How Does Drinking Water Help Reduce The Risk Of Uric Acid Stones
Drinking a lot of water is one of the best things you can do to reduce the risk of uric acid stones and other kidney stones. Fluids help make your urine less concentrated with waste products. The water helps your body wash away chemicals, so stones dont form.
You can check the color of your urine to see if youre drinking enough. Dark-colored pee means youre not drinking enough. Pee should be light yellow or clear.
Complications Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones can range in size from a grain of sand to that of a pearl or even larger. They can be smooth or jagged, and are usually yellow or brown. A large stone may get stuck in the urinary system. This can block the flow of urine and may cause strong pain.
Kidney stones can cause permanent kidney damage. Stones also increase the risk of urinary and kidney infection, which can result in germs spreading into the bloodstream.
How Long Does It Take To Pass A Kidney Stone
The amount of time it can take for you to pass a kidney stone is different from anothers. A stone thats smaller than 4 mm may pass within one to two weeks. A stone thats larger than 4 mm could take about two to three weeks to completely pass.
Once the stone reaches the bladder, it typically passes within a few days, but may take longer, especially in an older man with a large prostate. However, pain may subside even if the stone is still in the ureter, so its important to follow up with your healthcare provider if you dont pass the stone within four to six weeks.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Kidney Stones
“A kidney stone is a hard mass that’s made up of minerals , certain salts and other byproducts. They can form when these substances accumulate in the area of your kidneys where urine is produced,” explains Dr. Kannady.
Kidney stones can be as small as the point of a pen or as large as a ping pong ball.
“Typically, a person doesn’t start noticing the symptoms of a kidney stone until it moves from the kidney into the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from your kidney to your bladder,” Dr. Kannady adds.
Kidney stone symptoms include:
- Sharp pain in the lower abdomen, typically on one side
- A burning sensation or pain while urinating
- Urinating frequently
- Feeling like you’re urinating incompletely or in small amounts
- Urine that is brown, red or pink, which indicates the presence of blood
- Smelly or cloudy urine
- Feeling queasy or nauseous due to the intensity of the pain
- Signs of infection, including fever, chills and vomiting
Are Home Remedies Effective For Kidney Stones
For some people who have had many kidney stones, home care may be appropriate. When passing a kidney stone, drinking lots of fluid is important. In fact, this is the most important home care measure. Medications may help control the pain . However, if it is the first time one has had symptoms suggestive of a kidney stone, it is important to see a doctor right away.
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Can Medication Treat Uric Acid Stones
Your provider may prescribe medications to:
- Reduce uric acid levels in your blood and urine.
- Keep your urine alkaline .
- Dissolve the uric acid stones.
Alpha blockers are a type of medication that may help stones in the ureter pass faster. Your provider will talk to you about this option if its right for you.
Others Experience And Advice
I asked my doctor, why do my kidneys hurt at night? I have felt this on and off pain for many years now, but lately the pain has become more severe. After undergoing many tests, my doctor found a large kidney stone, which is going to be treated by blasting using laser treatment. I am so relieved because I have been taking pain killers for so long, and hopefully now it is all going to be better.
Anyone that has kidney pain, worse lying down? It is very difficult to sleep at night, with pain in right kidney. It gets worse when I turn side to side, so much so that I have to grab my mattress just to turn over.
I have just been diagnosed with kidney stone which causes severe pain that is far worse at night. But now I am receiving medications that seem to make my condition improve. I can now sleep at night peacefully. So if you think you have kidney pains, dont suffer see your doctor right away.
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Diagnosis: Low Urine Ph
Citrate supplements, such as potassium citrate, will raise the pH of your urine, making stones, such as those composed of uric acid, less likely to form. If your blood potassium level is high, your doctor may prescribe sodium bicarbonate or Bicitra.
Lower protein intake
A diet high in protein will reduce urinary pH. As a general recommendation, limit your daily protein intake to 12 ounces per day of beef, poultry, fish and pork. Twelve ounces is equivalent in size to about three decks of cards. This will be plenty of protein to meet your bodys needs.
Increase fluid intake
No matter what your diagnosis, you should drink enough water to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day.
What Are The Most Common Types Of Kidney Stones
The most common type of kidney stone is a calcium oxalate stone. This type happens when calcium and oxalate combine in your urine. It can happen when you have high quantities of oxalate, low amounts of calcium and arent drinking enough fluids.
Stones caused by uric acid are also fairly common. These come from a natural substance called purine, which is a byproduct of animal proteins .
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What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
- Do I have a kidney stone or is there another reason for my symptoms?
- What type of kidney stone do I have?
