Blood And Urine Analyses
Plasma and urine osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer . Plasma and urine creatinine were measured by a validated enzymatic method and creatinine clearance was calculated. Plasma and urine urea nitrogen concentrations were analyzed by autoanalyzer . Sodium concentration was analyzed by flame photometry. Fructose was measured by a colorimetric assay , and uric acid was measured with a fluorometric kit . Plasma copeptin was extracted using Sep-pack C18 cartridges and then measured by a rat-specific competitive enzyme immunoassay .
Solute-free water reabsorption during the 18 h of urine collection was calculated accordingly to the following formula: TcH2O = osmolar excretion urine volume = × V V, where Uosm and Posm are the urine and plasma osmolality, respectively, and V the urine volume collected in 18 h.
Renal Function During Exercise And Recovery
Javier Calderón Montero*
Physical and Sports Education, Research Group of the Physiology of Effort Laboratory, Spain
*Address for Correspondence: Javier Calderón Montero, Physical and Sports Education, Research Group of the Physiology of Effort Laboratory, Spain Tel: 512-400-0398 91-336-40-20 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dates:Submitted: 14 December 2018 Approved: 31 January 2019 01 February 2019
How to cite this article: Montero JC. Renal function during exercise and recovery. J Sports Med Ther. 2019 4: 008-015. DOI: 10.29328/journal.jsmt.1001037
Copyright License:© 2019 Montero JC. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Top 10 Ways Water Benefits The Body
Water makes up a large percentage of human body composition it accounts for about 75% of a newborns body weight and drops to around 55% percent in older adults. Blood plasma, or the liquid part of blood, is about 90% water, and nearly all our bodily systems depend on water to function effectively.
Adequate daily water intake varies from person to person. However, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine has established some guidelines suggesting that an average adequate daily fluid intake is 15.5 cups for men and 11.5 cups a day for women. About 20% of our water consumption should come from foods, and the rest should come from the water we drink. This level of intake helps keep our bodies healthy and strong.
What are some of waters health benefits? Read on to learn more.
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How Much Water Should You Consume Daily
There is no universally agreed consensus on the quantity of water that should be consumed daily, as individual needs differ, but there is some agreement on what a healthy amount is.
According to the Institute of Medicine , an adequate intake for men is approximately 3 litres a day, while for women adequate intake amounts to 2.2 litres daily.
The ideal daily consumption will vary from person to person, depending on factors such as:
- Activity level
- Health conditions
Although most water consumption will come via beverages, water is also consumed through the foods we eat, particularly fruits and vegetables.
In general, you should drink enough fluid so that you rarely feel thirsty and your urine is colourless or light yellow. If your urine is a dark yellow or amber colour, you may be dehydrated.
If you are concerned that you are not drinking enough water, check with your doctor or a registered dietitian, who will help you determine the amount of water that’s right for you.
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How Does Urea Affect Your Kidney Function
So, urea can harm your health when its concentration in the blood is too high or at level that cannot be tolerated by the body. Therefore, it must be continuously removed by the kidneys.
What is high concentration urea?
There are a number of different tests to measure the amount of urea in the blood. One of these tests is a blood test called BUN test . It is commonly used to help analyze how well your liver and kidneys are functioning!
While high urea nitrogen level may point to poor function of the kidneys, low urea nitrogen level may indicate problem in the liver. However, abnormal BUN level can also be attributed by other factors.
For instance, low BUN level is also quite common in pregnant women in their second and third trimester. And for high BUN level, it can be attributed by other following causes:
What BUN level is considered abnormal ?
The result of blood urea nitrogen test is usually given in mg/dL . The standard of normal range may vary from lab to lab. But generally, BUN levels between 7 and 20 mg/dL are considered normal! For more guidance, ask your doctor!
How does high concentration urea affect kidney function?
Other things to remember!
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Evidence That Acute And Recurrent Underhydration Cause Irreversible Kidney Damage
There is very limited published information addressing this issue. An important at-risk group is weight-categorized athletes who deliberately induce recurrent rapid weight loss by fluid and sometimes energy restriction, with or without laxatives and diuretics. A recent study in healthy volunteers examined 24-hour fluid restriction with or without energy restriction. There were significant reductions in body weight and plasma volume in all participants. Serum osmolality was increased in those who were fluid restricted but not in those who were only energy restricted. However, there have been no such studies in athletes who recurrently induce weight loss to know the long-term health relevance. Nor are there published data indicating that such athletes develop irreversible kidney damage, even in those such as jockeys who may make frequent efforts of this sort to reduce weight.
What Happens If I Have Too Much Anti
High levels of anti-diuretic hormone cause the kidneys to retain water in the body. There is a condition called Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone secretion where excess anti-diuretic hormone is released when it is not needed . With this condition, excessive water retention dilutes the blood, giving a characteristically low salt concentration. Excessive levels of anti-diuretic hormone might be caused by drug side-effects and diseases of the lungs, chest wall, hypothalamus or pituitary. Some tumours , can produce anti-diuretic hormone.
