What Is The Difference Between Left And Right Kidney
There is a difference between left and right kideny is their position and size. The size of the left kidney is slightly larger than that of the right kidney. Moreover, the left kidney is positioned slightly upper than the right kidney due to the asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver. Another difference between left and right kideny is that left renal artery serves blood to the left kidney while right renal artery serves blood to the right kidney. In addition, anterior and posterior surface of left and right kidneys are related to different neighboring structures of the body.
Determinants Of Renal Weight
We applied a multiple linear regression to assess the associations between mean renal weight and the predefined variables sex, age, body height, body weight, smoking habit, known hypertension and renal blood degree. A log-transformation of renal weight was performed to fulfill the conditions of the regression. As shown in Table , a positive association was found between renal weight and body weight, body height and the degree of renal congestion. The analysis also demonstrated a negative association between renal weight, sex and the age at death. There was a difference between men and women: in men, renal weight slightly increased till the age of 52.5years, and decreased sharply hereafter. In women, the relationship was flatter and decreased gradually after the age of 50years . Renal weight was not associated with smoking habit or known arterial hypertension. The model included two interactions between the explanatory variables, respectively between body height and body weight and body height and age .
Table 3 Multiple regression analysis showing associations between the outcome variable renal weight and predefined clinical variables
What Is A Kidney
Each kidney is about 11 to 14 cm in length, about 6cm in width and about 3cm in thickness. Each kidney contains millions of its functional units called nephrons. Kidneys are surrounded by a fibrous tissue called renal capsule. The cortex, medulla, pelvis, and hilum are the main parts of the kidney. Adrenal glands are located on the top of each kidney. Moreover, a major branch of the abdominal aorta called renal artery enters from the concave side of the kidney. The major role of the kidney is to filter excess chemicals and wastes from the blood, which enter through renal arteries. These wastes extracted from the blood are eliminated from the body as urine. Other than excretion, homeostasis, osmoregulation, regulation of salts in the body, regulation of pH, and production of hormones are also important functions of kidneys.
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Why Would One Kidney Be Larger Than The Other
The National Kidney Federation explains that the most common reasons one kidney is larger than the other include congenital dysplasia, reflux nephropathy, kidney infection and blood starvation in the smaller kidney. Diseases such as glomerulonephritis also cause a kidney to become smaller.
Congenital dysplasia is a condition wherein a kidney is small at birth or has never grown with the rest of the body, says the NKF. It is a common cause of small kidneys and is typically detected in childhood. In some cases, the small kidney is in a normal position in the upper back. However, in other cases, it is found in the lower abdomen as it has failed to move up from there before birth.
Reflux nephropathy refers to a damaged kidney due to a faulty drainage system, explains the NKF. It is commonly detected in childhood and early adulthood.
According to the NKF, sometimes one kidney is bigger than the other because an infection has caused the other kidney to shrink. Severe kidney infections damage the kidney and cause it to become small. When the kidney lacks blood due to a narrowing in the artery that supplies the organ with blood, it often becomes smaller. This condition typically occurs in older people, especially those with a history of angina or heart attack.
Crossing Vessel Upj Obstruction Vesicoureteral Reflux
Crossing vessel, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, or vesicoureteral reflux can become pathophysiologic if it causes extrinsic or primary intrinsic obstruction leading to hydronephrosis. This can be seen with aberrant crossing vessels in a single system, which leads to UPJ obstruction. Obstruction can also occur from an ectopic ureter, where it is commonly seen inserting inferomedially in an abnormal location and is often associated with the upper pole moiety of a complete duplicated collecting system.
Similarly, a ureterocele in a single system, or sometimes seen in a complete duplicated system, can cause obstruction. From an intrinsic standpoint, UPJO can also be caused by an adynamic/aperistaltic segment of ureter that is due to abnormal embryologic development. Secondary etiologies of obstruction include stones, infections, iatrogenic ureteral damage causing strictures, and other acquired factors that are not due to anatomic variants.
Vesicoureteral reflux is another variation and is caused by an abnormal insertion of the ureter in the bladder in an abnormal position . This insertion site leads to a shorter intramural tunnel length for the ureter to pass through the bladder wall, which leads to inadequate compression of the ureter during bladder filling and contraction and may allow reflux of urine up the ureter. Vesicoureteral reflux can contribute to pyelonephritis and, in extreme situations, irreversible damage to an affected renal unit.
The Nutcracker Syndrome
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The Left Kidney And Right Kidney
Kidneys are organs that are found in the bean shape in our bodies. Both the kidneys are equivalent to the size of a fist. These are located just under the bottom of the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Normal kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. Kidneys situated in the left and the right which lie in an intraperitoneal position are located at the slightly oblique angle. The right kidney is slightly lower and smaller than the left kidney and is placed into the middle area in comparison to the left kidney.
