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What Does Calculus In Kidney Mean

Common Symptoms Of Kidney Stones

Renal Calculi – Nephrolithiasis – Kidney Stone – NCLEX Review
  • Kidney stone pain, known as renal colic, may present as severe pain in the flank, lower abdomen, back and/or groin.
  • Pain or burning when urinating.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Fever and chills if there is an infection.

Other symptoms may vary depending on the cause of the kidney stone and any other pre-existing conditions.

Not all the symptoms listed above may present at the same time. A large stone or multiple kidney stones may cause symptoms while it is within the kidney. However in most cases, patients only report to the emergency room once the kidney stone enters the ureter or causes an obstruction at the ureteropelvic junction . Even the presence of blood in the urine usually goes unnoticed. Once the stone falls into the bladder, it once again may go unnoticed unless it is large and/or causes an obstruction.

The symptoms in both adults and children are almost the same. However, the presentation may differ depending on the individual, not only based on age and gender. Men are more likely to develop kidney stones than women and stones in children are rare. With kidney stone pain, the patient cannot lie still and is often pacing or writing in agony. It may extend from the lower part of the chest cavity, all the way to the upper part of the inner thigh.

If there is severely reduced urine output, inability to urinate or significant abdominal swelling, it should be considered as a medical emergency and immediate treatment should be sought.

What Does It Feel Like To Have A Kidney Stone

Everyone experiences kidney stones differently. Typically, kidney stones within the kidney do not cause pain.

If a stone falls onto the opening where the kidney meets the ureter or passes into the ureter, this can prevent urine from draining out of the kidney. This backing up of urine can lead to back pain just below your ribs. Sometimes the pain can be severe enough to cause nausea and vomiting.

As a stone moves, the blockage of urine may be relieved and symptoms may improve or go away. The pain may return if the stone begins to cause blockage of urine again. This changing of symptoms is called renal colic.

Blood in the urine may be a sign of kidney stones. Sometimes the blood isnt visible to the naked eye and must be detected by a urine test.

If a stone is able to pass down the ureter and close to the bladder, the pain may move to the front of the abdomen, near the pelvis.

Stones very close to the bladder can cause pain that is felt in the genitals. A stone that reaches the bladder can cause burning with urination or changes in how often or how urgently you need to urinate.

What Are Risk Factors You Can Control

Diet is a factor in some cases of kidney stones. A dietician can recommend foods to reduce the risk of kidney stones. Higher than recommended amounts of vitamin D, vitamin C, salt, protein, and foods containing high oxalates may increase the risk of stone formation. Eating a low-protein, low-sodium diet with adequate calcium decreases the chance of developing stones. A balanced vegetarian diet that includes dairy might offer your body the best protection against kidney stones.

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How Small Is Small Enough

The smaller the kidney stone, the more likely it will pass on its own. If it is smaller than 5 mm , there is a 90% chance it will pass without further intervention. If the stone is between 5 mm and 10 mm, the odds are 50%. If a stone is too large to pass on its own, several treatment options are available.

The End Of A Very Long Post


Thats my parade.

The common animals and the rarer animals have gone by, and you have glimpsed the main ones, big and small.

The one point is what it was at the beginning. Each kind of kidney stone has its own ways, and treatment requires we know which one you have.

Likewise, for whatever that one may be, it is good to know as much about it as you can know. For long term prevention of stones is hard to come by and ultimately what the patience and and consistency of patients themselves matters most.

Track down old reports and pull them together.

Keep copies and send everything to the doctors who care for you.

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What Does The Latin Term Calculus Mean In Medical Terms

The word calculus is the Latin form for pebble or stone. Medically, calculus is a stone, for example, renal calculus or kidney stone. Kidney stones may develop due to decreased urine volume or increased excretion of stone-forming minerals such as calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, or phosphate.

What Does Renal Punctate Calyceal Calculi Mean

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What Causes Kidney Atrophy

  • Blocked kidney artery blocks the main arteries that supply blood to the kidneys, which can be due to hardening of the arteries with fatty deposits or blood clots
  • Blocked urinary tract blocks the normal flow of urine which leads to pressure on the kidneys and damages the nephrons
  • Kidney stones an untreated kidney stone can cause a kidney blockage
  • Long-lasting kidney infections such as pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and other chronic kidney diseases that can damage nephrons

Causes Of Floating Kidney

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Certain conditions and factors can be considered as contributing causes of floating kidney. These include,

  • Women who are thin, with a long waist and lack necessary body fat to support the kidney can be at greater risk. When there is no essential fat in the body, to support the body organs like kidney, it usually drops down, leading to problem of floating kidney. This problem is known to be one of the major causes of floating kidney in women.
  • Trauma or injury near the kidney region, which leads to loss of significant tissue, surrounding the kidney, can be an important cause of floating kidney problem.

