Failure In My Dog
Your veterinarian will use the IRIS staging system. IRIS staging is based on serum creatinine levels, with sub-staging based on the presence of protein in the urine and measuring your dogs blood pressure. By using this staging, your veterinarian has a better idea of how to proceed with treatment, monitor progress, and to estimate your pets prognosis.
What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Failure
In early stages of kidney disease, many people experience few or no symptoms. Its important to note that chronic kidney disease can still cause damage even though you feel fine.
Chronic kidney disease and kidney failure can cause different symptoms for different people. If your kidneys arent working properly, you may notice one or more of the following signs:
- Poor appetite or metallic taste of food
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What If Im Not Sure About Starting Dialysis
If you are not sure whether to start dialysis, ask your doctor about trying dialysis for a set amount of time. This is called a time-limited trial.
You and your doctor will decide on a treatment plan and goals for the trial. At the end of the trial, you can decide with your doctor if dialysis helped you meet your goals and whether you want to continue.
What Is Renal Failure
Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of renal failure–acute and chronic. Acute renal failure has an abrupt onset and is potentially reversible. Chronic renal failure progresses slowly over at least three months and can lead to permanent renal failure. The causes, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes of acute and chronic are different.
Conditions that may lead to acute or chronic renal failure may include, but are not limited to, the following:
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What To Expect If Youre Facing Kidney Failure
Your outlook depends on the type of kidney failure.
If you have chronic kidney failure, your kidneys cant recover, but you can slow its progression with the right treatment, unless you receive a kidney transplant.
If you have acute kidney failure, your kidneys will most likely recover and start to work again.
Swelling In Hands Or Feet
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, and/or hands.
What patients said:
I remember a lot of swelling in my ankles. My ankles were so big I couldn’t get my shoes on.
Going to work one morning, my left ankle was swollen, real swollen, and I was very exhausted just walking to the bus stop. And I knew then that I had to see a doctor.
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Several Changes On The Bloodwork Suggest Kidney Failure:
- Increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels: BUN and creatinine are waste products that normal-functioning kidneys easily eliminate.
- Reduced potassium
- Elevated phosphorus
A relatively new blood test that measures a substance called SDMA helps to diagnose kidney failure even earlier than can be done with routine bloodwork.
On a urinalysis, dilute urine would suggest kidney failure, especially if the bloodwork shows elevated BUN and creatinine. Protein may also be present in the urine.
Because hypertension can cause kidney failure, a veterinarian may also take a cats blood pressure to help confirm a kidney failure diagnosis.
About Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is a long-term condition where the kidneys do not work effectively.
CKD does not usually cause symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. It is usually detected at earlier stages by blood and urine tests. Main symptoms of advanced kidney disease include:
- swollen ankles, feet or hands
- shortness of breath
Read more about the symptoms of chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is most frequently diagnosed through blood and urine tests.
If you are at a high risk of developing CKD, you may be screened annually. Screening may be recommended if you have:
Read more about diagnosing chronic kidney disease
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Medications To Treat The Symptoms Of Adpkd
If you have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease , your kidney specialist or other doctor may recommend medication to help manage your symptoms and reduce the chance of future complications .
Medications for ADPKD symptoms include:
- Blood pressure tablets to stop your blood pressure becoming too high
- Antibiotics to treat infections of the urinary tract, kidney or liver cysts
- Pain relief, to treat short- or long-term pain
Whether you need any of these medications will depend on the symptoms you have, and could change over time. Your kidney specialist or other doctor will be able to explain which treatments might be right for you, and why.
Dialysis For Kidney Failure
Dialysis artificially removes waste from your blood. There are two forms of dialysis haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is further broken down into two main types, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis .The choice of dialysis method depends of factors such as your age, health and lifestyle. Over 2,000 Australian adults start renal replacement therapy each year.
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How Can Vets Diagnose It
The sooner you get the diagnosis, the better. As soon as you bring your dog in for an examination, the vet will start looking at different signs of kidney issues. They will look at your dogs medical history and see what issues your dog might be prone to. However, to completely confirm and diagnose kidney failure, the vet will examine your dogs blood and urine. They will look for abnormalities that will point them in the right direction. Based on the dogs symptoms, the vet will determine what stage of the disease your dog is in.
