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How Many Stages Of Kidney Disease Are There

Help Keep Your Kidney Disease From Getting Worse

Kidney disease: what are the early signs and how is it treated?

Good self-management will help you to live a long, fulfilling life and continue to do the things you love. It can also help to slow or even stop kidney disease from getting worse – and it may even stop or delay kidney failure. Good self-management starts with:

  • Controlling other health problems you may have
  • Treating complications of kidney disease
  • Managing or preventing heart disease

What Is Kidney Dialysis

Because there is no cure for CKD, if you are in late-stage disease, you and your healthcare team must consider additional options. Complete kidney failure, left untreated, will result in death. Options for end stages of CKD include dialysis and kidney transplantation.

Dialysis is a procedure that uses machines to remove waste products from your body when your kidneys are no longer able to perform this function. There are two major types of dialysis.

Hemodialysis: With hemodialysis, your blood is circulated through a machine that removes waste products, excess water and excess salt. The blood is then returned to your body. Hemodialysis requires three to four hours, three times a week and is performed at a clinic, hospital or dialysis center.

Peritoneal dialysis: In peritoneal dialysis, a dialysis solution is run directly into your abdomen. The solution absorbs waste and then is removed via catheter. Fresh solution is added to continue the process of cleaning. You can perform this type of dialysis yourself. There are two types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis , which involves a change in dialysis solution four times a day and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis . CCPD uses a machine to automatically fill, remove wastes, and refill the fluid during the nighttime.

Changes In Amounts Of Electrolytes

Electrolytes are important chemicals in the body, which are also found in foods. We need the right balance of these to stay healthy. The kidneys help control the amounts of electrolytes. They include the following:

sodium helps balance the amount of water in the body

potassium is needed for the muscles, including the heart muscle, to work properly

bicarbonate balances the amount of acid in our body, or the pH balance

phosphate helps keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy

calcium is important to keep bones and teeth healthy, helps blood to clot and also helps the muscles, including the heart muscle, to work properly.

Chronic kidney disease stages 3b to 5

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Help Produce Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells are one type of living cell in the blood, which carry oxygen round the body. The body needs to keep making new red blood cells because they die after some time. Kidneys make a chemical called erythropoietin which helps make new red blood cells.

When kidneys are not working properly, the body may not have enough new red blood cells. This can lead to a condition called anaemia children may feel tired and weak, and look paler than usual. Treatment includes medicines and blood transfusions.

How Are Kidney Disease Stages Measured

Types Of Kidney Disease. Chronic Renal Disease, Iga Nephritis ...

Kidney disease progresses at different rates for different people, and it can take between two and five years to pass between different CKD stages.

Kidney disease stages are measured by using a blood test to check the estimated glomerular filtration rate . This shows the amount of blood that is getting filtered through the kidneys every 60 seconds. As kidney function decreases, GFR drops, so a lower GFR indicates a more advanced stage of CKD.

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Treatment Of Kidney Disease Stage 3

Once you are diagnosed with stage 3 kidney disease, there is no way to treat the damage that has already been done to your kidneys. The following steps for your treatment have to do with treating the issues caused by decreased kidney functioning and preventing further damage.

These treatments include:

  • Monitoring your weight to remain healthy
  • Attending to anemia

Additionally, you may need to take medications. Which medications and even if you need to take them entirely depends on the cause of your kidney disease. Some of these medications could be:

  • An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor which lowers your blood pressure
  • An angiotensin receptor blocker which would also lower your blood pressure
  • Diuretics to help flush out waste
  • Any type of medication that could help lower your cholesterol
  • Erythropoietin which helps build red blood cells for people who struggle with anemia
  • Vitamin D to strengthen the bones and avoid bone loss
  • A phosphate binder

Glomerular Filtration Rate: Gfr And Egfr

The main function of the kidneys is to clear water-soluble waste products from the blood. The efficiency of clearance is measured using the GFR

  • The GFR is a measure of how much blood is cleaned by the kidneys in one minute. By using a blood test to measure creatinine levels we can calculate the estimated GFR, known as eGFR. We do this using a formula that takes body size into account. The average adult body size is 1.73 m2. A normal GFR is around 100 ml/min/1.73m2
  • Because the average normal eGFR is 100, the eGFR can be seen as a percentage of normal kidney function. However, values as low as 60 are considered normal if there is no other evidence of kidney disease
  • The eGFR is used to calculate the G stage of CKD
  • The eGFR calculation can be inaccurate in people who have much more, or much less muscle than average people of their age, sex, and ethnic origin. For instance, it can be falsely low in body builders, and falsely high in people with anorexia nervosa.

