The Effects Of Kidney Disease
Over time, high blood sugar levels can damage tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, which means they cannot filter your blood properly.
As a result, tiny particles of protein spill into the urine this is called microalbuminuria. As kidney disease progresses, larger amounts of protein spill into the urine this condition is called proteinuria.
As kidney disease progresses, waste products start to build up in your blood because your body canât get rid of them. If left untreated, your kidneys will eventually fail and dialysis or a kidney transplant will be required.
Diabetes can also affect the nerves that tell you when your bladder is full. The pressure from a full bladder can damage the kidneys. If urine remains in the bladder for a long time, it can increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection, which can spread to the bladder.
Some of the causes of kidney failure include:
Urine Testing For Excess Protein
Excess protein may signal a problem. These urine tests help diagnose kidney disease:
- Urine dipstick a sample of your urine is tested for excess protein or proteinuria. Protein in the urine can be a sign that something is wrong with the kidneys ability to filter the blood properly.
- Urine culture to check for white blood cells, and bacteria.
- Urine output measurements the amount of urine you excrete in a day may help your doctor determine the cause of your kidney failure.
What Do Your Kidneys Do
You have two kidneys. They are bean-shaped organs that are located toward your back, on either side of your spine, just underneath the rib cage. Each kidney is about the size of your fist.
Your kidneys have many jobs, but their main job is to filter your blood, getting rid of toxins and excess salt and water as urine. If your kidneys are damaged and dont work as they should, wastes can build up in your blood and can make you sick. Your kidneys also balance the amount of salts and minerals in your body, make hormones that control blood pressure, make red blood cells and keep your bones strong.
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What Causes Kidney Disease
Kidney diseases happen when your kidneys are damaged and cant filter your blood. The damage can happen quickly when its caused by injury or toxins or, more commonly, over months or years.
High blood pressure and diabetes are the two most common causes of chronic kidney disease. Other causes and conditions that affect kidney function and can cause chronic kidney disease include:
- Glomerulonephritis. This type of kidney disease involves damage to the glomeruli, which are the filtering units inside your kidneys.
- Polycystic kidney disease. This is a genetic disorder that causes many fluid-filled cysts to grow in your kidneys, reducing the ability of your kidneys to function.
- Hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Kidney damage caused by chronic, poorly controlled hypertension.
- Membranous nephropathy. This is a disorder where your bodys immune system attacks the waste-filtering membranes in your kidney.
- Obstructions of the urinary tract from kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or cancer.
- Vesicourethral reflux. This is a condition in which urine flows backward refluxes back up the ureters to the kidneys
- Nephrotic syndrome. This is a collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage.
How To Get Rid Of Swollen Feet In Kidney Failure
A kidney failure patient becomes a target of various health complications and symptoms that makes it more critical for the patient to survive the disease. Symptoms and complications of kidney failure complicate the journey of the renal failure patient to procure good health and vitality of the kidneys.
One of the common symptoms that occur in episodes of every kidney harming disease is Edema. Edema is a condition that depicts swelling within any part of the human body. When kidney failure occurs, kidneys become unable to filter liquid waste out of the body due to insufficient filtration. Excess fluids accumulate in the body tissues leading to pain and inflammation in various parts of the body.
According to Ayurveda, the human body is a combination of three vital doshas- Vata, pitta, and Kapha. Edema is known as Shotha in Ayurveda, and it is stated as a Kapha type of disorder.
Kidney failure treatment in Ayurveda can help reduce the inflammation in the body using natural healing capabilities. The amalgamation of authentic kidney-friendly herbs reduces the rate of accumulation of excess fluids in the tissues.
However, underlying ayurvedic herbal medicines provided in kidney failure treatment in Ayurveda can help reduce swelling in the affected parts of the body.
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How Is A Renal Panel Test Different From A Creatinine Clearance Test
A creatinine clearance test includes both a blood and urine sample. The amount of creatinine is measured in each sample, and then the two figures are compared. This comparison provides a method for estimating the glomerular filtration rate and evaluating kidney function.
In contrast, a renal panel uses only a blood sample. While a standard renal panel measures creatinine in the blood, it does not include a urine collection or comparative measurement.
The renal panel also includes a more diverse set of measurements, including proteins, minerals, and electrolytes, than a creatinine clearance test.
