Other Fluids For Kidney Stones
To prevent kidney stones, most of your fluid should be water. However, water can get boring!
Here are some other good fluid options to mix it up.
- Sugar-free lemonade*
- Tea & Coffee
How Common Are Uric Acid Stones
Researchers estimate that one in 10 people in the United States will have a kidney stone at some point in their lives. Theyre more common in men than women. For men, the lifetime risk is about 19%. For women, its about 9%.
Most people dont get kidney stones before age 30. But many cases can happen earlier in life, even among children.
Alkaline Water & Kidney Stones
Since we dont know if alkaline water will actually reduce urine acid levels, I cannot recommend alkaline water above plain tap water.
There is also no research to show that alkaline water is good for kidney stones.
In addition, alkaline water can be very expensive. Id save your money and use it to buy fresh fruits and vegetables!
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Iv Dehydration: A Risk Factor For Kidney Stones
Chronic dehydration is a confirmed risk factor for kidney stones . This has been clearly observed in a retrospective study investigating causes of urolithiasis on 708 stone formers. In this study, chronic dehydration was defined as history of exposure to heat , or poor drinking, with normal urine and plasma osmolality. Authors concluded that chronic dehydration was the main cause of 19% of all kidney stones incidents .
S For Preventing Kidney Stones
If youve ever had a kidney stone, you surely remember it. The pain can be unbearable, coming in waves until the tiny stone passes through your urinary plumbing and out of the body. For many, kidney stones arent a one-time thing: in about half of people who have had one, another appears within seven years without preventive measures.
Preventing kidney stones isnt complicated, but it does take some determination.
Kidney stones form when certain chemicals become concentrated enough in the urine to form crystals. The crystals grow into larger masses , which can make their way through the urinary tract. If the stone gets stuck somewhere and blocks the flow of urine, it causes pain.
Most stones occur when calcium combines with oxalate. Stones can also form from uric acid, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism.
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Iv1 Low Urine Volume: A Key Risk Factor For Kidney Stones
Dehydration or low water intake can lead to low urine volume, which is common in stone formers: A urine volume lower than 1.0L/d was reported in 10% of recurrent stone formers , and a urine volume lower than 1.5L/d was found in 40% of recurrent and first time stone formers .
Observational studies have identified low urine volume as a risk factor for kidney stones. In a retrospective study published in 2008, all subjects from NHS I, NHS II and HPFS who provided a 24-h urine collection were evaluated. Among a total of 3,350 subjects, 2,237 had already had at least one episode of kidney stone. Results showed that subjects with a urine volume above 2.5L were at lower risk of developing kidney stones than subjects with a urine volume below 1.0L the corresponding relative risks were 0.22 for NHS I subjects, 0.33 for NHS II and 0.26 for HPFS. In all three cohorts, a higher urine volume was associated with a reduced risk of kidney stones .
Low urine volume leads to higher concentrations of urinary compounds and may promote urine supersaturation. Studies in general population have shown that a low urine volume increases the risk of forming a stone .
How To Use Lemon Juice For Kidney Stones
4 ounces or a half cup of pure lemon juice a day or 2 cups of freshly prepared lemonade has essential citric acid, vitamins and antioxidant which help prevent kidney stone formation and promote the overall health of the kidneys. It is advised that you avoid purchasing bottled lemon juice, because the processed lemons are pasteurized and the nutrients are stripped. Here are some of the techniques to prepare lemon juice.
1. Lemon Juice
Use 1-2 liters of water blended with ½ to 1 cup of concentrated lemon juice, depending on your taste and preference. You should rinse the mouth thoroughly after consuming the juice every time because the acidity may destroy the tooth enamel. It is also important that you avoid adding sugar instead, use raw honey to add some flavor to it.
2. Lemon Juice and Olive Oil
You can mix approximately a half cup of pure lemon juice with an equal amount of virgin olive oil to help pass the stones. Take the blend at regular intervals throughout the day. It is essential to ensure that you take plenty of water to help pass out the stones painlessly from the system.
3. Lemon Juice and Apple Cider Vinegar
This is another recipe of lemon juice for kidney stones, which aids in controlling and preventing the stones formation. Squeeze juice from a half lemon and blend it with ½ cup of water thereafter add one tablespoonful of raw apple cider vinegar and consume. Follow the guidelines and consume the combination every hour with plenty of water.
