Risks Of The Procedure
You may want to ask your doctor about the amount of radiation used duringthe procedure and the risks related to your particular situation. It is agood idea to keep a record of your past history of radiation exposure, suchas previous scans and other types of X-rays, so that you can inform yourdoctor. Risks associated with radiation exposure may be related to thecumulative number of X-ray examinations and/or treatments over a longperiod of time.
Notify your health care provider if you are pregnant or suspect that youmay be pregnant. Radiation exposure during pregnancy may lead to birthdefects.
There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Besure to discuss any concerns with your physician prior to the procedure.
Certain factors or conditions may interfere with the accuracy of a KUBX-ray. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
Recent barium X-rays of the abdomen
Gas , feces, or foreign body in the intestine
Uterine or ovarian masses, such as calcified fibromas of the uterus or ovarian lesions
What Are The Kidneys And Urinary Tract
The urinary tract is one of the systems that our bodies use to get rid of waste products. The kidneys are the part of the urinary tract that makes urine . Urine has salts, toxins, and water that need to be filtered out of the blood. After the kidneys make urine, it leaves the body using the rest of the urinary tract as a pathway.
What Do The Kidneys Do
Kidneys have many jobs, from filtering blood and making urine to keeping bones healthy and making a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure, the level of salts in the blood, and the acid-base balance of the blood. All these jobs make the kidneys essential to keeping the body working as it should.
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Imaging Techniques For The Kidney
KUB is the proper terminology for a radiograph of the abdomen when used to view the urinary tract. The outline of kidneys can usually be seen. Ureters usually are not visible. The most common pathological findings are urinary tract stones. See the image below.
The imaging technique of choice for evaluation of the urinary tract and adrenal glands is CT scanning. It allows evaluation of the relative density of structures. CT scanning without contrast can be used for detection of renal or ureteral stones. See the image below.
The advantages of ultrasonography include that it is readily available, does not require contrast, and avoids radiation exposure. The renal medulla is hypoechoic compared with the renal cortex. The renal cortex is isoechoic or slightly hypoechoic compared with the liver. Ultrasonography is able to identify simple or mildly complicated cysts and is able to differentiate these lesions from a solid mass. It is excellent for detecting hydronephrosis. See the image below.
Radionuclide Renal Scintigraphy
Renal radionuclide imaging is an integral part of nuclear medicine and provides substantial information on the actual renal function.
The following radionuclides are used for dynamic imaging:
- Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid
For static imaging, Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid is used.
A diuretic challenge can also be administered.
Kidney Disease And Disorders
- Glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomeruli
- Hydronephrosis excessive fluid within the kidney caused by blocked urine flow
- Pyelonephritis infection of the kidney
- Kidney Stones usually form in the kidneys, but can form anywhere in the urinary tract
- Kidney Cancer
- Nephrosis a process that can lead to kidney failure
- Polycystic Kidney Disease a disorder of the kidneys that result in multiple fluid filled cysts within the kidneys tissues
- Renal Hypertension if the kidneys for some reason do not get enough blood, they set off a series of events leading to high blood pressure
- Renal Infarction similar to a heart attack, but in the kidney, caused by blockage of kidney vessels
- Renal Vein clot clot in the vein that carries blood from the kidney, can be fatal
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Swelling In Hands Or Feet
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, and/or hands.
What patients said:
I remember a lot of swelling in my ankles. My ankles were so big I couldn’t get my shoes on.
Going to work one morning, my left ankle was swollen, real swollen, and I was very exhausted just walking to the bus stop. And I knew then that I had to see a doctor.
What Happens To The Digested Food
The small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients in your food, and your circulatory system passes them on to other parts of your body to store or use. Special cells help absorbed nutrients cross the intestinal lining into your bloodstream. Your blood carries simple sugars, amino acids, glycerol, and some vitamins and salts to the liver. Your liver stores, processes, and delivers nutrients to the rest of your body when needed.
Your body uses sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol to build substances you need for energy, growth, and cell repair.
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What Do My Kidneys Do
Every day, your kidneys filter about 30 gallons of blood to remove about half a gallon of extra water and waste products. This waste and extra water make up your urine . The waste comes from the food you eat and the use of your muscles. Your urine travels to your bladder through the ureters, tubes that connect your kidney to your bladder. Your bladder stores the urine until you are ready to urinate . When you urinate, urine leaves your body through your urethra.