What Can Be Learned From Feline Blood Tests
The results of feline blood tests are essential to helping veterinarians diagnose and treat medical conditions both within the blood itself, as well as in organs such as the kidney and liver. During a blood test for cats, various chemicals in the blood stream are analyzed. Such as:
- Cat blood tests can indicate a deficiency in albumin levels, which indicates a possible liver issue because albumin is produced in the liver
- Blood tests for cats can detect abnormal hormonal-chemical responses to environmental and internal stimuli, which indicates a potential issue with the patient’s endocrine system
Once we establish a correlation, we can order any subsequent feline blood work procedures necessary to arresting and treating the condition. In this way, feline blood tests serve as very valuable tools in a veterinarian’s toolkit for helping to detect, identify, diagnose and ultimately treat illness or disease.
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How To Diagnose Kidney Failure In Cats
This article was co-authored by Melissa Nelson, DVM, PhD. Dr. Nelson is a Veterinarian who specializes in Companion and Large Animal Medicine in Minnesota, where she has over 18 years of experience as a veterinarian in a rural clinic. She received her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Minnesota in 1998.There are 16 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 92% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 35,793 times.
In cats over the age of 7 years with kidney disease, having the disease is part of the natural aging process. In animals less than 4 years of age, kidney problems are more likely to be the result of a genetic predisposition. The kidney has many jobs to do, but most important of these is filtering natural toxins out of the bloodstream and reclaiming water that would otherwise be lost in the urine. Therefore, it is important to be sensitive to the signs of kidney failure so the cat can be diagnosed and treated as efficiently as possible.
Are There Stages Of Chronic Kidney Disease
Yes, there are five stages of kidney disease. The stages are based on how well your kidneys are able to do their job to filter out waste and extra fluid from your blood. The stages range from very mild to kidney failure . Healthcare providers determine the stage of your kidney function according to the glomerular filtration rate . Your GFR is a number based on the amount of creatinine, a waste product, found in your blood, along with other factors including your age, race and gender.
|Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease|
- Are African-American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian.
- Are over 60 years of age.
- Have a long history of taking painkillers, including over-the-counter products such as aspirin and ibuprofen.
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Treatment For Kidney Failure
The treatment choices for kidney failure include:
- kidney transplantation
- non-dialysis supportive care.
Dialysis or kidney transplantation is needed when there is less than 10 per cent of kidney function left. These options are also known as renal replacement therapy . Some people choose non-dialysis supportive care rather than dialysis or kidney transplantation.
Can Kidney Disease Be Prevented
Seeing your healthcare provider on a regular basis throughout your life is a good start for preventing kidney disease. About one in every three people in the United States is at risk for kidney disease. Identify and manage any risk factors for developing kidney disease.
- Control your high blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is 120/80.
- Control your blood sugar if you have diabetes.
- Eat a healthy diet. Follow a low-fat, low-salt diet.
- Dont smoke.
- Be active for 30 minutes at least five days a week.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Take nonprescription pain relievers only as directed. Taking more than directed can damage your kidneys.
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Blood Tests For Diagnosing Kidney Disease
Following are a variety of blood tests that help determine whether or not you have kidney disease:
- CBC complete blood count of your red blood cells, white blood cells, and plateletslow CBC level can mean kidney function is reduced.
- Creatinine waste product of muscles that is normally eliminated by the kidneys, may be elevated when kidney function is reduced.
- Creatinine clearance measure of how well creatinine is removed by the kidneys over a 24-hour period of urine collection. When kidney function is reduced, clearance may be low.
- Blood electrolyte tests also known as chemistries. Electrolytes are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. Abnormal levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
- Hemoglobin A1C measures how well blood sugar is controlled during three months before testing. Elevation indicates blood sugar is not well-controlled and may be causing reduced kidney function.
- Blood urea nitrogen also a waste product that is eliminated by the kidneys. BUN is elevated when kidney function is reduced.
- Glomerular filtration rate the best measure of kidney function and also determines the stage or progression of the disease. The higher the numbers of the GFR, the better the kidneys are working.
Sexually Transmitted Disease Tests
Many sexually transmitted diseases can be diagnosed using a blood sample. These tests are often combined with urine samples or swabs of infected tissue for more accurate diagnoses.
The following STDs can be diagnosed with blood tests:
Blood tests arent always accurate right after contracting an infection. For an HIV infection, for example, you may need to wait at least a month before a blood test can detect the virus.
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How Is Kidney Disease Diagnosed
A simple kidney function test can help your doctor determine whether you have kidney disease. After measuring your creatinine levels with a simple blood test, your estimated glomerular filtration rate can be calculated using age, weight, body size, ethnicity, and gender. Your eGFR indicates how well your kidneys are functioning. An eGFR of 120 or less can indicate kidney disease. Your doctor may also perform other tests before determining a kidney disease diagnosis.
What Is Kidney Transplantation
Kidney transplantation involves placing a healthy kidney into your body where it can perform all of the functions that a failing kidney cant. Kidneys for transplantation come from two sources: living donors and deceased donors. Living donors are usually immediate family members or sometimes spouses. This is possible because a person can live well with one healthy kidney.