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I2 An Increasing Trend In Children
Cases of kidney stones have often been reported in infants and children but are rare and mainly related to urinary tract infections or abnormalities of the urinary tract . In Iran for instance, a recent study performed on 100 children with stone under the age of 14, showed that 54 of them presented with a urinary tract infection . Metabolic abnormalities are also common in children with kidney stones, the most common being hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia .
Altough it is rare, kidney stones among children are becoming more prevalent . In Minnesota, a retrospective analysis of childhood incidence of kidney stones showed that, for children under the age of 18, the incidence increased from 13 per 100,000 person-year in the period of 1984-1990 to 36 per 100,000 person-years in 2003-2008 . In South Carolina, an increase of childhood incidence of kidney stones was also reported. Among 1,535 children who had had an episode of nephrolithiasis between 1996 and 2007, the incidence increased from 7.9 per 100,000 in 1996 to 18.5 per 100,000 children in 2007. Interestingly, a higher rate of increase was noted among girls .
This increase in childhood prevalence of urolithiasis is often attributed to changes in habits, and in particular in diet .
Viii2 Dietary And Water Guidelines For General Population
Dietary guidelines for recurrent kidney stones patients are based on guidelines for the general population and both are thus similar. Recommended intakes are 1.000-1.200mg/d for calcium, 5g/d for sodium and 0.83g/ kg/d for protein .
Recommendations for water intake in the general population vary between countries. Official guidelines for Europe are presented in Table 1. Even though most of these recommendations may be sufficient to achieve a urine volume of at least 2L/d and may thus be similar to recommendations for the prevention of recurrence, they are not based on urinary outputs. They actually state adequate values for Total Water Intake which includes both water coming from food and water coming from beverages.
Table 1. Recommendations for Total Water Intake in Europe. .
EFSA estimated that around 80% of TWI comes from fluids, and 20% from food . This is equivalent to drinking 1.6L/d of water for adult women, 2L/d for adult men, 1.8L/d for pregnant women and 2.2L/d for lactating women.
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What Counts As Water
Does a beer count as water? The good news is, yes! with caveats. As long as you dont have more than one alcoholic drink a day or have any other conditions that could preclude you from drinking alcohol, beer has been shown to prevent kidney stones.
Water is still the best beverage on earth for keeping hydrated and flushing away salts and chemicals from your kidneys and toxins from your body. But many other liquids can count toward your daily water intake. Some good choices for hydration and health are:
- Red or white wine
Coffee and tea also have some diuretic effects, which means they pull a little more water from your body to keep your kidneys well flushed, but youll need to replace what youve lost.
Be sure, though, to stay away from beverages that are high in sugar or salt. These can disrupt your urines acid-base balance. Avoid:
- Sports drinks
As with alcohol, Dr. Lesani may advise you that indulging in a soda once in a while may be fine, as long as you dont have diabetes or another underlying health condition.
You can also vary the flavor of your water by infusing it with fresh fruits or vegetables, such as strawberries or cucumbers. Lemon and lime juice have the added benefit of binding with calcium, which might otherwise accumulate in your kidneys to form stones. Sweeten your home-made lemonade with a low-glycemic natural sweetener, such as stevia.
V Prevention Of Stone Recurrence With High Water Intake
Recurrence rate of kidney stone disease is high: 40 to 60% of stone formers will relapse within 5 years following a first episode . Current recommendations to prevent stone recurrence involve diet and lifestyle . A high water intake had been advised as a preventive measure for stone recurrence since the time of Hippocrates, and was for a long time the only advice given to reduce the risk . Until a few decades ago, there was little scientific evidence of this preventive effect.
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Alkaline & Kidney Stones
Is acid even a bad thing for kidney stones in the first place? It can be!
Too much acid in your urine , can make uric acid, calcium oxalate and cystine kidney stones more likely. By far, calcium oxalate kidney stones are the most common type of kidney stone. Uric acid kidney stones are common as well. If you have a history of these types of kidney stones, or have a low urine pH on a 24-hour urine test, there are things you can do to make your urine more alkaline.
However, too little acid makes calcium phosphate stones more likely to form.