Clinical Relevance: Variation In Arterial Supply To The Kidney
The kidneys present a great variety in arterial supply these variations may be explained by the ascending course of the kidney in the retroperitoneal space, from the original embryological site of formation to the final destination . During this course, the kidneys are supplied by consecutive branches of the iliac vessels and the aorta.
Usually the lower branches become atrophic and vanish while new, higher ones supply the kidney during its ascent. Accessory arteries are common . An accessory artery is any supernumerary artery that reaches the kidney. If a supernumerary artery does not enter the kidney through the hilum, it is called aberrant.
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Secretion Of Active Compounds
The kidneys release several important compounds, including:
- Erythropoietin: This controls erythropoiesis, which is the production of red blood cells. The liver also produces erythropoietin, but the kidneys are its main producers in adults.
- Renin: This enzyme helps manage the expansion of arteries and the volumes of blood plasma, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Lymph is a fluid that contains white blood cells, which support immune activity, and interstitial fluid is the main component of extracellular fluid.
- Calcitriol: This is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D. It increases both the amount of calcium that the intestines can absorb and the reabsorption of phosphate in the kidney.
A range of diseases can affect the kidneys. Environmental or medical factors may lead to kidney disease, and they can cause functional and structural problems from birth in some people.
Do We Need Two Kidneys
Most humans are born with two kidneys as the functional components of what is called the renal system, which also includes two ureters, a bladder and a urethra. The kidneys have many functions, including regulating blood pressure, producing red blood cells, activating vitamin D and producing some glucose.
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Gross Anatomy Of The Kidney
The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs. They are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit larger than the female kidney. The kidneys are well vascularized, receiving about 25 percent of the cardiac output at rest.
Take Care Of Your Heart
Heart-healthy foods help keep fat from accumulating in your heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. Incorporate the following tips for a more heart-healthy diet:
- Skip deep-fried foods in favor of those that are baked, grilled, roasted, or stir-fried.
- Cook with olive oil instead of butter.
- Limit saturated and trans fats.
Some good choices are:
- poultry with the skin removed
- lean cuts of meat with the fat removed
If kidney function continues to decline, your doctor will make personalized dietary recommendations. Kidney disease can cause phosphorus to build up in your blood, so you might be advised to choose foods that are lower in phosphorus. These include:
- fresh fruits and vegetables
- bread, pasta, and rice
- rice- and corn-based cereal
Phosphorus may be added to packaged food and deli meats, as well as fresh meat and poultry, so be sure to read labels.
Poorly functioning kidneys can also lead to a potassium buildup. Lower-potassium foods include:
- apples and peaches
- white bread, white rice, and pasta
Some higher-potassium foods are:
- salt substitutes
- whole-wheat bread and pasta
Talk to your doctor about your diet. It might also be helpful to consult with a dietitian.
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Why Is The Right Kidney Lower Than The Left
The kidneys can be found on both sides of the vertebral column. Nephrons are functional units that make up each kidney. The size and position of the left and right kidneys are different.
- The right kidney is found much lower than the left because it has to accommodate the liver, the largest gland in the human body.
- Each kidney is about 11.25 cm. in length, 5 to 7.5 cm. in breadth, and rather more than 2.5 cm. in thickness.
- The left is somewhat longer, and narrower than the right.
- Due to the existence of the liver on the right side, which is located anterior to the kidney, the right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney.
- The liver is the only organ in the body that can regenerate a portion of its lost tissue.
Determinants Of Renal Length
A multiple regression analysis including the same explanatory variables as above was performed to assess which factors were associated with renal length in the 142 subjects with information on this parameter. Renal length was log-transformed. Renal length was not associated with the degree of blood congestion, smoking habit or the age of death. Significant positive associations were found with body weight, body height and sex for both kidneys . Two significant interactions were identified: between body weight and height and between sex and body height .
Table 4 Multiple regression analysis illustrating the associations between renal length and clinical variables
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The Functioning Of The Kidneys
Kidneys perform very important functions and play a vital role in the filtration process which is as follows :
They maintain an overall fluid balance in the body.
They regulate and filter minerals from blood.
They filter waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances.
They create hormones that help to produce red blood cells, promote health, and regulate blood pressure.
Absolute And Relative Renal Measurements
Kidney dimensions are summarized in Table A-B. In both men and women, the left kidney was significantly heavier than the right kidney. This was also true for the relative renal weight. In contrast, there was no difference in absolute and relative renal length between the right and left kidneys.