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Stages Of Kidney Disease

Medically reviewed by

Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages. The stages are based on the eGFR test result and how well your kidneys work to filter waste and extra fluid out of your blood. As the stages go up, kidney disease gets worse and your kidneys work less well. At each stage, it is important to take steps to slow down the damage to your kidneys.

Managing Stage 3 Kidney Failure

Kidney Disease Stages | CKD Heat Map | NKF

To keep kidney disease from getting worse, several lifestyle changes may be necessary. First, meet with a nephrologist to determine a treatment plan. These doctors are kidney experts and can help you understand what changes to make and how often youll need to get your kidneys checked. Be sure to ask your doctor about blood pressure medications that can help keep kidney disease from getting worse, particularly if you have diabetes or high blood pressure, as these can worsen along with the kidney disease.

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What Healthy Kidneys Do

To understand what happens in CKD, it is helpful to know what healthy kidneys do. They clean blood waste products and extra water and salt are removed from the body in urine. They also make hormones, chemicals that are carried in the blood to send messages to other parts of the body, which help with other body functions.

This allows the kidneys to:

remove waste products that are no longer needed or that may be harmful

balance the levels of water, salt and minerals, which are needed for good health

ensure the pH balance stays the same

control blood pressure, the force that helps blood flow round the body

help keep bones and teeth healthy

help make red blood cells, living parts of blood that carry oxygen round the body.

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Reducing The Impact Of Kidney Disease

No matter what stage youre at, being aware of how you feel, along with effective management, can slow the progress of kidney disease and reduce the chance of other complications.

If youd like to know more, Kidney Health Australia is here for support. You can call our Kidney Helpline and speak to a health professional on 1800 454 363 between 9am-5pm Australian Eastern Standard Time. Its a free call.

You can also chat to your doctor or or App from the Apple Store and .

What Do The Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease Refer To

Reduced kidney function can improve with lifestyle modification

The five stages of CKD refer to how well your kidneys are working. Kidney disease can get worse in time. In the early stages , your kidneys are still able to filter waste out of your blood. In the later stages , your kidneys must work harder to filter your blood and may stop working altogether.

The goal at each stage of CKD is to take steps to slow down the damage to your kidneys and keep your kidneys working as long as possible.

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How Do Doctors Treat Stage 4 Ckd

You will need to see a nephrologist . Your nephrologist will treat Stage 4 CKD with medicines that help with your symptoms and other health problems that kidney disease can cause, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

These medicines include:

  • Blood pressure medicines like ACE inhibitors and ARBs
  • Diabetes medicines to keep your blood sugar at a healthy level
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements to keep your bones strong
  • Diuretics to help with swelling
  • Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or iron supplements to help with anemia

Your doctor may tell you to stop taking medicines that can damage your kidneys, such as pain medicines called NSAIDs .

Your nephrologist will decide if your kidneys are close to failure and if you need to start treatment. If you need treatment, they will talk with you about your choices, which include:

  • Dialysis, which is a treatment to clean your blood when your kidneys are not able to. Learn more about the 2 types of dialysis.
  • A kidney transplant, which is surgery to give you a kidney from someone else’s body. Learn more about kidney transplants.

There is usually no cure for CKD, and you usually cannot reverse the kidney damage you already have by the time you get to stage 4 CKD. However, you can take steps to slow down the damage to your kidneys and help you feel your best.

Symptoms In Stages 3b To 5

In later stages of CKD, there are more symptoms. Your childs healthcare team will speak with you about treatments to help these symptoms. These include:

changes in urinating some children pass a large amount of urine, and need to drink lots of water others pass only a small amount of urine

too much water in body

swelling in different parts of your childs body

high blood pressure

poor appetite, feeling sick or being sick

low energy levels and feeling tired

bones are less strong and healthy

problems in the blood that may cause children to feel weak and tired, and look paler than usual .

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How We Care For Chronic Kidney Disease

Our Division of Nephrology is the largest pediatric nephrology service in the United States. We care for patients with a wide range of kidney disorders, and we are home to the largest Kidney Transplant Program in New England dedicated to caring for children.

Our 7-bed dialysis unit is the only full-service pediatric dialysis unit in New England. If your child requires dialysis, our dialysis nurses, dietcians, tutors and child life specialists will do everything they can to make sure your child is comfortable during her treatments. Read more about dialysis.

Our compassionate caregivers know that your child is a person, not just a patient, and depending on your particular situation, we provide support services for your child and your family throughout all stages of treatment and recovery.

