Whos Most Likely To Get A Kidney Infection
Women and children are most at risk of developing a kidney infection, as well as other urinary tract infections such as cystitis.
In women, the urethra is closer to the anus than in men, making it easier for bacteria from the anus to enter the urethra accidentally. The female urethra is also much shorter than the male urethra . This makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder and move into the kidneys.
Other factors can also put you more at risk of developing a kidney infection, including:
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What Are Dialysis And Hemodialysis
Dialysis cleanses the body of waste products by body by use of filter systems. There are two types of dialysis, 1) hemodialysis and 2) peritoneal dialysis.
Hemodialysis uses a machine filter called a dialyzer or artificial kidney to remove excess water and salt, to balance the other electrolytes in the body, and to remove waste products of metabolism. Blood is removed from the body and flows through tubing into the machine, where it passes next to a filter membrane. A specialized chemical solution flows on the other side of the membrane. The dialysate is formulated to draw impurities from the blood through the filter membrane. Blood and dialysate are never touched in the artificial kidney machine.
For this type of dialysis, access to the blood vessels needs to be surgically created so that large amounts of blood can flow into the machine and back to the body. Surgeons can build a fistula, a connection between a large artery and vein in the body, usually in the arm, that allows a large amount of blood to flow into the vein. This makes the vein swell or dilate, and its walls become thicker so that it can tolerate repeated needle sticks to attach tubing from the body to the machine. Since it takes many weeks or months for a fistula to mature enough to be used, significant planning is required if hemodialysis is to be considered as an option.
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Feeling Tired It Could Be Your Kidneys
You only get one liver but you get two kidneys just as well as the kidneys are not as robust as the liver and are not able to repair and renew themselves like your liver can. So, we thought it opportune to remind you that you need to take care of these 2-cashew nut-shaped organs that lie at the back of the abdominal cavity.
Kidney disease is common and contributes to 15% of all hospitalisations and 10% of deaths.
Patients with kidney disease may present with-
- No symptoms at all thus the importance of regular blood and urine tests to check
- Reduction in the amount of urine produced less than 400 ml over 24 hours is abnormal
The kidneys perform amazing functions
- Your kidneys filter your blood stream removing the waste products of metabolism from your blood, as well as any drugs you may be taking.
- They control the balance of salt and potassium in your blood.
- They make the hormone called erythropoietin which stimulates your bone marrow to produce red blood cells which carry oxygen to your cells thus, your energy levels reflect your kidney function
- They make the enzyme called renin which exerts control over your blood pressure
Tests for kidney function include
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How To Prevent A Kidney Infection
Preventing a kidney infection is really all about preventing a urinary tract infection and getting prompt treatment if you ever get one. While youve probably heard that guzzling cranberry juice or taking certain supplements can keep UTIs away, the science is far too mixed to consider either of these a definitive way to prevent UTIs, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
Heres a more science-backed tip to take note of: Whenever you feel a potential bladder infection coming on, make it a habit to drink enough water every day to stay hydrated. That will ensure youre peeing often enough to help flush out bacteria that could possibly lead to a urinary tract infection. The NIDDK recommends peeing as often as you get the urge, but definitely at least every three to four hours, since urine hanging out in your bladder for too long may help bacteria to grow.
Dr. Kaufman also says peeing after you have sex, if you can, might be helpful if you tend to develop UTIs after sex. Theres not a ton of evidence to back this up as a prevention strategy, but it doesnt do any harm to make a habit of it. For people with vaginas that get recurrent infections that only happen after sex, your doctor may recommend a single dose of a prophylactic antibiotic that you can take each time you have sex to help prevent infection.4
Blood Tests For Kidney Disease
The best measure of kidney function is the glomerular filtration rate , which can be estimated from a blood test that checks the blood for creatinine .
A normal GFR result is higher than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. If the result is persistently less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for at least three months, this confirms that the person has chronic kidney disease.
Blood tests can reveal other abnormalities of kidney function, such as:
- high levels of acids
- high levels of potassium
- low levels of salt
- changes to the levels of calcium and phosphate.