What Treatments Are Available For Kidney Failure
There are two treatments for kidney failure dialysis and kidney transplant. The dialysis treatments or transplanted kidney will take over some of the work of your damaged kidneys and remove wastes and extra fluid from your body. This will make many of your symptoms better.
- Two different types of dialysis can be done hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Both remove waste products and extra fluid from your blood.
- A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney in your body.
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Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate
A normal eGFR is 90 ml/minute/1.73 m or more. If some of the glomeruli do not filter as much as normal then the kidney is said to have reduced or impaired kidney function.
The eGFR test involves a blood test which measures a chemical called creatinine. Creatinine is a breakdown product of muscle. Creatinine is normally cleared from the blood by the kidneys. If your kidneys are not working very well and the glomeruli are not filtering as much blood as normal, the level of creatinine in the blood goes up.
The eGFR is calculated from your age, sex and blood creatinine level. An adjustment to the calculation is needed for people with African-Caribbean origin. See the separate leaflets called Routine Kidney Function Blood Test and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate .
What Is The Prognosis For Dogs With Kidney Failure
The exact prognosis will depend on the stage of the disease and the dogs responsiveness to treatment. If the dog responds well and has acute kidney failure, they can live healthy, normal lives for years. Another thing that can heavily influence the way dogs handle acute kidney failure is their owners ability to perform follow-up care. You have to listen to your vets instructions and make sure you treat your dog diligently.
World Dog Finder team
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Diagnosis Of Kidney Failure
A number of tests can be used to measure kidney function. If CKD is found, tests may be used to determine:
- the cause of the kidney damage
- the amount of kidney damage
- treatment options.
- blood tests to establish the estimated glomerular filtration rate , which measures how well the kidneys filter wastes from the blood
- urine tests for albumin, blood, glucose and red or white blood cells
- a blood pressure check
- ultrasound, computed tomography , x-ray and other imaging techniques to take pictures of your kidneys
- a kidney biopsy, where a needle is used to remove a small piece of kidney tissue for examination under a microscope.
How To Know If My Dog Is Suffering From Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease in dogs arrives slowly and the symptoms described below therefore do not appear all at the same time, but are progressive.
The first symptoms of chronic kidney disease are usually thirst, the need to urinate more frequently, or bad breath. This then progresses to more obvious symptoms such as fatigue and weakness. In any case, chronic kidney disease can be better treated if it is captured at early stages.
Here are the most often observed symptoms of chronic kidney failure in dogs. Note that these signs may also be related to other conditions. Consult an animal health professional who will be best placed to advise you.
1. Observable signs of chronic kidney disease in dogs:
If these symptoms occur alone or together, severely and quickly, they can put your dog’s life in danger. They require emergency intervention.
So why do some dogs develop these symptoms? Knowing the causes of kidney disease can help you prevent it or change some of your pets lifestyle habits.
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What Life Expectancy Can I Hope For My Dog With Kidney Disease
A dog with chronic kidney failure cannot be cured. However, like any disease, the sooner it is diagnosed, the longer the dog’s life expectancy is. Treatments for chronic kidney disease in dogs therefore aim to reduce the symptoms of the disease, slow down the effects and allow the animal to live better with its disease.
If a dog is suffering from another disease that has the effect of reducing blood flow to the kidneys or causes an obstruction to the urinary tract, the resulting kidney failure can be treated. Hence the importance to not delay before consulting.
In cases of acute kidney disease, if after treatment , urea and creatinine return to normal, it will be considered that the dog is out of danger. If otherwise, the dog must be monitored because its kidneys have been weakened.
Treatment Of Kidney Disease In Dogs
Now that you know how to identify kidney disease in dogs, these are the solutions that you want!
The treatment depends of course on the stage your animal is at. Also, we do not treat chronic kidney failure and acute kidney failure in exactly in the same way. In any case, turn to an animal health professional for advice.
In cases of chronic kidney failure, the destruction of the kidneys is progressive, so often the disease is unfortunately diagnosed when the organs are already in a bad state.
However, a dog that receives this diagnosis may still hope to have some good years ahead of him with proper treatment. Unfortunately, unlike humans, dialysis or kidney transplantation is not possible in dogs, but other care is possible and will help reduce the symptoms of the disease or slow down its progression.
Ask your veterinarian for advice on what diet is suitable for YOUR dog’s condition.