How Do Doctors Treat Stage 5 Ckd

Kidney (Renal) Disease Signs & Symptoms (ex. Peripheral Edema, Fatigue, Itchiness)

You will need to see a nephrologist . Your nephrologist will discuss your treatment options, which include:

  • Dialysis, which is a treatment to clean your blood when your kidneys are not able to. Learn more about the two types of dialysis.
  • A kidney transplant, which is surgery to give you a kidney from someone else’s body. Learn more about kidney transplants.

Your doctor will help you decide which treatment is best for you and create a plan to manage your kidney disease. As part of the plan, your doctor may give you medicines to help with your symptoms and other health problems kidney disease can cause, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

These medicines include:

  • Blood pressure medicines like ACE inhibitors and ARBs
  • Diabetes medicines to keep your blood sugar at a healthy level
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements to keep your bones strong
  • Diuretics to help with swelling
  • Phosphorus binders, which prevent your body from absorbing phosphorus from foods you eat
  • Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or iron supplements to help with anemia

Your doctor may tell you to stop taking medicines that can damage your kidneys, such as pain medicines called NSAIDs .

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Understanding Stage 3 Kidney Failure

In Stage 3 kidney failure, the kidneys are moderately damaged and not working optimally. In the first part of this stage, the eGFR is between 45 and 59. It drops between 30 and 44 in later stages. Many people with Stage 3 kidney disease have few symptoms. However, they are more likely to have health complications arise as a result of the kidney failure. These include higher blood pressure, anemia, and bone disease, which can all further damage the body and have unpleasant side effects of their own.

Those who do have symptoms during Stage 3 kidney failure may experience fatigue, fluid retention and swelling, shortness of breath, kidney pain, and trouble sleeping due to muscle cramps. Urination habits may also change. If you are experiencing Stage 3 kidney failure, you might find yourself producing less urine but needing to go to the bathroom more often. Foamy urine, which occurs when protein is present, and blood in the urine are also possible. These symptoms can make it difficult to continue normal habits and routines, necessitating additional care and support as the disease progresses.

Treatments For Kidney Failure

The two treatments for kidney failure are kidney transplantation and dialysis. Two different types of dialysis can be done – hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

  • Peritoneal Dialysis . Peritoneal dialysis is a home-based treatment that can be done anywhere . It must be done daily. You will need a minor operation to place a catheter in your abdomen . With peritoneal dialysis, the blood is cleaned inside your body, not outside. The lining of your abdomen acts as a natural filter. During treatment a cleansing solution, called dialysate, flows into your abdomen through a soft tube called a PD catheter. Wastes and extra fluid pass from your blood into the cleansing solution. After several hours, you drain the used solution from your abdomen and refill with fresh cleansing solution to begin the process again. Removing the used solution and adding fresh solutions takes about a half hour and is called an “exchange.”
  • To learn more about each type of treatment, see “Choosing a Treatment for Kidney Failure” in the A-to-Z Guide.

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    Complications In Stages 3b To 5

    In later stages, children may be at risk of complications rare health problems associated with CKD.

    A serious complication is cardiovascular disease, diseases of the heart and circulation . In severe cases, children are at risk of cardiac arrest, a life-threatening emergency in which the heart suddenly stops pumping blood. Other complications include more severe problems in the bones or muscle cramps.

    Your doctor will speak with you about how to reduce the risk of these complications. If your child follows the treatment plan, including changes to his or her diet and medicines, he or she is less likely to have complications.

    More about symptoms and complications

    Can Kidney Disease Be Prevented

    Stages of kidney disease

    Seeing your healthcare provider on a regular basis throughout your life is a good start for preventing kidney disease. About one in every three people in the United States is at risk for kidney disease. Identify and manage any risk factors for developing kidney disease.

    • Control your high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is 120/80.
    • Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
    • Eat a healthy diet. Follow a low-fat, low-salt diet.
    • Be active for 30 minutes at least five days a week.
    • Maintain a healthy weight.
    • Take nonprescription pain relievers only as directed. Taking more than directed can damage your kidneys.

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    Poor Nutrition And Growth And Low Energy

    Children may develop a poor appetite, and not be able to eat as much. They may also feel sick or be sick because of the effects of CKD and/or the medicines they need to take. They may also feel more tired than usual and have low levels of energy.

    Feeding devices may be used to help make sure children get all of the nutrients they need to grow.

    Symptoms In Stages 1 To 3a

    In early stages of CKD, there are generally no symptoms. Most symptoms that are associated with worsening kidney function start in later stages.

    Your child may have symptoms associated with the underlying health condition that is causing the CKD. Many of these conditions are described in detail on the infoKID website.

    Kidney conditions

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