- What size is my kidney stone?
- Where is my kidney stone located?
- How many kidney stones do I have?
- Do I need treatment or will I be able to pass the kidney stone?
- Should I be tested for kidney disease?
- What changes should I make to my diet?
- What type of procedure should I have to get rid of the stones?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Kidney stones can be frustrating at best and agonizingly painful at the worst. To stop your situation from getting worse, you should be evaluated by a healthcare provider as soon as possible. The pain can get severe, and surgery might be necessary. Remember: dont skip your prescriptions, drink lots of water and follow any dietary guidelines. Also, remember that kidney stones are a temporary condition. They wont bother you forever.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/03/2021.
Treatment Of Kidney Stones
For smaller kidney stones, pain relievers may be the only treatment needed. On average it takes five to seven days to pass a kidney stone, says Dr. Abromowitz. It may pass sooner. And if the stone is very high in the ureter, it can take up to two weeks.
Larger stones that block urine flow or cause infection may require surgery, such as:
- Shock-wave lithotripsy, a noninvasive procedure using high-energy sound waves to break stones into fragments that pass out in the urine
- Ureteroscopy, in which an endoscope is inserted through the ureter to retrieve or break up the stone
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy, used for very large or irregularly shaped stones. For both procedures, a small incision is made in the back to provide access for a nephroscope, a miniature fiberoptic camera, and other small instruments. Your doctor then either removes the stone or breaks up and removes the stone .
For ongoingprevention of recurring kidney stones, your doctor may prescribe increasing fluid intake, changing diet, controlling weight, and taking medication.
To learn more about kidney stones, talk to your doctor or health care provider or search for a provider.
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What Are Uric Acid Stones
Uric acid stones are one of four types of kidney stones. A kidney stone is a collection of minerals and salt that hardens. Kidney stones form in the kidneys or urinary tract, the path that urine takes to leave the body. They can cause pain and blood in the urine, but treatment can help.
Other types of kidney stones include:
- Calcium stones.
- Cystine stones.
How Are Children Treated For Kidney Stones
Most childrens kidney stones can be treated with the shock wave lithotripsy , a completely non-invasive procedure. Your child is placed under anesthesia and sound waves of specific frequencies are focused on the stones to shatter them into fragments small enough to be easily passed during urination.
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Why Do Doctors Examine The Contents Of The Stone
There are four types of stones. Studying the stone can help understand why you have it and how to reduce the risk of further stones. The most common type of stone contains calcium. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet. The kidney usually removes extra calcium that the body doesn’t need. Often people with stones keep too much calcium. This calcium combines with waste products like oxalate to form a stone. The most common combination is called calcium oxalate.
Less common types of stones are: Infection-related stones, containing magnesium and ammonia called struvite stones and stones formed from monosodium urate crystals, called uric acid stones, which might be related to obesity and dietary factors. The rarest type of stone is a cvstine stone that tends to run in families.
Signs You May Have A Kidney Stone And When To Go To The Er
If you have ever suffered from a kidney stone, you know just how uncomfortable and frustrating these urinary tract stones truly are. In fact, many people consider passing a kidney stone to be among the most painful experiences one can go through. Because the symptoms of a kidney stone often mimic the symptoms of unrelated conditions, however, you may not always realize when you are passing a stone. The dedicated team of board-certified ER physicians and expert staff at iCare ER & Urgent Care in Frisco and Fort Worth, TX are proud to provide rapid evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment for kidney stones to help patients feel comfortable again as soon as possible. Learn more about kidney stones here, including what signs and symptoms may mean an urgent visit to your nearest ER is warranted.
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Diagnosis: Too Much Calcium In The Urine
These drugs help to decrease urine calcium excretion. They also help to keep calcium in the bones, reducing the risk for osteoporosis. The most common side effect of thiazide diuretics is potassium loss, so in many cases your doctor will prescribe a potassium supplement to go along with the thiazide diuretic.
Lower sodium intake
The human body carefully regulates its sodium levels. When excess sodium is excreted in the urine, calcium is also excreted proportionally. In other words, the more sodium you consume, the more calcium that will be in your urine. Your goal should be to reduce your sodium intake so that you consume less than 2 grams of sodium per day. Watch out for silent sources of salt, such as fast foods, packaged or canned foods, softened water and sports drinks.
Normal calcium diet
People who form stones sometimes think that because there is too much calcium in their urine, they should restrict their calcium intake. There is no research that supports this practice. Your body needs dietary calcium to support the skeleton. You should be encouraged to consume two servings of dairy or other calcium-rich foods to maintain bone stores of calcium.