Some professionals agree that a diet low in protein is important both clinically and biochemically. Proteins are high in phosphorus, which would create a high nitrogen load and could put pressure on the liver and kidneys.
This theory, however, is not supported by all nutritionists and veterinarians. Any changes to your pet’s diet should therefore be supported by advice from a health professional. In fact, a low protein diet could create a deficiency in amino acids.
Here are some basic tips that you could put into practice:
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Correction Of Phosphate Balance
If you have stage four or five kidney disease, you can get a build-up of phosphate in your body because your kidneys cannot get rid of it. Phosphate is a mineral that, with calcium, makes up most of your bones. Phosphate is obtained through diet, mainly dairy foods. The kidneys usually filter out excess phosphate. If phosphate levels rise too much, it can upset the normal calcium balance of the body. This can lead to thinning of the bones and furring of the arteries.
You may be asked to limit the amount of phosphate in your diet. Foods high in phosphate include red meat, dairy produce, eggs and fish. Your GP or dietitian should be able to advise you about how much phosphate you can eat. However, there is no advantage in reducing your intake of these foods unless you have a raised phosphate level. Always ask a healthcare professional before changing your diet.
If reducing the amount of phosphate in your diet does not lower your phosphate level enough, you may be given medicines called phosphate binders. These medicines bind to the phosphate in the food inside your stomach and stop it from being absorbed into your body.
To work properly, phosphate binders must be taken just before meals. The most commonly used phosphate binder is calcium carbonate, but there are also alternatives that may be more suitable for you.
The side effects of phosphate binders are uncommon but include:
- itchy skin
When To Call A Professional
Many people with acute kidney injury that progresses to acute renal failure are already hospitalized for their other medical conditions. Other people should call a health care professional whenever the amount of urine they produce either increases or decreases markedly. In people with decreased urine output, swelling of the face and ankles is another danger sign, especially if there is also shortness of breath. For people with chronic renal failure, it is a good idea to check with your health care professional whenever a new medication is prescribed.
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What Are Some Ways To Pay For Kidney Failure Treatment
Medicare, the federal health insurance program, and private health insurance cover most of the cost. Medicare covers kidney failure no matter what your age. If you need more help to pay for treatment, state Medicaid programs provide funds for health care based on financial need. Your social worker can help you find more ways to pay for treatment.
Will I Need To Take Medicines Or Follow A Special Diet
Most likely. Your healthcare team will work with you to develop a treatment plan that’s right for you. Your treatment plan may include taking medicines, restricting salt, limiting certain foods, getting exercise, and more. You will also need treatment for any other health problems you may have, including high blood pressure or diabetes.
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What If I Have Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3
Stage 3 means moderate CKD. This often means that you do not need to see a kidney specialist but your GP will need to see your regularly for monitoring, including blood and urine tests.
You may need treatments to reduce your risk of progressing to more severe CKD. You will probably also need other treatments to reduce your risk of any other problems, particularly cardiovascular diseases .
However if regular blood and urine tests show that your CKD is progressing to stage 4 then you will usually need to be referred to a kidney specialist to consider further assessments and treatment.
Manage Diabetes High Blood Pressure And Heart Disease
If you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease, the best way to protect your kidneys from damage is to
Keep blood glucose numbers close to your goal. Checking your blood glucose, or blood sugar, level is an important way to manage your diabetes. Your health care team may want you to test your blood glucose one or more times a day.
Keep your blood pressure numbers close to your goal. The blood pressure goal for most people with diabetes is below 140/90 mm Hg. Read more about high blood pressure.
Take all your medicines as prescribed. Talk with your health care provider about certain blood pressure medicines, called ACE inhibitors and ARBs, which may protect your kidneys. The names of these medicines end in pril or sartan.
Be careful about the daily use of over-the-counter pain medications. Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , such as ibuprofen and naproxen, can damage your kidneys. Learn more about over-the-counter medicines and your kidneys.
To help prevent heart attacks and stroke, keep your cholesterol levels in the target range. There are two kinds of cholesterol in your blood: LDL and HDL. LDL or bad cholesterol can build up and clog your blood vessels, which can cause a heart attack or stroke. HDL or good cholesterol helps remove the bad cholesterol from your blood vessels. A cholesterol test also may measure another type of blood fat called triglycerides.
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