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The Heat Stress Hypothesis
Severe heat stress with accompanying water and solute loss can cause ischemic kidney injury, even in healthy adults . Many scientists now believe that the most probable cause of Mesoamerican nephropathy is recurrent dehydration and heat stress from extreme occupational conditions which causes subclinical kidney injury that leads to permanent kidney damage over time . As described in recent field studies, sugarcane harvesting involves 4-6 h of heavy lifting in extremely hot conditions , and workers typically lose 2.6 kg in body weight after a day of harvesting . Further studies have shown significant increases in levels of urinary kidney injury biomarkers in field workers compared with non-field workers before and after the harvest season . There is some evidence that hydrating with electrolyte solutions may protect against kidney injury among individuals working in strenuous jobs in hot environments however, this has yet to be tested in a clinical trial .
Rna Extraction And Cdna Synthesis
Frozen renal cortex and medulla were separated using sterile scalpel and a surgical saw. Tissue samples were crushed to a fine powder under liquid nitrogen with a mortar and a pestle. Powdered tissue was placed into 1.5 mL RNAse free tubes maintained on dry ice. Total RNA was extracted from approximately 30 mg of powdered tissue using a Direct-zol RNA MiniPrep kit following the manufacturers instructions. For cDNA synthesis, 1000 ng of RNA from each sample was reversely transcribed using the GOScriptTM cDNA synthesis system .
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The Kidneys In Chronic Dehydration
To summarize, during chronic dehydration the kidneys reabsorb more water into the blood stream in response to consistently high levels of vasopressin. To facilitate the change in kidney function, the proteins involved in water, sodium, and urea transport and absorption in the kidney are up-regulated or expressed in different locations as necessary to maintain fluid balance. When prolonged, this alteration in kidney function is a risk factor for various diseases.
Evaluation Of Markers Of Tubular Damage
For the determination of N-acetyl–d-glucosaminidase activity in urine samples, 4-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl–d-glucosaminide was used as a substrate.
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin expression, a sensitive marker of renal proximal tubule damage , was evaluated by Western blotting. Renal cortex proteins were extracted using a mitogen-activated protein kinase lysis buffer, as previously described , and incubated with a primary antibody against NGAL at 4°C overnight, using -actin antibody as load control.
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Renal Cortex Content Of Fructose And Uric Acid
Fructose was extracted from cortical renal tissue by perchloric acid precipitation, and its concentration was measured by the anthrone-based colorimetric method . Uric acid is a by product of fructose catabolism in tissues expressing KHK and is associated with its detrimental effects . Therefore, tissue UA was measured both as a marker of renal damage and also as a surrogate of fructose increased metabolism. UA was extracted as previously described . UA was measured using Amplex Red assay kit . Fructose and UA concentrations were normalized by protein concentration.
Top Tips To Avoid Dehydration
Fluid intake is important whatever the weather. Here are seven top tips to help you ensure that youre drinking enough each day:
- Whilst all fluid counts towards your fluid intake, water is one of the healthiest choices when it comes to maintaining kidney health.
- Sip water little and often.
- Women should aim to drink eight 200ml glasses of fluid a day.
- Men should aim to drink ten 200ml glasses of fluid a day.
- During warmer weather conditions or when exercising strenuously you may need to drink more water than normal, due to fluid losses through sweating.
- Track your urine colour this should be straw coloured or paler. If it is any darker this, it is an indicator that you could be dehydrated.
- Keep a bottle of water handy when you are on the move or exercising.
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What Is It Like To Live With One Kidney Instead Of Two
Your kidneys filter out waste and extra fluid from your blood so it can be excreted from your body in your urine.
One kidney can filter enough blood to keep your body functioning normally. This is why you can survive and be healthy with only one kidney.
The recommendations for healthy living if you have only one kidney are basically the same for people with two kidneys. They include:
Your kidneys play a role in maintaining fluid balance in your body, keeping protein in your blood, and controlling your blood pressure.
If your kidneys stop working, you may:
- lose protein in your urine
- retain fluid
Most people with a single kidney live a normal life without developing any long- or short-term problems.
However, the risk of developing mild high blood pressure, fluid retention, and proteinuria is slightly higher if you have one kidney instead of two. This is because a second kidney can compensate and make up for a kidney that has lost some function.
Since it has no backup, the loss of function of a single kidney could lead to proteinuria, fluid retention, or high blood pressure earlier than if you had two kidneys.
Kidneys Play An Important Role In Athletic Performance
This article is intended to provide you with an appreciation of the critical role our kidneys play cleansing our blood and in the development of red blood cells, a list of nutrients, natural food sources and tips to maintain optimal kidney health, and a list of key nutrients and natural food sources needed for red blood cell production.