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What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Kidney Failure Can It Be Prevented
The outlook for kidney failure depends upon the underlying condition that caused it. Kidney function may return to normal, especially if it is due to an acute obstruction and that obstruction is relieved. Other causes of decreased kidney function leading to kidney failure are due to underlying disease and occur slowly over time.
Prevention is the best chance to maintain kidney function, and controlling high blood pressure and diabetes over a lifetime can decrease the potential for progressive kidney damage. Chronic kidney failure may be managed to help monitor electrolyte and waste product levels in the bloodstream. Major abnormalities can be life-threatening, and treatment options may be limited to dialysis or transplant.
Biopsy For Kidney Disease
A biopsy means that a small piece of tissue is taken for testing in a laboratory. Biopsies used in the investigation of kidney disease may include:
- kidney biopsy the doctor inserts a special needle into the back, under local anaesthesia, to obtain a small sample of kidney tissue. A kidney biopsy can confirm a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.
- bladder biopsy the doctor inserts a thin tube into the bladder via the urethra. This allows the doctor to view the inside of the bladder and check for abnormalities. This procedure is called a cystoscopy. The doctor may take a biopsy of bladder tissue for examination in a laboratory.
Your doctor may arrange other tests, depending on the suspected cause of your kidney disorder.
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Why Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients Always Feel Tired
Polycystic Kidney Disease causes damages to the kidneys and tiredness is a common experience for the patients. Why patients always feel tired? It is caused by the different toxins building up in patients blood.
Why Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients Always Feel Tired?
Polycystic Kidneys and Kidney Function
Kidneys work to filter the waste products and excessive water in the blood. As the cyst enlarging gradually, the nearby kidney tissues will be affected, which causes kidney function decline. When kidneys cannot function well, the waste products will deposit in the body. Different toxins will lead to different symptoms in patients.
What toxins are related to the tiredness in patients with PKD?
Creatinine is the waste products of muscular metabolism, which is produced when muscle moves. When creatinine builds up in the blood, it will increase the risk of cell to die and causes fatigue and drowsiness etc.
Polyamine is a waste products, which can causes poor appetite, vomiting, proteinuria etc. It also can improve the dissolution of red blood cells and restrain the production of hemopoietin, causing renal anemia. Anemia is another cause for tiredness.
Urea and Guanidine
Urea and Guanidine are toxic to the nervous system. When there is disorder in nervous system, patients may feel cramps, tiredness, low interest in sex etc.
How to alleviate the tiredness in PKD patients?
Beware Of False Promises
Products that claim to cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease, but are not proven safe and effective for those purposes, defraud consumers of money and can place consumers at risk for serious harm. Fraudulent COVID-19 products may come in many varieties, including dietary supplements, such as vitamins and minerals, foods , as well as questionable products purporting to be drugs, herbal remedies, immune boosters, or medical devices. Using these products may lead to delays in getting proper diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.
The FDA urges consumers and patients to talk to their healthcare providers and to follow the advice from federal public health agencies about how to prevent the spread and treatment options for people with COVID-19.
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How Is Kidney Failure Treated
Kidney failure treatment is determined by the cause and extent of the problem. Treating your chronic medical condition can delay the progression of kidney disease. If your kidneys start losing their function gradually, your doctor may use one or more methods to track your health. By watching you closely, your doctor can help you maintain your kidneys function as long as possible.
Your doctor may gauge your kidney function with:
- Routine blood tests
- Blood pressure checks
Because the kidneys serve such an important purpose, people in kidney failure need treatment to keep them alive. The main treatments for kidney failure are:
- Dialysis: This treatment helps the body filter the blood .
- In hemodialysis, a machine regularly cleans your blood for you. People often receive this kidney failure treatment at a hospital or dialysis clinic, 3 or 4 days each week.
- Peritoneal dialysis cleans the blood in a slightly different way using a dialysis solution and a catheter. Sometimes, people can do their treatment at home.
Long Term Implications Of Acute Kidney Injury
Its recommended that recovered COVID-19 patients who had an AKI or ARF should be seen regularly by a kidney doctor, because their risk of developing chronic kidney disease is higher than others. COVID-19 patients who did not develop an AKI, but who had blood and/or protein in their urine, should be monitored since they are at increased risk of developing chronic- and end-stage-kidney disease.