Increase fluid intake
No matter what your diagnosis, you should drink enough water to produce at least 2 liters of urine per day.
How Should My Kidney Stone Be Treated
Historically, the treatment of kidney stones required major surgery and was associated with long hospitalization and recovery periods. However, in recent years an improved understanding of kidney stone disease, along with advances in surgical technology, has led to the development of minimally invasive and even noninvasive treatments for people with kidney stones.
At Johns Hopkins, we believe that the treatment of a patients stones requires an approach that is unique to that individual. We offer a complete range of state-of-the-art treatment options, including ESWL , ureteroscopy and PERC, and we will discuss with you the advantages and disadvantages of each therapy as they apply to your situation. Our goal is to provide each patient with a clear understanding of the nature of their stone burden as well as the most appropriate course of treatment.
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Why Do Ureteral Stents Cause Pain
Here are the top 3 reasons why ureteral stents can cause you, and your urologist, misery:
In order to place a stent, or remove kidney stones, a scope needs to be placed in your urethra and bladder. Itâs not a surprise then why most patients require general anesthesia. Even in the most skilled hands with LOTS of lubrication, placement and manipulation of the scope cause an irritation of the urethra.
Burning with urination is most common for the first 72 hours after a ureteral stent placement as a result. If a string is left attached to the ureteral stent, then the string can cause persistent irritation of the urethra as well.
Please donât take offense. My bladder is definitely dumber than yours. And by dumb, what I really mean is that our bladders canât figure out that thereâs a stent sitting inside.
When our bladder is full of urine it sends a signal to our brain that we should probably go tinkle. When a stent is in our bladder, it also sends a signal to our brain. Unfortunately since the stent is still in place, this signal is constant and stronger. Thus the urge to urinate every 5-10 minutes is quite common while having a stent in place.
It is not unusual to have bladder spasms or pelvic pain prior to or after urination as well.
Swelling In Hands Or Feet
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys dont remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, and/or hands.
What patients said:
I remember a lot of swelling in my ankles. My ankles were so big I couldnt get my shoes on.
Going to work one morning, my left ankle was swollen, real swollen, and I was very exhausted just walking to the bus stop. And I knew then that I had to see a doctor.
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Mayo Clinic Q And A: Why Are Kidney Stones So Painful
DEAR MAYO CLINIC: How do doctors decide on the best treatment for kidney stones? When I had a calcium stone, my doctor gave me medication and told me to drink plenty of water until it passed. When my mother had one, she went through a procedure to break up the stone. Why the difference? Also, what makes these stones so painful?
ANSWER: Treatment for kidney stones depends on a stones size, type and location. As in your case, extra fluids and medication may be all thats needed for some small stones. Other treatment may be necessary when a stone is larger. The pain associated with kidney stones usually is the result of spasms triggered by a stone stuck in the ureter, coupled with pressure in the kidney from urine backup.
Kidney stones form from minerals and acid salts. About 85 percent of kidney stones are calcium-based, typically calcium oxalate. Less common are uric acid stones, struvite stones and cystine stones. Doctors use blood and urine tests to find out what kind of stones are present. If you have passed a stone, a laboratory analysis also can reveal the makeup of the stone.
Many uric acid and cystine stones can be dissolved by taking medication and drinking extra fluids. Calcium-based stones are different, because they dont dissolve. You have to get them to pass through your urinary system or have them removed.
Kidney Stone Pain Relief
You may be able to take steps at home to ease kidney stone pain:
- Drink plenty of fluids to try to flush out the stone. Aim for 2 to 3 quarts a day. Water is best.
- Take over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen or naproxen.
- Ask your doctor about prescription medicines like nifedipine or tamsulosin that relax your ureter to help stones pass through.
See your doctor right away if you have severe pain or signs of an infection or urinary blockage.
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Will I Need Surgery For Uric Acid Stones
You may need surgery if the stones:
- Are very large.
- Do not pass after four to six weeks.
Treatment options include minimally invasive or noninvasive techniques:
- Shockwave lithotripsy: This noninvasive procedure uses high-energy sound waves to break up the stones. Shockwave lithotripsy does not use an incision and nothing enters your body.
- Ureteroscopy: During a ureteroscopy, your provider inserts an endoscope through the ureter, the tube that leads from each kidney to the bladder. The provider removes the stone using a tiny basket. In some cases, the provider can break the stone into smaller pieces using a laser, and then remove the pieces.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy : Providers use PCNL for larger stones. A surgeon makes a small incision in your back to access the kidney. They either remove the stone or break it up first and then remove it.
Your provider will send the stone or pieces of the stone to a lab for analysis.