For the nutrients needed for red blood cell production see Key Nutrients for Red Blood Cell Production.
Having knowledge about your kidneys will help you be healthier and help athletes, especially endurance athletes , reach peak physical performance though the natural stimulation of natural EPO for the increased production of Red Blood Cells to naturally maximize our blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and improved ability to keep your blood clean by filtering it of waste products.
Endurance athletes, in particular, should be very focused on maintaining optimal kidney health to maximize the bodies ability to produce red blood cells, as endurance athletes tend to be slightly anemic or chronically fatigued. Studies have shown that lower hemoglobin levels can reduce exercise capacity increasing the risk of heart failure including the risk to endurance athletes.
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How Does Adh Affect The Nephron And The Bodys Overall Water Balance
How do hormones ADH and aldosterone affect the nephron and the bodys overall water balance? ADH causes the collecting duct to become more permeable to water. Water is conserved as it is reabsorbed back into the body tissues. When water levels are high, ADH release is inhibited.
Can You Drink Alcohol With Only One Kidney
Alcohol increases the amount of urine you produce but reduces your kidneys ability to filter blood. This disrupts the fluid and electrolyte balance in your body, and you become dehydrated.
Without enough fluid in your body, the cells in your organs, including your kidneys, cant function properly. Eventually it may cause permanent damage.
The risk of kidney damage is even higher for heavy drinkers who also smoke.
Alcohol has this effect whether you have one or two kidneys, but it may lead to kidney failure more quickly when you only have one functioning kidney.
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Factors Determining That The Kidneys Will No Longer Maintain The Internal Milieu Despite Normal Intake Of Salt And Water
The most common reason that those with normal kidney function lose capacity to maintain salt and water homeostasis is the use of medications that alter the renal response to vasopressin or modify sodium excretion. Among those commonly prescribed are diuretics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs , renin-angiotensin system blockers, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, and lithium carbonate.
A syndrome of inappropriate vasopressin secretion, known as syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion , may occur in a wide range of neurological and respiratory disorders. Defective osmoregulation can occur due to secretion of vasopressin, causing concentrated urine and hyponatremia.
A rarer entity known as cerebral salt wasting has been described mostly following traumatic brain injury it is important to distinguish this from SIADH because the treatment differs. The primary defect is an increase in renal sodium loss, leading to volume contraction, which stimulates vasopressin release. Sympathetic nervous system responses and release of natriuretic peptides are implicated in its complex pathophysiology.
Hydration And Chronic Diseases
Many chronic diseases have multifactorial origins. In particular, differences in lifestyle and the impact of environment are known to be involved and constitute risk factors that are still being evaluated. Water is quantitatively the most important nutrient. In the past, scientific interest with regard to water metabolism was mainly directed toward the extremes of severe dehydration and water intoxication. There is evidence, however, that mild dehydration may also account for some morbidities., There is currently no consensus on a gold standard for hydration markers, particularly for mild dehydration. As a consequence, the effects of mild dehydration on the development of several disorders and diseases have not been well documented.
There is strong evidence showing that good hydration reduces the risk of urolithiasis . Less strong evidence links good hydration with reduced incidence of constipation, exercise asthma, hypertonic dehydration in the infant, and hyperglycemia in diabetic ketoacidosis. Good hydration is associated with a reduction in urinary tract infections, hypertension, fatal coronary heart disease, venous thromboembolism, and cerebral infarct but all these effects need to be confirmed by clinical trials. For other conditions such as bladder or colon cancer, evidence of a preventive effect of maintaining good hydration is not consistent .
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Tips To Stay Hydrated
Follow these tips to make sure you keep your body hydrated and your kidneys healthy:
- Water is the best fluid for hydration.
- Drink a few sips of water at a time but do it all throughout the day instead of drinking whole glasses at once.
- When the weather is warmer or when you are exercising strenuously, you might need to drink more than your normal intake of water. You tend to lose a lot of fluid when you are sweating.
- Track your urine color to make sure its not dark thats a sign of dehydration.
- Keep water with you all the time, especially if youre on the move or exercising.
Effects Of Aging On Fluid Intake Regulation
The thirst and fluid ingestion responses of older persons to a number of stimuli have been compared to those seen in younger persons. Following water deprivation older persons are less thirsty and drink less fluid compared to younger persons., The decrease in fluid consumption is predominantly due to a decrease in thirst as the relationship between thirst and fluid intake is the same in young and old persons. Older persons drink insufficient water following fluid deprivation to replenish their body water deficit. When dehydrated older persons are offered a highly palatable selection of drinks, this also failed to result in an increased fluid intake. The effects of increased thirst in response to an osmotic load have yielded variable responses with one group reporting reduced osmotic thirst in older individuals and one failing to find a difference. In a third study, young individuals ingested almost twice as much fluid as old persons, despite the older subjects having a much higher serum osmolality.
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