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What Are Black Kidney Stones Made Of

Should I Cut Out All Foods That Have Oxalate Or Calcium

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No, this is a common mistake. Some people think that cutting out all foods that have oxalate or all foods with calcium will keep stones from forming. However, this approach is not healthy. It can lead to poor nutrition and can cause other health problems. A better plan? Eat and drink calcium and oxalate-rich foods together during a meal. Doing this helps oxalate and calcium bind to one another in the stomach and intestines before reaching the kidneys, making it less likely for kidney stones to form in the urine.

Plan Your Plate For Kidney Stones

How Are Uric Acid Stones Treated

Small stones may pass on their own. It can take up to three weeks to pass. Even if the stones pass on their own, its still important to talk to your provider so you can prevent stones from forming again.

The most important step in uric acid stone treatment is drinking plenty of water to:

  • Reduce the concentration of minerals in urine. Fluids dissolve the minerals, allowing them to leave your body through urine.
  • Encourage you to pee often, which flushes away materials that may form stones.

Providers recommend that you drink enough to produce about 2.5 liters of urine. To produce that much urine, you need to drink a little more than 2.5 liters of fluid. Thats because you lose fluid through sweating or exercise. Aim for drinking about 3 liters of fluids per day.

Although drinking any fluid counts, its best to drink water. Your provider may prescribe medications as well to make the urine less acidic.

Six Steps To Control Oxalate For Kidney Stones

The following six steps can be taken to reduce the risk of forming calcium oxalate stones:

1. Eat fewer high-oxalate foods.

The first suggestion is the most obvious. The more oxalate that is absorbed from your digestive tract, the more oxalate in your urine. High-oxalate foods to limit, if you eat them, are:

  • Spinach
  • French fries
  • Nuts and nut butters

You do not need to cut out other healthy foods that provide some oxalate. In fact, oxalate is practically unavoidable, because most plant foods have some. Often a combination of calcium from foods or beverages with meals and fewer high-oxalate foods is required.

2. Increase the amount of calcium in your diet.

Low amounts of calcium in your diet will increase your chances of forming calcium oxalate kidney stones. Many people are afraid to eat calcium because of the name “calcium oxalate stones.” However, calcium binds oxalate in the intestines. A diet rich in calcium helps reduce the amount of oxalate being absorbed by your body, so stones are less likely to form. Eat calcium rich foods and beverages every day from dairy foods or other calcium-rich foods.

Also, eating high calcium foods at the same time as high oxalate food is helpful for example have low fat cheese with a spinach salad or yogurt with berries. If you take a calcium supplement, calcium citrate is the preferred form.

3. Limit the vitamin C content of your diet.

4. Drink the right amount of fluids every day.

5. Eat the right amount of protein daily.

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What Are Kidney Stones Made Of

Most kidney stones are made of calcium and oxalate, but some stones are made from a combination of other materials, like uric acid, phosphate, cystine, ammonia and xanthine.

These are the several different types of kidney stones, which can affect how kidney stones are formed and what theyre made of:

  • Calcium Oxalate Stones
  • Calcium Phosphate Stones
  • Uric Acid Stones
  • Struvite Stones
  • Cystine Stones
  • Xanthine Stones
  • Other Stones

Uric Acid And Urate Stones

What Makes Kidney Stones Black

Remember that uric acid and urates account for type III of the classification and include four subtypes. Among them, subtypes IIIa and IIIb gather uric acid stones and subtypes IIIc and IIId gather urate stones that are commonly composed of ammonium hydrogen urate, which is the less soluble form of urate salts in urine.

Regarding uric acid stones, the subtype IIIa is primarily related to slow stone growth conditions as observed in urinary stasis and is mainly found with bladder stone of men with prostate hypertrophy By contrast, IIIb subtype suggests a substantial involvement of a metabolic process associated with one or several of the following factors:

  • Permanent low urine pH in the case of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus, or in the case of intestinal alkali loss in patients having chronic hydro-electrolytic diarrhea

  • High excretion of uric acid as observed in diabetes mellitus, in myelo- or lymphoproliferative syndromes or the case of Vaquez disease or rare cases of tubular dysfunction inducing a defect in urate reabsorption. Of note, among patients suffering type 2 diabetes, females are especially at risk to develop uric acid stones exhibiting a subtype IIIb .

  • High production and excretion of uric acid from diet origin .

  • High uric acid concentration in acidic and concentrated urine secondary to low diuresis, whatever the origin.