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What Color Is Urine When Your Kidneys Are Failing
When kidneys are failing, the increased concentration and accumulation of substances in urine lead to a darker color which may be brown, red or purple. The color change is due to abnormal protein or sugar, high levels of red and white blood cells, and high numbers of tube-shaped particles called cellular casts.
What Do Kidney Blood Tests Do
The kidneys main function is to excrete waste from your body, so if your kidneys arent working properly, there are likely to be higher than normal levels of waste products in your blood. Kidney blood tests therefore look at the blood levels of these waste products to see how well your kidneys are performing their excretion function.
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Alanine Transaminase And Aspartate Transaminase Levels
The main role of these enzymes is to break down the protein and amino acids produced in the body. In healthy condition, the levels of both the enzymes remain low in your blood. The liver is affected by the damage caused by cirrhosis or any other disease, and then the levels of ALT and AST get increased. High levels of ALT and AST are the indication of the damage happened in the liver.
What Might These Tests Indicate If My Pet Has Kidney Disease
A) A complete blood count involves the evaluation of the red blood cells, the white blood cells and the platelet components of a single blood sample. A hematology analyzer will provide your veterinarian with the total numbers of these cells, and evaluation of a blood smear will allow a look at the physical characteristics of these cells.
The kidneys produce a substance called erythropoietin that is necessary for proper red blood cell production within the bone marrow. With kidney disease, the amount of erythropoietin produced may be decreased, causing a decrease in red blood cell production. This shows up in the CBC as anemia.
The white blood cell numbers may be increased if the underlying cause of the kidney disease is due to an infection or inflammation.
Rarely, platelet numbers may be reduced if a clotting problem has occurred as a result of the underlying kidney disease.
B) The serum biochemistry profile requires a separate blood sample from which the serum is separated from the cellular portion of blood. Serum contains many substances including enzymes, proteins, lipids , glucose and metabolic waste products.
Of most importance in the diagnosis of kidney disease are the determination of the levels of two substances, namely blood urea nitrogen and creatinine.
Increases in BUN and creatinine may be seen with kidney disease, as well as with dehydration and other causes of reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
âSevere increases in potassium may cause cardiac arrhythmias.â
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Kidney Biopsy To Check For Damage And Disease
A biopsy is a test involves removing a small sample of kidney tissue small through a thin needle to check for damage and signs of certain diseases. The tissue is examined under a microscope to determine the exact cause of the kidney disease, and the biopsy findings may also help us determine the best treatment for your kidney disease.
What Is A Kidney Function Blood Test
The kidney function blood test measures the level of creatinine, urea and certain dissolved salts.
- Creatinine is a waste product in your body that is made by your muscles. It passes into your bloodstream, and is usually passed out in urine . A high blood level of creatinine indicates that your kidneys may not be working properly.
- Urea is produced when protein is broken down by your body. Healthy kidneys eliminate more than 90% of the urea your body produces. A high blood level of urea may indicate that you are dehydrated or that your kidneys may not be working properly.
- Dissolved salts that are routinely measured are sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. They are sometimes referred to as ‘electrolytes’. Abnormal blood levels of any of these may sometimes be due to a kidney problem.
- eGFR stands for estimated glomerular filtration rate. Although the level of creatinine in your blood is a useful guide to kidney function, the eGFR is a more accurate measure of how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. Using your blood creatinine, and your age and sex, your eGFR can be calculated by computer and reported with the creatinine blood test.
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Who Has A Blood Test Of Kidney Function
Routine kidney function is one of the most commonly performed blood tests. It may be done:
- As part of a general health assessment.
- If you have suspected low body water content , when the urea level increases.
- If you have suspected kidney failure. The higher the blood levels of urea and creatinine, the less well the kidneys are working. The level of creatinine is usually used as a marker as to the severity of kidney failure. Creatinine in itself is not harmful but a high level indicates that the kidneys are not working properly. So, many other waste products will not be cleared out of the bloodstream. You normally need treatment with dialysis if the level of creatinine goes higher than a certain value.
- Before and after starting treatment with certain medicines. Some medicines occasionally cause kidney damage as a side-effect. Therefore, kidney function is often checked before and after starting treatment with certain medicines.
How Is The Test Done
Usually, your doctor will ask you not to eat excessive amounts of meat or other protein for 24 hours before a kidney blood test. During the test, your doctor will extract blood from your veins into a tube, which will then be sent off for testing at a laboratory. Test results are usually available within a few days, or even on the same day if youre having the test in a hospital.
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