Types Of Kidney Stones
The different types of stones are made of different types of substances. Its important to know the type of stone you have, so you can know what may have caused it and how to prevent it.
If you pass a kidney stone, you should take it to your doctor so they can send it to the lab and find out what kind it is:
Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are made from calcium, in the form of calcium oxalate. There are two kinds of calcium stones:
Calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance made daily by your liver. Some fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, are high in it. Your body absorbs the substance when you eat these foods. Other things that can make the concentration of calcium or oxalate in your urine to rise are taking high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and certain metabolic disorders.
Calcium phosphate. This type of stone happens more often in people with metabolic conditions, like renal tubular acidosis or with people who take medications to treat migraines or seizures.
Struvite stones. These can form from a urinary tract infection . The bacteria that cause the infection make ammonia build up in your urine. This leads to formation of the stones. The stones can get large very quickly.
Uric acid stones. These form in people who lose too much fluid because of chronic diarrhea or malabsorption eating a high-protein diet or having diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
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How To Find Your Hydration Sweet Spot
The best place to start is to estimate how much water your body needs on average. I recommend starting with a half-ounce of water per pound of body weight, says Koskinen. Because muscle carries more water than fat, leaner people may stick closer to this number and those with more body fat may ratchet down, while people who are overweight or obese may want to use their ideal body weight in this calculation.
Many of us guzzle a set number of glasses per day to reach our H20 goals, which is a good way to get past your perma-parched ways in the beginningbut because hydration levels fluctuate day-to-day based on the weather, how hydrating your diet is, how active you are, and other bevvies you sip along the way, the amount of water you drink to fill in the blanks should be adjusted accordingly so as to not overdo it.
One of the easiest ways to fine-tune your hydration habits is to stop looking at it as a water-centric practice, and instead shift your focus to include fluids as a whole. Fluid doesnt just come from water, but from any beverage you drink, as well as many foods, says Koskinen. If soups, fruits and veggies, and smoothies are a regular part of your diet, then you might not need to replenish as oftenthe same goes for foods that melt at room temperature or are held in a gel matrix , she adds. Meanwhile, on days when youre a sucker for anything salty , an increased water intake may be required so the body can maintain equilibrium.
Mistakes That Lead To Kidney Stones
2016-05-0524 April 2018
Kidney stone season is nearly upon us, and you can reduce the likelihood of forming stones by avoiding these common mistakes.
1. Not Staying Hydrated
Dehydration is the most common cause of kidney stones and is easily preventable. In the summertime, its recommended adults get 2-3 liters of water a day even if youre not prone to developing stones. A lot of my patients arent used to drinking that much fluid in the day, and it can take a little work to get in the habit, says Dr. Daniel Yelfimov. I recommend buying a quality, 20-ounce beverage container and carrying it with them everywhere they go, drinking from it throughout the day, and gradually work up to filling it three times a day.
2. Hydrating the Wrong Way
Because hydration is so important, how you stay hydrated is equally important. When the weather heats up, people often reach for sports drinks or tea to replenish or refresh themselves, but those liquids can work against you when it comes to forming kidney stones. Most sports drinks have a lot of sodium added, so theyre basically kidney stones in a cup, says Dr. Kenneth Stallman.
Instead, opt for plain water, green tea, lemonade, or limeade. Because citrate is a natural inhibitor of kidney stones and many people need more citrate in their diet, lemonade is a good choice the real kind made with fresh lemons or powered mixes that list citric acid as a primary ingredient, adds Dr. LeRoy Jones.
3. Eating Out / High Sodium Intake
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Iii Risk Factors For Kidney Stones
Many factors influence the propensity of forming a kidney stone , including both individual and environmental factors . Main individual risk factors include age, gender and ethnicity, while the most important environmental risk factors are related to geography and climate . Body Mass Index and a family history of kidney stones are also thought to influence the risk for kidney stones . Figure 4 summarizes these factors.
Figure 4. Main risk factors for kidney stones.
Join The Nkf Patient Network
Here are 6 tips to make sure youre drinking enough water and to keep your kidneys healthy:
Remember.when water wise, healthy kidneys are the prize!
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Mineral Water & Kidney Stones
One or two mineral waters a day will likely not cause issues. However, because people with kidney stones need to drink so much water, that extra calcium could add up to harmful amounts.
Ask your dietitian what is best for you!