Uric acid stone subtype IIIa. Top surface, bottom section

Uric acid stone subtype IIIb. Top surface, bottom section

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What Else Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider

If you have a uric acid stone, ask your provider:

  • What treatment will work best?
  • Will I need surgery?
  • How can I prevent a stone from forming again?
  • What diet is right for me?
  • Should I avoid any foods or beverages?
  • Do I need to take any supplements?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Uric acid stones are a type of kidney stone. When you have a high level of uric acid in your blood and urine, small stones can form. These stones can block the passage of urine out of your body, causing pain and other symptoms. Many uric acid stones pass on their own. Your provider may prescribe medication to help the stone pass. For larger stones, your provider may recommend noninvasive or minimally invasive procedures. These treatments include shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy and PCNL. Treatments are successful, but uric acid stones may come back. Avoid or limit foods high in purines to reduce your risk. If you have pain in your side, burning when you pee or see blood in your urine, talk to your healthcare provider. The right diagnosis and treatment can help you feel your best.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 08/19/2021.

References

What To Expect At Home

You visited your provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps you take depend on the type of stone you have, but they may include:

  • Drinking extra water and other liquids
  • Eating more of some foods and cutting back on other foods
  • Taking medicines to help prevent stones
  • Taking medicines to help you pass a stone

You may be asked to try to catch your kidney stone. You can do this by collecting all of your urine and straining it. Your provider will tell you how to do this.

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Kidney Stone Causes And Risk Factors

Both men and women can get kidney stones, but menâs chances of getting them are about double that of womenâs.

Itâs often hard to figure out what caused a kidney stone. But they happen when your urine has high levels of certain minerals. These include:

  • Calcium
  • Oxalate
  • Uric acid

If you donât have enough urine in your body to water down the high concentration of minerals, stones can form. Think about stirring up your favorite drink from a powder mix. If you donât add enough liquid â say, water or juice â the powder will clump up and turn into hard, dry chunks.

Things that can raise your risk for kidney stones include:

  • What you eat

What Causes A Black Kidney Stone

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How To Pass Black Kidney Stones

What are kidney stones

Kidney stones are called nephrolithiasis clinically. These stones occur, usually during the middle age. Kidney stones occur when an object normally dissolved in the urine, concentrates forming a crystal, which subsequently develops into a stone. These crystals can begin to form for a variety of reasons,

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Excess calcium oxalate or uric acid Excess vitamin C or D

Certain specific drugs or medications Certain specific metabolic diseases

Chronic urinary tract infections Urinary tract blokage

Dehydration or drinking too little water Sedentary lifestyle

What are Black kidney stones

Uric Acid Stone Formers

The stones can be orange red, large, and numerous

The stones can be red or orange because uric acid crystals absorb hemoglobin breakdown products that are red orange pigments in urine. Sometimes uric acid crystals pass in urine as a red orange gravel.

Uric acid does not have to connect itself to some other atom or molecule to make a crystal, in the way that calcium must bond with oxalate or phosphate ions to make calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate crystals. When pH is low enough to extinguish its charge, uric acid can crystallize very fast, in seconds, and pass as an orange gravel in the urine. If retained, such crystals can grow rapidly into large stones. Because there is much more uric acid in urine than there is oxalic acid, uric acid stones can grow very large and rapidly. Some fill up the entire collecting system of the kidney.

Urine pH controls stone formation

But because the whole process depends almost completely on the acidity of the urine, uric acid stones are very easy to treat. Just a modest amount of supplemental alkali will make the urine of almost any patient alkaline enough that the hydrogen atoms are removed from the one crucial charged nitrogen. Water can bond there so uric acid remains in solution. Because so simple, treatment prevents stones with certainty. Relapse need never occur.

Mixed stones require special care

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Kidney Stones And Diet

Dietary choices can also lead to stone formation. There are several foods that contain a high concentration of calcium oxalate. To help avoid stone formation, and for those individuals with a history of kidney stones, the following foods should be consumed in moderation:

  • Spinach.

Talk to a urologist to review food choices and restrictions.

Who Would Benefit From An Oxalate

Kidney Stones Black In Color

Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone. As such, many patients with kidney stones can benefit from a diet that reduces calcium kidney stones. However, if you don’t test high for oxalate, this diet will not benefit you. Ask your Cleveland Clinic physician if an oxalate controlled diet would be helpful to you.

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How Else Can I Prevent Uric Acid Stones

You can take other steps to prevent uric acid stones:

  • Drink at least 12 cups of fluids every day, preferably water.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, which can reduce both high blood pressure and the risk of kidney stones.
  • Take any medications your provider prescribed to prevent uric acid stones from forming.

Treatment Of The Sand In The Kidneys

Complex treatment of sand in the kidneys includes drug therapy, diet therapy and drinking regimen. Physiotherapy treatment is indicated in the presence of concrements.