Table 2 Absolute and relative renal dimensions. The relative measurements were calculated according to the body weight, the body height and the body surface. A) Comparison of absolute and relative renal values according to kidney laterality. B) Comparison of absolute and relative renal data according to sex
Absolute renal weight and length were higher in men for both kidneys. Relative weight was also higher in men , but relative renal length was larger in women .
Absolute and relative renal weight according to gender. Left kidneys are heavier than right kidneys. Absolute and relative weight are higher in men
Important differences in renal weight were observed according to the congestion status. Depleted kidneys weighed on average 25.8g less than congested ones . Kidneys with normal blood amount weighed 14.8g less than congested ones .
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Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton de Vaud under protocol number CER-VD 201701378. Due to the nature of the study, no informed consent was obtained. Administrative permission to access the data was provided by the ethical committee, in line with the regulations on Clinical Trials in the Human Research Act, article 9c and 34. Subjects confidentiality was respected and all data were anonymized. The data analyzed during the current study are available on request to the principal investigator .
Can It Be Prevented
Atrophic kidney cant always be prevented. But there are some measures you can take to keep your kidneys as healthy as possible.
First, try to prevent those conditions that can damage your kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes. If you already have such a condition, work to keep it under good control.
Your diet should be rich in:
- fruits and vegetables
- low-fat or fat-free dairy products
Limit your intake of:
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What Is The Outlook
You can live a long, healthy life with only one healthy kidney. However, youll need to watch your diet and see your doctor regularly.
In some cases, chronic kidney disease leads to kidney failure. Its a serious problem if your kidneys are functioning below 25 percent.
For people on dialysis, the average life expectancy is 5 to 10 years, but some may live as long as 30 more years.
The average kidney transplant lasts 12 to 20 years when from a living donor and 8 to 12 years when from a deceased donor.
Of course, much depends on your age and other health considerations. Your doctor can give you more of an idea of your outlook based on your personal situation.
How Is It Treated
Much of your treatment will depend on the cause of the atrophy. Treating the underlying condition may help prevent further damage to your kidney.
Even with an atrophic kidney, your kidneys may still be functioning well enough to get the job done. But if your kidneys are functioning at less than 10 to 15 percent, youre in kidney failure. That means you need treatment to do the work of the kidneys.
One way to do this is through dialysis.
In hemodialysis, your blood is run through an artificial kidney apparatus called a hemodialyzer that removes waste products. In peritoneal dialysis, a fluid called dialysate is used to fill your abdomen to filter waste in your body through a peritoneal dialysis catheter.
Dialysis helps do the work your kidneys can no longer do. But its not a cure. Youll need to have dialysis several times a week for the rest of your life or until you get a kidney transplant.
You can receive a healthy kidney from a living or a deceased donor. The wait for a suitable kidney can take years, though. After a transplant, youll need to take antirejection medications for the life of the kidney.
Atrophic kidney cant be reversed or cured with diet. But diet plays a vital role in treatment of kidney disease. Here are some kidney-healthy dietary tips:
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What Causes Fetal Kidney Enlargement
Fetal hydronephrosis is swelling of a babys kidney caused by a buildup of urine. This can happen while the baby is still in the mothers uterus. Doctors often find the problem when a woman has a fetal ultrasound during pregnancy. Urine normally travels from the kidney down a narrow tube to the bladder.
What Is Right Kidney
The right kidney is on the right side of the body, related to rib12. The anterior surface of the right kidney is associated with the right suprarenal gland, liver, descending part of the duodenum, right colic flexure of the large intestine, and the small intestine.
Moreover, posterior surface of the right kidney is associated with rib12, diaphragm, psoas major, quadratus lumborum, tendon of the transverse abdominal muscle, and transverse process of vertebra L1.
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Structure Of The Kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped which are externally surrounded by three layers which are as follows:
The outermost layer, the renal fascia, is a tough connective tissue layer.
The perirenal fat capsule is the second layer that supports the kidneys.
The innermost and the third layer is the renal capsule.
The Kidneys Have Three Layers Internally Which Are As Follows:
The renal medulla is the innermost region of the kidney which is arranged into pyramid-like structures that consist of a bulk of neuron structure.
The renal cortex is the outer inner region of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.
Nephrons are the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney that filters the blood in order to regulate chemical concentrations and produce urine.
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Renal Nerve Anatomy/autonomic Innervation
The kidney receives autonomic supply via both the sympathetic and parasympathetic portions of the nervous system. The preganglionic sympathetic nervous innervation to the kidneys arises from the spinal cord at the level of T8-L1. They synapse onto the celiac and aorticorenal ganglia and follow the plexus of nerves that run with the arteries. Activation of the sympathetic system causes vasoconstriction of the renal vessels. Parasympathetic innervation arises from the 10th cranial nerve , the vagus nerve, and causes vasodilation when stimulated.