Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy And Nephrolithotripsy
A doctor may recommend these surgeries for people with large or irregularly shaped kidney stones.
Both surgeries begin after a person receives general anesthetic. To access the kidney, a surgeon makes a small incision in the back and inserts a nephroscope, which is a small fiber-optic camera.
If the surgeon removes the kidney stone through a tube, they are performing a nephrolithotomy procedure.
A nephrolithotripsy procedure, on the other hand, involves breaking down the kidney stones with sound waves and removing the fragments with a suction device.
Surgery For Kidney Stones
Although most kidney stones pass on their own, your doctor may decide that surgery is the best treatment if you have stones lodged in the ureters, the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder large or particularly painful kidney stones stones causing an obstruction of urine flow or stones resulting in bleeding or infection.
At NYU Langone, our doctors also frequently treat people with more advanced kidney stone conditions, such as staghorn stones, which are large and can be caused by infection, and bilateral stones, which develop simultaneously in both kidneys or in the ureters.
Our surgeons perform hundreds of kidney stone surgeries each year, many of which involve minimally invasive techniques that do not require a hospital stay. In fact, traditional or open surgery, as it is commonly known, is now rarely performed at NYU Langone for the treatment of kidney stones.
The goal in any kidney stone surgery is to treat all stones at once. However, some people with kidney stones require a staged treatment approach in which more than one surgery is needed to reduce or clear the stones.
Laser Kidney Stone Removal Is A Procedure To Break Apart Kidney Stones In The Urinary Tract
Laser kidney stone removal is a procedure to break apart kidney stones in the urinary tract. It uses a laser to break the stones into very small pieces. These pieces can be removed during the procedure. Or they may pass out of the body in the urine.
Holmium Laser Portable XP was the first choice for break up the kidney stones effectively. The doctor puts the holmium laser and endoscopes into your urethra and moves them into the ureter and perhaps the kidney. The urethra and ureters are the tubes that carry urine through and out of your body. And will also place a small, flexible tube inside one of your ureters. It helps the pieces of the stone pass through your body.
You might be awake for the procedure. Or you might have a medicine to make you sleep. Either way, you wont feel pain. Most people are able to go home the same day of the procedure.
Dont Miss: How To Keep Your Kidneys Healthy As You Age
How Do I Know That I Have Kidney Stones
Patients often present with symptoms, such as the following:
- Pain during urination
- You have cloudy and foul-smelling urine
- Severe pain in the side and back
- Shooting pain down the groin and legs
- Fever if an infection is present
On occasions, kidney stones may stay within the kidney and do not cause any blockage or pain.
Kidney Stone Size Chart And Its Features
This is a simple kidney stone size chart that that provides important information about the chances of passing stones naturally, time taken, and treatment required for various sizes of the kidney stones. More types of kidney stone charts can be possible to show different types of information pieces about kidney stones and their sizes.
|Size of kidney stones|
Also Check: What Happens When Kidneys Shut Down
Finding A Fair Price For Your Lithotripsy
Did you know the national average cost for lithotripsy is $19,000? New Choice Health takes the guesswork out of healthcare by allowing you to compare facilities and find a fair price to remove kidney stones. Use New Choice Healths cost comparison tool to make a more informed decision and to save money on lithotripsy today.
How Do I Know If My Kidney Stone Requires Surgery
Kidney stones often pass on their own without any medical intervention. However, surgery may become necessary to break up or remove some stones. Those reasons include when the stone:
Is too large to pass on its own
Has become stuck in the ureter tube after moving through the urinary tract
Blocks the flow of urine
Results in one or more urinary tract infections
Causes unbearable pain that needs to be alleviated
In these situations, surgery will help the stone pass and relieve the pain.
What Surgical Options Can Be Used For Kidney Stone Treatment
Kidney Stones are those hard deposits that are made up of minerals such as calcium or waste products such as uric acid. They are initially small in size, but they can grow bigger as more minerals stick to them or ignored for a long time.While some kidney stones often pass on their own without treatment through urine, however, other stones that are bigger in size are generally painful and get stuck in the urinary tract leading to a direct need to remove the stone with the help of surgery.One would have to undergo surgical methods if the following situations are created:
- The stone is bigger in size and is unable to get out of the body through its routine urinary tract
- There is severe pain in the side and back of the body just below the ribs. It is a pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin area.
- The stone is blocking the flow of urine out of your kidney causing a lot of discomforts.
- One has had many urinary tract infections in the past because of the stone.