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What Is Floating Kidney Know Its Causes Symptoms Treatment

Floating kidney is termed as nephroptosis in medical terms and commonly known as hypermobile kidney or wandering kidney. In this condition, a persons kidney falls downwards on standing up from sitting or sleeping position. Usually, whenever a person stands, the position of kidney remains the same, as it is supported by the surrounding structures, which gets disturbed in floating kidney. Knowing about the symptoms of floating kidney, along with its causes, diagnosis and the treatment options can help to manage the condition.

The condition of floating kidney occurs only when there is no tissue support for the kidney to rest on. Both men and women can experience a floating kidney, but sometimes it can affect women more. Getting a proper treatment for floating kidney is very important if the condition turns out to be symptomatic.

How Can Kidney Stones Be Prevented

The best way to avoid kidney stones is to prevent the most common cause â dehydration. You are adequately hydrated when your urine is light yellow. Most people require between 8 to 10 glasses of water per day. Scientists are studying grapefruit juice and other drinks high in citric acid, which may help prevent the most common type of kidney stone.

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Should I Cut Calcium Out Of My Diet If I Develop Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones

If you develop kidney stones composed of calcium, you may be tempted to stop eating foods that include calcium. However, this is the opposite of what you should do. If you have calcium oxalate stones, the most common type, its recommended that you have a diet higher in calcium and lower in oxalate.

Foods that are high in calcium include:

  • Cows milk.

Its also important to drink plenty of fluids to dilute the substances in your urine.

What Procedures And Tests Diagnose Kidney Stones

Polycystic kidney disease

The classic presentation of renal colic associated with blood in the urine suggests the diagnosis of kidney stone. Many other conditions can mimic this disease, and the care provider may need to order tests to confirm the diagnosis. In older patients, it is always important to at least consider the diagnosis of a leaking or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm as a source of this type of pain.

Physical examination is often not helpful in patients with kidney stones, aside from the finding of flank tenderness. The examination is often done to look for potentially dangerous conditions. The care provider may palpate or feel the abdomen trying to find a pulsatile or throbbing mass that might indicate the presence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Listening to the abdomen with a stethoscope may reveal a bruit or rushing noise made by abnormal blood flow through the aneurysm. Tenderness under the right rib cage margin may signal gallbladder disease. Tenderness in the lower quadrants may be associated with appendicitis, diverticulitis, or ovarian disease. Examination of the scrotum may exclude a testicular torsion.

In children, colicky abdominal pain may be associated with intussusception of the intestine.

Symptom control is very important, and medication for pain and nausea may be provided before the confirmation of the diagnosis occurs.

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What Causes Kidney Stones

Kidney stones may form when there’s a change in the normal balance of the water, salts, and minerals found in urine. Different kinds of changes result in different types of kidney stones. There are many factors that can trigger changes in the urine, ranging from chronic medical conditions to what you eat and drink.

Types Of Kidney Stones

Most kidney stones contain calcium but other compounds, particularly the breakdown products of proteins, may also form kidney stones. The types of crystals that give rise to kidney stones are listed below in order of prevalence.

  • Calcium oxalate stones
  • Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones
  • Cystine yellow crystalline.

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Take Care Of Your Heart

Heart-healthy foods help keep fat from accumulating in your heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. Incorporate the following tips for a more heart-healthy diet:

  • Skip deep-fried foods in favor of those that are baked, grilled, roasted, or stir-fried.
  • Cook with olive oil instead of butter.
  • Limit saturated and trans fats.

Some good choices are:

  • poultry with the skin removed
  • lean cuts of meat with the fat removed

If kidney function continues to decline, your doctor will make personalized dietary recommendations. Kidney disease can cause phosphorus to build up in your blood, so you might be advised to choose foods that are lower in phosphorus. These include:

  • fresh fruits and vegetables
  • bread, pasta, and rice
  • rice- and corn-based cereal

Phosphorus may be added to packaged food and deli meats, as well as fresh meat and poultry, so be sure to read labels.

Poorly functioning kidneys can also lead to a potassium buildup. Lower-potassium foods include:

  • apples and peaches
  • white bread, white rice, and pasta

Some higher-potassium foods are:

  • salt substitutes
  • whole-wheat bread and pasta

Talk to your doctor about your diet. It might also be helpful to consult with a dietitian.

Complications Of Kidney Stones

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Kidney stones can range in size from a grain of sand to that of a pearl or even larger. They can be smooth or jagged, and are usually yellow or brown. A large stone may get stuck in the urinary system. This can block the flow of urine and may cause strong pain.

Kidney stones can cause permanent kidney damage. Stones also increase the risk of urinary and kidney infection, which can result in germs spreading into the bloodstream.

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How Do Kidney Stones Form

Most stones form just under the inner surface of the kidney. Small crystals in your urine fuse together, similar to the way salt crystals form from evaporating saltwater.

