Functional Structure Of The Kidneys
1. The tubule begins with a hollow enlargement called Bowman’s capsule, which is where water and solutes initially enter the tubule from the bloodstream. This process is known as filtration. The structure comprised of Bowman’s capsule and associated capillaries is called the renal corpuscle.
2. From Bowman’s capsule the tubular fluid flows towards the proximal tubule, which remains in the outer layer of the kidney. The proximal tubule is the major site of reabsorption of water and solutes in equal proportions from the filtered tubular fluid.
3. Then the tubule dips into the hairpin loop of Henle, which descends toward the center of the kidney and then rises back to the cortex. The loop of Henle is also a major site of reabsorption, but unlike the proximal tubule, proportionately more solute than water is reabsorbed, so the tubular fluid is dilute relative to plasma by the end of this segment.
4. The next segment is the distal tubule, which like the proximal tubule remains in the cortex. Both reabsorption and secretion take place in this segment, which is where sodium and potassium concentrations and the pH of the tubular fluid are adjusted to ensure homeostasis.
1. An afferent arteriole takes blood to the renal corpuscle, where the blood passes through the first capillary bed, a ball-shape tuft known as the glomerulus.
2. An efferent arteriole takes blood away from the glomerulus.
Symptoms Of Kidney Stones
Diagnosis of Kidney Stones
Your doctor may ask you to go under the following tests to diagnose Kidney Stones.
- Urine Test. In this test, your doctor requires a sample of urine. For this, you must have to collect the sample of urine in a clean bottle throughout the day at least for 24hrs. A level of more than 45-milligram oxalic acid in the urine will declare the stones.
- Blood Test. A blood test is helpful in understanding the health of the kidney. Apart from this, it diagnoses the amount of calcium and urea present in the blood. this test may help your doctor to know the health conditions and kidney stones.
- CT scan. This is the best way to know about the stones, which are residing in the kidney. Besides CT scan, Ultrasound is also one of the imaginary diagnosis machines, which gives quick results about calcium oxalate crystals.
Early Ckd May Not Have Any Symptoms
You may wonder how you can have CKD and feel fine. Our kidneys have a greater capacity to do their job than is needed to keep us healthy. For example, you can donate one kidney and remain healthy. You can also have kidney damage without any symptoms because, despite the damage, your kidneys are still doing enough work to keep you feeling well. For many people, the only way to know if you have kidney disease is to get your kidneys checked with blood and urine tests.
As kidney disease gets worse, a person may have swelling, called edema. Edema happens when the kidneys cant get rid of extra fluid and salt. Edema can occur in the legs, feet, or ankles, and less often in the hands or face.
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Food Rich In High Oxalic Acid Increase The Risk Of Kidney Stones
The function of the kidney is the removal of waste of blood through the urine. Sometimes, when the accumulation of waste is higher in the kidney and lower the amount of fluid in the blood, which causes the formation of high oxalic acid salt which further makes the formation of kidney stones.
A kidney stone is formed due to the waste deposited inside the wall of the kidney. They are also known as nephrolithiasis. Certain diets and supplements such as food rich in oxalic acid are among the main cause of kidney stones.
A kidney stone forms when a big amount of certain minerals gathered in the urine and the urine becomes thicker due to lack of hydration.
Too much amount of oxalic acid salt makes the crystals of Calcium oxalate. As per the various study, it has been found that calcium oxalate is the most common type of stone, which appears in the kidney. Oxalic acid is generally found in green vegetables. If you are having more food rich in oxalic acid, and very low consumption of water then you are at higher risk of having kidney stones.
Kidney stones/Calcium Oxalate Crystals
Calcium Oxalates Stones
Calcium Oxalate is the most common type of stone mostly found in the kidney. In addition to this, oxalic acid-rich food such as beans, spinach, chocolate, etc, increases the level of oxalates in our body. A higher amount of oxalic acid salt and a lower amount of fluid in the blood accumulate the waste product in the kidney, which is the reason for kidney stones.
The Kidneys Relation To The Peritoneum
The kidneys, the adrenal glands, and the ureters are retroperitoneal organs. This means that they are located behind the peritoneum.
The capsula fibrosa is a capsule of firm connective tissue surrounding the kidney. Another capsule of fat encloses the kidney and the associated adrenal gland. The fascia renalis is another capsule of connective tissue.
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How Can I Keep My Kidneys Healthy
You can accomplish keeping your kidneys healthy and preventing disease by paying attention to these six steps.
- The first step is to know and understand what your kidneys do in the normal functions of the body as well as what kind of diseases or problems can be caused by kidney disease.
- The second step is to determine if you are at risk for any type of kidney disease. Those who have cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, or a history of kidney disease are more at risk.
- The third step is to be able to recognize what symptoms might be a sign of kidney disease such as any pain, discoloration or unusual form of urine/urination, an unusual increase in the need to urinate, being overly tired and weak, and having puffy or swollen ankles, abdomen, eyes, face, or feet.
- Step four is to seek out a professional and immediately get screening for potential threats.