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Cloudy Or Smelly Urine
Healthy urine is clear and doesnt have a strong odor. Cloudy or foul-smelling urine could be a sign of an infection in your kidneys or another part of your urinary tract.
One 2021 study found that about 16 percent of people with acute kidney stones had a UTI.
Cloudiness is a sign of pus in the urine, or pyuria. The smell can come from the bacteria that cause UTIs. An odor may also come from urine thats more concentrated than usual.
A UTI with a kidney stone is considered a surgical emergency with or without a fever.
Signs Of Nephritic Syndrome
Nephritic syndrome is the name given to a collection of signs and symptoms that occur when the kidneys are inflamed. The syndrome is usually the result of an underlying condition such as acute glomerulonephritis, a bacterial or viral infection, a systemic disorder such as , or a hereditary disorder like Alport-Syndrome.A syndrome is a group of symptoms that often and typically occur together and often develop as a result of another condition.
Nephritic syndrome causes the kidneys to be less efficient at filtering waste substances from the blood. In people with nephritic syndrome, protein and blood may be found in the urine. However, most cases of nephritic syndrome are chronic and have few symptoms. Acute nephritic syndrome usually does, however, present with symptoms.
Typical symptoms of acute nephritic syndrome include passing less urine than normal, having blood in the urine and swelling of the feet or face . Other possible symptoms of nephritic syndrome, also depending on the root cause may include:
- Pain in the back and/or sides
- Shortness of breath
- Symptoms related to the underlying cause, for example a rash or joint pain
The symptoms of nephritic syndrome differ, depending on whether the acute or chronic form of the syndrome is being experienced.
Symptoms of acute nephritic syndrome include:
- Edema in the face and legs
- Low production of urine
- Pain in the stomach
Chronic nephritic syndrome may lead to kidney failure in its later stages.
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Youve Got Blood In Your Urine
Although blood in your urine can be caused by a variety of underlying health problems ranging from bladder cancer to kidney stones, its also a common sign of chronic kidney disease. Because damaged kidney filters cant always properly separate blood cells from waste material, these leaked blood cells can wind up in your urine.
Can I Keep Working With Kidney Failure
Many people with kidney failure continue to work. KidneyWorks is a program to help people with kidney disease keep working. The program focuses on Americans with CKD whose kidneys have not yet failed or who are living with a transplant. If you are on dialysis, the information in the KidneyWorks paper may also provide tips to help you keep your job.
The Americans with Disabilities Act means that an employer cant legally fire you just because youre on dialysis or have had a kidney transplant. The law requires an employer to make reasonable changes to the workplace for a person with a disability. For example, your employer may give you lighter physical jobs or schedule your work hours around your dialysis sessions. If youre on peritoneal dialysis, youll need space and time to change the dialysis solution in the middle of the work day. Most employers can make these adjustments.
If your employer isnt willing to meet your needs, your dialysis clinics renal social worker may be able to help find a way to satisfy both you and your employer.
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Signs Of Kidney Disease
What Is Peritoneal Dialysis
Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of the abdominal cavity as the dialysis filter to rid the body of waste and to balance electrolyte levels. A catheter is placed in the abdominal cavity through the abdominal wall by a surgeon, and it is expected to remain in place for the long term. The dialysis solution is then dripped in through the catheter and left in the abdominal cavity for a few hours after which, it is drained out. During that time, waste products leech from the blood flowing through the lining of the abdomen and attach themselves to the fluid that has been instilled by the catheters. Often, patients instill the dialysate fluid before bedtime and drain it in the morning.
There are benefits and complications for each type of dialysis. Not every patient can choose which type he or she would prefer. The treatment decision depends on the patients illness and their past medical history along with other issues. Usually, the nephrologist will have a long discussion with the patient and family to decide what will be the best option available.
Dialysis is lifesaving. Without it, patients whose kidneys no longer function would die relatively quickly due to electrolyte abnormalities and the buildup of toxins in the bloodstream. Patients may live many years with dialysis but other underlying and associated illnesses often are the cause of death.
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