Types of Kidney Stone Procedures and Surgeries :There are various surgical methods for treating the kidney stones depending on the kind of kidney stone, the severity of the problem and the modality of the treatment that is compatible to the patients body considering his or her medical record.The four primary surgical methods for the treatment of kidney stones are :
- Shock Wave Lithotripsy:
- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy
How Are The Surgical Procedures Performed
1. Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Shock wave lithotripsy is a procedure in which kidney stones are targeted using sound waves and X-rays. The stones are broken down before they are passed naturally in urine. This non-invasive procedure is used for small to medium-sized kidney stones, usually less than two centimeters in size, softer, and located in the ureter.
During the procedure, you lie on a table and receive medicine to limit pain and discomfort before high-energy shock waves are aimed at the stone from the outside. No cuts are made in your skin as the waves go through and break the stones into smaller pieces. Your urologist may insert a tube in your ureter, called a stent, which will aid in passing the stones. The procedure will take about an hour and you are free to go home the same day. Recovery time for shockwave lithotripsy is relatively short, so you will be able to return to normal activities within a few days.
For bigger stones, your urologist may consider ureteroscopy. For this procedure, a small scope, called a ureteroscope, is inserted into the kidney via the bladder. When the stone is in the upper part of the ureter and kidney, your urologist will use a more flexible ureteroscope. If the stones are in the lower portion of the ureter near the bladder, a rigid scope may be used. Ureteroscopy is an outpatient procedure done without incision and under general or spinal anesthesia.
3. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
4. Robot-assisted stone removal
You May Like: Does Beer Cause Kidney Stones
Large Kidney Stone Removal
About half of the stone removals Duke urologists perform each year are considered complex because of the size of the stone, its location, and/or an inability to pass on their own. In these cases, kidney stones can be removed through several small incisions using robotic surgery or laparoscopically. We are one of the highest-volume health systems in the country for removing large kidney stones that are about the size of a marble, or bigger.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy This inpatient surgery is performed under general anesthesia, so you won’t be awake or experience pain. During the PCNL procedure, your surgeon inserts a tube with a camera at the end through a small incision in your back. With X-ray guidance, your surgeon moves the tube to the location of the kidney stone and uses the camera to view it. A special instrument delivers pulses to break up the kidney stone into smaller pieces, which are then captured and removed. The procedure requires an overnight hospital stay. Because there is a chance for small amounts of bleeding if you exert yourself after the surgery, it’s recommended that you do not lift anything over 10 pounds for two weeks. After that, you can return to normal activities.
How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
Some kidney stones are so small that they may not present any symptoms until they pass into your ureter. The pain from a kidney stone usually starts out of nowhere and, as it moves through your body, so will the location and intensity of the pain source. At this point there will be signs to indicate a problem which can include:
- Severe pain below your ribs, lower abdomen, and groin
- Fluctuating pain
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Nausea and vomiting
- Persistent need to urinate
- Fever and chills
If you suspect that you have a kidney stone, make an appointment with your doctor. First, its important to prepare yourself with questions about your doctors kidney stone removal methods.You have many options to deal with and to prevent a kidney stone. Be sure you understand the pros and cons of each treatment before you decide which kidney stone removal treatment youll use.
Recommended Reading: Can You Repair Damage To Your Kidneys
Why Have Your Kidney Stone Removal At St Pete Urology
At St Pete Urology, our urologists frequently treat patients with kidney stones of different types, locations and sizes. We perform hundreds of kidney stone surgeries every year, using mostly minimally invasive and robotic procedures.
Your condition will be managed by specialists who will recommend the best procedure, apply a personalized treatment plan, and deliver top-notch follow-up care. We will see you through your recovery period and monitor your progress to make sure you are in the best of health.
For more information on kidney stone prevention, diagnosis and treatment, visit the St Pete Urology website.
Ureteroscopy And Laser Lithotripsy
Along with SWL, ureteroscopy is a preferred method for the treatment of small-to-medium sized kidney stones located in any part of the urinary tract. Washington University was one of the first centers in the world to offer ureteroscopic stone treatment. Our highly skilled endourologists are available to offer advanced ureteroscopic stone management.
Ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy are typically performed as a same-day procedure with the patient under general anesthesia. During the procedure, the urologist passes a small scope through the urinary opening into the bladder and from there up into the ureter, the small tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder. Once the stones are located, they are targeted with a laser that breaks the stone into smaller pieces, which are then extracted, or into tiny pieces of dust that wash out of the kidney with normal urine flow.
Often, a small tube, called a stent, will be placed temporarily to help the kidney drain after the operation. The stent is completely internal, and is generally removed after 3-10 days. Removal is performed quickly and easily in the office without the need for anesthesia.