- Step five is to stay healthy by eating a healthy diet, getting plenty of daily exercises, and drinking enough water.
- The final step is to stay informed about your kidneys, the health of your kidneys, and any risks that you might have.
What Is The Collecting Duct In The Kidney Responsible For
Renal collecting tubule, also called duct of Bellini, any of the long narrow tubes in the kidney that concentrate and transport urine from the nephrons, the chief functioning units of the kidneys, to larger ducts that connect with the renal calyces, cavities in which urine gathers until it flows through the renal
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List Of Food Low In Oxalic Acid
- Cheese is rich in calcium, which increases the calcium absorption in the body
- Yogourt is another major source of calcium.
- Broccoli is also the main source of calcium and contain very low amount of oxalic acid.
High oxalic acid salt in your body can cause many health problems such as kidney stones and lower the absorption of minerals. But you can solve this problem of high oxalic acid salt in your body by approaching a high intake of fluid. This is not possible to avoid all high oxalic acid food because along with oxalic acid they also carry many benefits. You can start having calcium-rich food to maintain your healthy life.
What Happens If My Test Results Show I May Have Chronic Kidney Disease
Your doctor will want to pinpoint your diagnosis and check your kidney function to help plan your treatment. The doctor may do the following:
- Calculate your Glomerular Filtration Rate , which is the best way to tell how much kidney function you have. You do not need to have another test to know your GFR. Your doctor can calculate it from your blood creatinine, your age, race, gender and other factors. Your GFR tells your doctor your stage of kidney disease and helps the doctor plan your treatment.
- Perform an ultrasound or CT scan to get a picture of your kidneys and urinary tract. This tells your doctor whether your kidneys are too large or too small, whether you have a problem like a kidney stone or tumor and whether there are any problems in the structure of your kidneys and urinary tract.
- Perform a kidney biopsy, which is done in some cases to check for a specific type of kidney disease, see how much kidney damage has occurred and help plan treatment. To do a biopsy, the doctor removes small pieces of kidney tissue and looks at them under a microscope.
Your doctor may also ask you to see a kidney specialist who will consult on your case and help manage your care.
For help making sense of your lab values, .
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Positional Relations To Other Organs
In relation to other organs:
- The adrenal glands are located cranially to the upper kidney poles.
- The subcostalis, Nervus iliohypogastricus, and Nervus ilioinguinalis run dorsally.
Note: Because of the kidneys proximity to these nerves, pain originating from the kidney may spread to the groin.
The right hepatic lobe, pars descendens duodeni, and the right colonic flexure run ventrally to the right kidney. The root of the transverse mesocolon and the splenic flexure are situated anterior to the left kidney, stomach, spleen, and pancreas.
How Can We Prevent High Oxalates
A person has a high risk of kidney stones, they are suggested to have less amount of oxalic acid in their food. High oxalic acid in food is the major cause of the formation of stones
Here a list of precautions, which you can take to prevent yourself from kidney stones.
- Drink plenty of fluid. A high amount of fluid intake reduces the oxalic acid salt level in your body. A minimum requirement of fluid is 2.5lt/day, which is essential to maintain a healthy life.
- Have Calcium Rich Food. A minimum requirement of calcium per day is 800-1200mg/day. This is because oxalic acid binds with calcium and lowers their absorption in the body.
- Boil the Vegetable. Boiling is the best way to eliminate the oxalic acid from food by 40 percent. You must boil all the food, which contains high oxalic acid.
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Where Does Blood Filtration In Nephron Take Place Quizlet
The ball of capillaries at the beginning of the nephron where blood filtration takes place. The small artery that carries blood away from the capillaries of the glomerulus. function as a filter, being permeable to water and small solutes but not to blood cells or large molecules such as plasma proteins.
Function Of The Kidney
The entire blood volume of the body is flushed through the kidneys several times each day. This is how the kidneys can control and regulate, among other things, the blood pressure, the water-and-electrolyte balance, the elimination of metabolic end products and toxic substances, and the acid-base balance.
The kidneys are important in maintaining the internal environment:
- Removing excess water, salt, and waste products
- Maintaining the correct levels of nutrients and chemicals
- Maintaining the acid-base balance
- Maintaining blood pressure
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Histology Of The Kidneys
The kidney produces about 1.5 L of urine each day. The entire blood volume flows through the kidneys every 45 minutes. The kidney is a paired organ that is situated in the retroperitoneum and embedded in a firm capsule of connective tissue. Another protective capsule of fatty tissue is wrapped around this capsule. The kidneys parenchyma is divided into the renal cortex and the renal medulla on the inside .
Cortex. Image by Lecturio.
The renal cortex forms the renal columns, the columnae renales. They extend into the medulla and divide it into 815 pyramids. The inner medulla leads to the calyces of the renal pelvis. The renal pelvis, the calyces, the surrounding fatty tissue, the vessels, and the nerves form the renal sinus . The pelvis narrows and ultimately forms the ureter that drains the urine from the hilum.
Histologically, the kidney can be divided into the interstitium and the nephron.