Drugs for removing sand from the kidneys are prescribed in the absence of large stones, otherwise the stone will close the lumen of the ureter and urgent surgical intervention will be required.

  • Cyston with sand in the kidneys removes inflammation and has a diuretic effect. The drug improves renal circulation, relieves spasms of blood vessels, promotes the excretion of calcium salts, oxalic acid and hydroxyproline. Cyston softens the kidney stones by affecting the substance that holds the crystals together. Other active ingredients act against pathogenic Gram-negative microorganisms. Produced in the form of tablets, adults and children over 14 are given 2 tablets 3 times a day after meals. Children under 14 years of age have 1 or 0.5 tablets, depending on the condition of the child and the doctorâs recommendations. The course of treatment is 1-2 months. The drug is well tolerated and does not cause adverse reactions. With individual intolerance, an allergic reaction may occur.
  • Furamag is an antimicrobial agent derived from nitrofurans. The drug does not affect the pH of urine, has a wide range of antibacterial effects.
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    What Causes Black Kidney Stones

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    Risk Factors You Can Control

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    Drinking too little water is the most common cause of kidney stones. Diet also plays an important role. Eating a lot of animal protein, sodium, and high-oxalate foods, such as chocolate or dark green vegetables, can boost the risk for kidney stones in some people. Other risk factors include drinking sweetened beverages, putting on weight, and taking certain medications.

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    What Is A Black Kidney Stone Made Of

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    the kidney. Kidney stones are usually hard because they are made up mainly of crystals. Almost all. of the kidney stone weight is made up of crystals.

    Urinary tract stones begin to form in a kidney and may enlarge in a ureter or the bladder. Depending on where a stone is located, it may be called a kidney stone, .

    If you’ve had kidney stones in the past, these guidelines will help you reduce your risk.

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    risk of chronic kidney disease.1 Kidney stones are small, hard stones made of mineral.

    Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stones.

    Foods high in oxalates, such as rhubarb, soy products, peanuts and black tea,

    Most stones are yellowish to brownish-black in color, but variations in chemical.

    The four most common types of stones are made of various combinations of.

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    How Long Does It Take To Pass A Kidney Stone

    The amount of time that it takes to pass a kidney stone can vary depending on the size of the stone. Generally, small stones are able to pass through the urine within 1-2 weeks , often without any treatment.

    On the other hand, larger stones may take 2-3 weeks to move through the kidneys and into the bladder.

    Stones that dont pass on their own within 4 weeks typically require medical treatment.

    2.5 liters of urine each day. Increasing the amount of urine you pass helps flush the kidneys.

    You can substitute ginger ale, lemon-lime soda, and fruit juice for water to help you increase your fluid intake. If the stones are related to low citrate levels, citrate juices could help prevent the formation of stones.

    Eating oxalate-rich foods in moderation and reducing your intake of salt and animal proteins can also lower your risk of kidney stones.

    Your doctor may prescribe medications to help prevent the formation of calcium and uric acid stones. If youve had a kidney stone or youre at risk for a kidney stone, speak with your doctor and discuss the best methods of prevention.

    In addition to drinking more water, making modifications to your diet could also help prevent kidney stones.

    Here are some foods that you may need to

    • frozen meals
    • salty snacks

    Animal proteins like meat, poultry, seafood, and dairy products can increase levels of uric acid in your urine and increase the risk of developing kidney stones.

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    Causes Of The Sand In The Kidneys

    Most pathology occurs as a consequence of metabolic disturbances, when the pH of the medium changes. The normal pH is between 5-7. Depending on the reaction of urine, 2 types of sand in the kidneys are isolated:

  • Salts of alkaline urine .
  • Alkaline urine salts include tripolphosphates, urate ammonium and amorphous phosphates.

    To salts of acid urine include urates, oxalates and crystals of uric acid.

    These salts differ in appearance. Some of them are harmless, for example tripolphosphates. Others by their nature have uneven faces, prickly and pointed edges. Oxalate sand in the kidneys or salts of urate ammonium lead to damage to the kidney tissue, the walls of the ureters and the bladder. For this reason, the patient will feel that his kidneys are hurting because of the sand. Unpleasant sensations are greatly amplified when the sand leaves the kidneys.

    The size of the sand in the kidney reflects the degree of the pathological process. The diameter of the particles to 3 mm indicates the presence of only sand, and larger ones â for the presence of stones.

    A large amount of sand precipitates, which can be seen with the naked eye after urination. The color of the sediment varies depending on the type of salts, their density and the presence of additional impurities .

    The causes of the appearance of sand in the kidneys are quite diverse. They include:

  • Injuries to the kidneys, including back injuries
  • Congenital malformations of the kidneys, including agenesis
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