Your kidneys also do many other jobs, such as help:
- Make red blood cells
When your kidneys dont work the way they should, they allow waste and water to flow back into your blood stream instead of sending them out with your urine. This causes waste and water to build up in your body, which can cause problems with your heart, lungs, blood, and bones.
Clinical Relevance: Variation In Arterial Supply To The Kidney
The kidneys present a great variety in arterial supply; these variations may be explained by the ascending course of the kidney in the retroperitoneal space, from the original embryological site of formation to the final destination . During this course, the kidneys are supplied by consecutive branches of the iliac vessels and the aorta.
Usually the lower branches become atrophic and vanish while new, higher ones supply the kidney during its ascent. Accessory arteries are common . An accessory artery is any supernumerary artery that reaches the kidney. If a supernumerary artery does not enter the kidney through the hilum, it is called aberrant.
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The Kidneys And Ureters
The kidneys are two bean shaped organs, each about the same size as a fist. They are near the middle of your back, one on either side of your spine.
The renal pelvis is in the middle of the kidney. Urine collects here and then drains through a tube called the ureter and into the bladder. When you empty your bladder, the urine leaves the body through a tube called the urethra.
How Is Kidney Cancer Treated
Treatment depends on the type of cancer, the stage, and grade of the tumor, and the patient’s age and overall health.
Surgery is the most common treatment for kidney cancer. Several surgical options may be considered, including:
- Partial nephrectomy: The surgeon removes just the part of the kidney that contains the tumor.
- Radical nephrectomy: The surgeon removes the whole kidney and some of the tissue around the kidney. Some lymph nodes in the area also may be removed.
When one kidney is removed, the remaining kidney usually is able to perform the work of both kidneys.
Surgery is the treatment of choice for most stages of kidney cancer. For chemotherapy for kidney cancer, there are many relatively new agents that block the blood flow to the tumor and put it into remission. These medications are typically taken by mouth and are generally well tolerated. The other approach is to use medication that activates the bodys own immune system to fight the tumor.
Some people with kidney cancer participate in clinical trials. Clinical trials are research programs conducted with patients to evaluate new medical treatments, drugs or devices. Clinical trials also are being conducted on new chemotherapy drugs and on new ways to use biological therapy for patients with kidney cancer.
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What Is Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, or ccRCC, is a type of kidney cancer. The kidneys are located on either side of the spine towards the lower back. The kidneys work by cleaning out waste products in the blood. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is also called conventional renal cell carcinoma.;
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is named after how the tumor looks under the microscope. The cells in the tumor look clear, like bubbles.
What Is The Prognosis Of Angiomyolipoma Of Kidney
- The prognosis of Angiomyolipoma of Kidney depends upon the severity of the signs and symptoms. It also depends upon the overall health of the individual, association with tuberous sclerosis, and response to therapy
- Typically, individuals with small-sized tumors have a better prognosis than those with larger-sized tumors . Also, those with non-syndromic tumors have a comparatively better prognosis than individuals with tumors that are seen in association with a genetic disorder
- In most cases, the prognosis of small-sized solitary tumors is excellent with surgical intervention or appropriate treatment, since these are benign tumors
- Complications are seen in some cases leading to severely affected kidney function, even causing fatalities. This can occur from hemorrhage of tumor into the retroperitoneal space – mostly with tumors larger than 4 cm. Individuals with retroperitoneal hemorrhage may have a worse prognosis, if the condition is not treated immediately as a medical emergency
- In pregnant women, such hemorrhage from AML tumors can be significantly serious affecting both the mother and child
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Blood Flows In And Out Of The Kidneys Through Renal Arteries And Veins
Blood enters the kidneys through renal arteries. These arteries branch into tiny capillaries that interact with urinary structures inside the kidneys . Here the blood is filtered. Waste is removed and vital substances are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. The filtered blood leaves through the renal veins. All the blood in the body moves in and out of the kidneys hundreds of times each daythats about 200 quarts of liquid to be filtered every 24 hours.
Swollen Or Puffy Face
Why this happens:
Failing kidneys don’t remove extra fluid, which builds up in your body causing swelling in the face.
What patients said:
My sister, her hair started to fall out, she was losing weight, but her face was really puffy, you know, and everything like that, before she found out what was going on with her.
My checks were always puffy and tight. Sometimes they would even hurt.