Processes Of The Kidneys
Filtration is the mass movement of water and solutes from plasma to the renal tubule that occurs in the renal corpuscle. About 20% of the plasma volume passing through the glomerulus at any given time is filtered. This means that about180 liters of fluid are filtered by the kidneys every day. Thus, the entire plasma volume is filtered 60 times a day! Filtration is primarily driven by hydraulic pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus.
Note that the kidneys filter much more fluid than the amount of urine that is actually excreted . This is essential for the kidneys to rapidly remove waste and toxins from the plasma efficiently.
Reabsorption is the movement of water and solutes from the tubule back into the plasma. Reabsorption of water and specific solutes occurs to varying degrees over the entire length of the renal tubule. Bulk reabsorption, which is not under hormonal control, occurs largely in the proximal tubule. Over 70% the filtrate is reabsorbed here. In addition, many important solutes are actively transported out of the proximal tubule such that their concentrations are normally extremely low in the remaining fluid. Further bulk reabsorption of sodium occurs in the loop of Henle.
Regulated reabsorption, in which hormones control the rate of transport of sodium and water depending on systemic conditions, takes place in the distal tubule and collecting duct.
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What Is The Process Of Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular reabsorption is the process that moves solutes and water out of the filtrate and back into your bloodstream. This process is known as reabsorption, because this is the second time they have been absorbed the first time being when they were absorbed into the bloodstream from the digestive tract after a meal.
The Facts About Chronic Kidney Disease
- 37 million American adults have CKD and millions of others are at increased risk.
- Early detection can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure.
- Heart disease is the major cause of death for all people with CKD.
- Glomerular filtration rate is the best estimate of kidney function.
- Hypertension causes CKD and CKD causes hypertension.
- Persistent proteinuria means CKD is present.
- High risk groups include those with diabetes, hypertension and family history of kidney failure.
- African Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, American Indians and Seniors are at increased risk.
- Two simple tests can detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine.
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Testing Results And Follow
The results of your examination will help your doctor make a diagnosis. It can also help them determine the cause of your kidney failure.
If youre diagnosed with chronic kidney failure, you will need regular blood tests. These will be used to measure various substances in your body, such as calcium, potassium, cholesterol, sodium, magnesium, and phosphorous. You will also need to undergo ongoing kidney function tests for creatinine and urea levels.
There is no cure for chronic kidney failure. However, there are measures you can take to slow its progression.
How Does Filtration In The Kidneys Work
The glomerulus filters your blood As blood flows into each nephron, it enters a cluster of tiny blood vesselsthe glomerulus. The thin walls of the glomerulus allow smaller molecules, wastes, and fluidmostly waterto pass into the tubule. Larger molecules, such as proteins and blood cells, stay in the blood vessel.
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Why Are The Kidneys So Important
Most people know that a major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. This process is necessary to maintain a stable balance of body chemicals.
The critical regulation of the body’s salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.
The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions:
- remove waste products from the body
- remove drugs from the body
- balance the body’s fluids
- release hormones that regulate blood pressure
- produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
- control the production of red blood cells
Below you will find more information about the kidneys and the vital role they play in keeping your body functioning.
Where Is The Collecting Duct
Collecting ducts descend through the cortex and medulla and successively fuse near the inner medullary region. Toward the papillary tip, converging papillary ducts form approximately 20 large ducts, which empty into the renal pelvis. The collecting ducts are composed of two cell types: principal and intercalated cells.
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The Filtration Membrane Keeps Blood Cells And Large Proteins In The Bloodstream
Inside the glomerulus, blood pressure pushes fluid from capillaries into the glomerular capsule through a specialized layer of cells. This layer, the filtration membrane, allows water and small solutes to pass but blocks blood cells and large proteins. Those components remain in the bloodstream. The filtrate flows from the glomerular capsule further into the nephron.
The Renal Tubules Of The Nephron
The proximal tubule begins with the convoluted pars contorta and changes into the distal straight pars recta. In this part, 80% of the water, glucose, amino acids , electrolytes, and urea contained in the urine are reabsorbed. This task is carried out by the cubic epithelium studded with a dense brush border.
The cells are connected and tightly sealed by tight junctions and the zonula adherens. The cells appear dark under the microscope. They are rich in mitochondria, vesicles for endocytosis, lysosomes, and peroxisomes. In this part of the renal tubules, calcidiol is converted to calcitriol under the influence of the parathyroid hormone .
The intermediary tubule, however, shows a flat epithelium that hardly features any vesicles or other of the aforementioned structures.
In the following distal tubule, mostly sodium chloride is absorbed, and only a little water. It is a flatter cubic epithelium with many Na/K-ATPases and many tight junctions. The distal tubule is also divided into the pars recta with the intermediary macula densa and the pars contorta.
The loop of Henle sits between the proximal and distal tubules and refers to the part of the renal tubule that comprises the intermediate tubule and the straight parts of the proximal and the distal tubule.
The distal tubule merges into the and finally into the collecting tubule.
The collecting tubule consists of the following:
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