Although slightly more invasive than SWL, ureteroscopy may be the preferred option if you have certain types of hard stones that dont respond to SWL, or a stone that is not visible on X-ray. In addition, ureteroscopy is often preferable to SWL for stones that are low in the urinary tract, in the region approaching the bladder.
You May Like: What Is A Double Kidney
What Does Surgery For Kidney Stones Entail
Most kidney stone surgeries do not require an actual incision. Rather, urologists are able to perform procedures through a patient’s natural orifices, meaning the urethra and ureter. During the procedure, referred to as ureteroscopy, a urologist uses a small flexible camera to locate the stone. From there, they will often use a tiny wire basket or laser fiber to capture the stone and pull it out, or break it up into tiny fragments that are removed.
In other cases, urologists may not need to enter the body at all to treat the stone. Shockwave lithotripsy is used to break the stone apart into tiny fragments by transmitting ultrasound waves through the patients back while they are under anesthesia.
A more invasive surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy may be needed for larger stones. During PCNL, the scope is inserted through a small incision in a patients back.
What Is The Best Procedure For Kidney Stone Removal
Urologists treat kidney stones based on their type, size and location. Smaller kidney stones can pass on their own without treatment. Your urologist may advise you to drink plenty of fluids to help the stone move along your urinary tract. You will be able to pass smaller stones naturally without any treatment other than pain-relieving medication.
For kidney stones that are larger and block your urinary tract or cause unbearable pain, you may need treatment to break down and remove the stones. If you are vomiting and dehydrated, urgent treatment is necessary.
Don’t Miss: How Many Stages Are There To Kidney Disease
How Successful Is Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy
In those patients who are thought to be good candidates for this treatment, about 70 to 90 percent are found to be free of stones within three months of treatment. The highest success rates seem to be in those patients with mobile stones that are located in the upper portions of the urinary tract . After treatment, some patients may still have stone fragments that are too large to be passed. These can be treated again if symptoms persist.
Can The Stone Re
It is quite likely that the person who has had kidney stone once in life can have it again. After the surgery, the surgeon will send the stone to the lab for examination. The composition of the stone is known through the results of the investigation. Further preventive steps will be advised by the doctor for prevention of the formation of stones. The most common suggestion under circumstances is lifestyle changes and diet alterations which should be followed by the patient.
Recommended Reading: How To Know If You Have Bad Kidneys
Don’t Miss: Can Aloe Vera Juice Hurt Your Kidneys
What Happens During A Ureteroscopy
Once the anesthesia takes effect and youâre asleep, your urologist will insert the tip of the ureteroscope into your urethra .
Once the ureteroscope is in the bladder, your urologist releases a sterile solution through the tip of the scope. This fills the bladder so its walls can be seen more clearly. They then gently guide the scope into a ureter. If there is a concern about a kidney, the scope can be moved all the way up into that organ.
It may take up to 30 minutes for them to observe your urinary tract. If a procedure is done to remove or break up a stone, or to take a tissue sample for a biopsy, the ureteroscopy may take longer.
A ureteroscopy that uses a laser to break up small kidney stones may take about 90 minutes. The type of laser used with the ureteroscope is called a âHolmium laser.â A similar procedure uses a tiny basket at the end of the scope to grab and remove a stone.
Do I Need Surgery For My Kidney Stone
Kidney stones are small, hard deposits that can form in one or both of your kidneys. Created by a build-up of minerals, these deposits are usually passed through the urinary tract without issue. Unfortunately, a larger stone can become lodged inside the ureter the small tube between the bladder and kidney. While kidney stones are usually no larger than a tiny pebble, they can cause immense pain for those struggling to pass them.
If youre a patient suffering from kidney stones, you may be wondering whether youll need to undergo surgery. Here are five important questions to consider about stone removal and treatment options:
Recommended Reading: What Is The Size Of Kidney
Why Do I Keep Getting These Kidney Stones
The majority of stones are caused by lack of proper hydration. This allows salts and minerals to crystallize in the urine. Some stones also may be caused by urinary stasis or chronic infections in the urinary tract. Some patients may experience kidney stones as a side effect of their medication for controlling headaches or migraines, blood pressure or viral infections such as HIV. Lastly, some patients may just have genetic abnormalities that predispose them to stone formation.
Whatever the reason, some lifestyle modifications can help prevent stones from forming in the future. Proper hydration and nutrition such as limiting oxalate-containing foods are the best ways to keep kidney stones at bay. Urine collection and analysis also can shed light on what predisposes some patients to stones. With this information, your urologist may prescribe you medications that help prevent the formation of kidney stones.