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How Is Angiomyolipoma Of Kidney Treated
The treatment options vary from one individual to another. The treatment measures for Angiomyolipoma of Kidney may include the following:
- Majority of asymptomatic tumors are not surgically removed: The healthcare provider may recommend a âwait and watchâ approach for small-sized tumors presenting mild signs and symptoms, after a diagnosis of angiomyolipoma is made
- Surgical intervention with complete excision can result in a complete cure. It can also help reduce the chances of tumor recurrence
The surgical treatment methods for Kidney Angiomyolipomas may include:
- Endoscopic surgery
- Nephron-sparing surgery
- Partial or complete nephrectomy
- Tumor embolization is a possible treatment option. Here the blood supply to the tumor is blocked resulting in its shrinkage or death
A partial or complete nephrectomy may be considered, when large-sized tumors are noted in the kidneys. In severe cases of bilateral tumors, kidney transplantation may be necessary.
Diseases Of The Urinary System
Different specialists treat urinary system ailments. Nephrologists treat kidney diseases, while urologists treat problems with the urinary tract, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder and urethra, according to the American Urological Association . Urologists also treat the male reproductive organs, while gynecologists often treat urinary diseases or disorders in females, including yeast infections. Nephrologists and urologists often work with endocrinologists or oncologists, depending on the disease.
Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract; they can affect the urethra, bladder or even the kidneys. While UTIs are more common in women, they can occur in men. UTIs are typically treated with antibiotics, according to Dr. Oscar Aguirre, a urogynecologist in Denver. In the United States, about 8.1 million people have a urinary tract infection each year, according to the American Urological Association. ;
Incontinence is another common disease of the urinary system. “The most common bladder problems I see in my practice in women are frequent urges to urinate and leakage of urine,” said S. Adam Ramin, urologic surgeon and founder of Urology Cancer Specialists in Los Angeles. “The most common bladder problems in men are frequent urination at nights and incomplete bladder emptying. This is usually due to an enlarged prostate causing obstruction of bladder emptying.”
Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science contributor.
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Areas Of The Abdominal Region
The region of the trunk that lies between the diaphragm above the pelvic inlet below is referred to as Abdomen that is divided into nine regions by two vertical and two horizontal lines. Each vertical line passes through mid-point between anterior superior iliac spine and symphysis pubis.
The upper horizontal line meets the 10th costal cartilage on each side whereas the lower horizontal line joins the tubercles on the iliac crests.
The Transpyloric Plane that lies at the level of Lumbar plexus L1 passes through the tips of 9th costal cartilages on the two sides .
The Inter-cristal plane passes across the highest points on iliac crests.
What Are The Parts Of The Urinary Tract
People usually have two kidneys, but can live a normal, healthy life with just one. The kidneys are under the ribcage in the back, one on each side. Each adult kidney is about the size of a fist.
Each kidney has an outer layer called the cortex, which contains filtering units. The center part of the kidney, the medulla , has fan-shaped structures called pyramids. These drain urine into cup-shaped tubes called calyxes .
From the calyxes, pee travels out of the kidneys through the ureters to be stored in the bladder . When a person urinates, the pee exits the bladder and goes out of the body through the urethra , another tube-like structure. The male urethra ends at the tip of the penis; the female urethra ends just above the vaginal opening.
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How Does The Urinary System Work
The urinary system’s function is to filter blood and create urine as a waste by-product. The organs of the urinary system include the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra.
The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.
The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to;keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.
Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Kidneys also regulate the acid-base balance and conserve fluids.
Feeling Faint Dizzy Or Weak
Why this happens:
Anemia related to kidney failure means that your brain is not getting enough oxygen. This can lead to feeling faint, dizzy, or weak.
What patients said:
I was always tired and dizzy.
It got to the point, like, I used to be at work, and all of the sudden I’d start getting dizzy. So I was thinking maybe it was my blood pressure or else diabetes was going bad. That’s what was on my mind.
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What Is The Prognosis For People With Ccrcc
The estimate of how a disease will affect you long-term is called prognosis. Every person is different and prognosis will depend on many factors, such as
- Where the tumor is in your body
- If the cancer has spread to other parts of your body
- How much of the tumor was taken out during surgery
If you want information on your prognosis, it is important to talk to your doctor. NCI also has resources to help you understand cancer prognosis.
Doctors estimate ccRCC survival rates by how groups of people with ccRCC have done in the past. Because there are so few pediatric ccRCC patients, these rates may not be very accurate. They also dont take into account newer treatments being developed.;
With this in mind, ccRCC patients with smaller tumors have a better chance of survival than patients with larger tumors. The 5-year survival rate for patients with ccRCC is 50-69%. When ccRCC is already large or has spread to other parts of the body, treatment is more difficult and the 5-year survival rate is about 10%. ;