More crystals can bind over time until a stone is formed. The stone can then continue to grow bigger and ultimately become so heavy that it breaks off within the kidney. Once free to move around, it can either stay in the kidney or try to pass down the ureter.

Why You Get Stones

Part of preventing stones is finding out why you get them. Your health care provider will perform tests to find out what is causing this. After finding out why you get stones, your health care provider will give you tips to help stop them from coming back.

Some of the tests he or she may do are listed below.

Medical and Dietary History

Your health care provider will ask questions about your personal and family medical history. He or she may ask if:

  • Have you had more than one stone before?
  • Has anyone in your family had stones?
  • Do you have a medical condition that may increase your chance of having stones, like frequent diarrhea, gout or diabetes?

Knowing your eating habits is also helpful. You may be eating foods that are known to raise the risk of stones. You may also be eating too few foods that protect against stones or not drinking enough fluids.

Understanding your medical, family and dietary history helps your health care provider find out how likely you are to form more stones.

Blood and Urine Tests

Imaging Tests

When a health care provider sees you for the first time and you have had stones before, he or she may want to see recent X-rays or order a new X-ray. They will do this to see if there are any stones in your urinary tract. Imaging tests may be repeated over time to check for stone growth. You may also need this test if you are having pain, hematuria or recurrent infections.

Stone Analysis

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What Are Symptoms Of Kidney Stones

Many kidney stones are painless until they travel from the kidney, down the ureter, and into the bladder. Depending on the size of the stone, movement of the stone through the urinary tract can cause severe pain with sudden onset. People who have kidney stones often describe the pain as excruciating. The lower back, abdomen, and sides are frequent sites of pain and cramping. Those who have kidney stones may see blood in their urine. Fever and chills are present when there is an infection. Seek prompt medical treatment in the event of these symptoms.

How Long Does It Take To Pass A Kidney Stone

Kidney Stones

The amount of time that it takes to pass a kidney stone can vary depending on the size of the stone. Generally, small stones are able to pass through the urine within 1-2 weeks , often without any treatment.

On the other hand, larger stones may take 2-3 weeks to move through the kidneys and into the bladder.

Stones that dont pass on their own within 4 weeks typically require medical treatment.

2.5 liters of urine each day. Increasing the amount of urine you pass helps flush the kidneys.

You can substitute ginger ale, lemon-lime soda, and fruit juice for water to help you increase your fluid intake. If the stones are related to low citrate levels, citrate juices could help prevent the formation of stones.

Eating oxalate-rich foods in moderation and reducing your intake of salt and animal proteins can also lower your risk of kidney stones.

Your doctor may prescribe medications to help prevent the formation of calcium and uric acid stones. If youve had a kidney stone or youre at risk for a kidney stone, speak with your doctor and discuss the best methods of prevention.

In addition to drinking more water, making modifications to your diet could also help prevent kidney stones.

Here are some foods that you may need to

  • frozen meals
  • salty snacks

Animal proteins like meat, poultry, seafood, and dairy products can increase levels of uric acid in your urine and increase the risk of developing kidney stones.

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Inhibitors Of Stone Formation

Normal urine contains chelating agents, such as citrate, that inhibit the nucleation, growth, and aggregation of calcium-containing crystals. Other endogenous inhibitors include calgranulin , TammHorsfall protein, glycosaminoglycans, uropontin , nephrocalcin , prothrombin F1 peptide, and bikunin . The biochemical mechanisms of action of these substances have not yet been thoroughly elucidated. However, when these substances fall below their normal proportions, stones can form from an aggregation of crystals.

Sufficient dietary intake of magnesium and citrate inhibits the formation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones in addition, magnesium and citrate operate synergistically to inhibit kidney stones. The efficacy of magnesium in subduing stone formation and growth is dose-dependent.

Symptoms In Children Baby

The symptoms in male or female children will not differ significantly from the symptoms mentioned above. In infants, a kidney stone may be easily missed because it is rare and the patient is unable to describe the symptoms.

Parents/caregivers of infants should be alerted to the :

  • Restless and capricious child constantly crying.
  • Changes in urine output or color.
  • Frequency of urination when compared to regular output .

These symptoms accompanied by a lack of appetite, gagging or vomiting or change in bowel movements should raise the question of the possibility of a kidney/urinary stone.

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What Are Staghorn Calculi

  • Some stones grow very large and fill the entirety of the kidney collecting system. They are called staghorn calculi because they look like antlers.
  • While most kidney stones are made up of calcium oxalate crystals, this type of stone is a composite of struvite, carbonate, and apatite.
  • They are usually the result of recurrent urinary tract infections, in which the bacteria produce ammonia, allowing chemicals in the urine to form the nidus for stone formation.


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