What Is Medullary Sponge Kidney
Medullary sponge kidney is a congenital disorder meaning you’re born with it. This condition causes small, fluid-filled cysts to form in the medulla of your kidneys.
Your kidneys are part of your urinary system. The medulla is the middle part of each kidney. It contains tiny tubules that collect the urine waste your kidneys filter out of your blood. The tubules empty into collecting ducts, and those ducts empty into the center of your kidney . Urine travels from your kidneys to your bladder through ureters and to the outside of your body through your urethra.
In medullary sponge kidney, the collecting ducts develop cysts and become dilated or enlarged. This causes the tissue to look spongelike.
Medullary sponge kidney usually affects both kidneys but it can also occur in only one.
What If The Infection Does Not Clear Up With Treatment
Most infections clear up with treatment. However, if an infection does not clear up, or if you have repeated infections, you may be given some special tests such as:
a type of x-ray called an intravenous pyleogram , which involves injecting a dye into a vein and taking pictures of your kidney and bladder
an ultrasound exam, which gives a picture of your kidneys and bladder using sound waves
a cytoscopic exam, which uses a hollow tube with special lenses to look inside the bladder.
Symptoms & Causes Of Water Retention Because Of Kidney Disease
Water or fluid retention, also called as edema indicates the accumulation of clear yet watery fluid in an abnormal manner in the cavities or tissues present in the human body. In simple words, fluid/water retention or edema takes place by the excess amount of trapped fluid in the tissues of a human body. The problem may affect almost every part of ones body individuals may often notice the problem more in the arms, hands, legs, feet and ankles. Edema or water retention may be caused because of many reasons, but it is very common because of kidney problems in patients.
Read Also: Does Diet Coke Cause Kidney Stones
Don’t Miss: Celery Juice Kidneys
Kidney Stones And Utis: Types And Causes
Kidney stones are caused by the crystallization of minerals, which occurs when there is not enough urine or when levels of salt-forming crystals are present. Kidney stones may be caused by many different things, including calcium oxalate, uric acid, cysteine, or xanthine.
Based on the cause, there are different types of kidney stones, which include uric acid stones, calcium stones , struvite stones, cystine stones, and xanthine stones.
Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria most commonly E.coli. When the bacteria enter the urinary system, they travel to the bladder or other parts of the urinary system. UTIs can take place either in the upper or lower urinary tracts, hence their names cystitis, which occurs in the lower urinary tract, and pyelonephritis, which occurs in the upper urinary tract.
There are two main types of UTIs complicated and uncomplicated. The two are distinguished by the factors that trigger the infection. Complicated UTIs are more commonly seen in men than women. UTIs can also be primary or recurrent, which means the infection is happening for the first time or is returning.
Treatment Of Kidney Stones
For smaller kidney stones, pain relievers may be the only treatment needed. On average it takes five to seven days to pass a kidney stone, says Dr. Abromowitz. It may pass sooner. And if the stone is very high in the ureter, it can take up to two weeks.
Larger stones that block urine flow or cause infection may require surgery, such as:
- Shock-wave lithotripsy, a noninvasive procedure using high-energy sound waves to break stones into fragments that pass out in the urine
- Ureteroscopy, in which an endoscope is inserted through the ureter to retrieve or break up the stone
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy, used for very large or irregularly shaped stones. For both procedures, a small incision is made in the back to provide access for a nephroscope, a miniature fiberoptic camera, and other small instruments. Your doctor then either removes the stone or breaks up and removes the stone .
For ongoingprevention of recurring kidney stones, your doctor may prescribe increasing fluid intake, changing diet, controlling weight, and taking medication.
To learn more about kidney stones, talk to your doctor or health care provider or search for a provider.
You May Like: What Side Is Your Kidneys On
Can Kidney Stones Affect Your Prostate
Every year more than 500,000 people seek emergency care for kidney stones. Kidney stones are hard mineral deposits that form within the kidneys when your body is not properly filtering waste and excess water. Kidney stones will eventually exit your body through the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically do not cause symptoms until they start to pass through the urinary tract. When kidney stones pass, it can be extremely painful and cause complications like blockages of the urinary tract, blood in the urine, and problems with the prostate. Were taking a closer look at how kidney stones can affect your prostate.
How Are Kidney Stones Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will discuss your medical history and possibly order some tests. These tests include:
- Imaging tests: An X-ray, CT scan and ultrasound will help your healthcare provider see the size, shape, location and number of your kidney stones. These tests help your provider decide what treatment you need.
- Blood test: A blood test will reveal how well your kidneys are functioning, check for infection and look for biochemical problems that may lead to kidney stones.
- Urine test: This test also looks for signs of infection and examines the levels of the substances that form kidney stones.
You May Like: Matcha Kidney Stones
Do I Need Any Tests To Confirm Fatigue
Its important to tell your healthcare team if you are experiencing symptoms of fatigue so that they can do some simple blood tests to exclude any treatable causes such as anaemia. If you are receiving dialysis, blood test results can show if you are getting enough dialysis, as being under dialysed can result in extreme tiredness.
If your kidney team thinks you might have sleep apnoea, they may refer you to a specialist sleep clinic for tests. Restless legs syndrome is usually diagnosed by your doctor carrying out a clinical examination and asking a series of questions.
Read Also: Is Apple Cider Vinegar Bad For Your Kidneys
What Are Kidney Stones And What Causes Them
Kidney stones are small, hard collections of minerals that form in the kidneys. This collection can turn into a crystalized mass or stone irritating the kidney, ureters, and bladder. Symptoms of a kidney stone can be similar to a UTI where you may experience painful urination, back pain, or fever. But there are a few symptoms of a kidney stone you should know about that separate the two such as:
- Blood in urine turning it bright pink, red, or brown
- Severe back pain that can radiate into your belly or groin
- Pain that comes in waves or fluctuates
- Nausea and/or vomiting
There are a few factors that can increase your risk of developing a kidney stone. General risk factors of developing a kidney stone include:
- Dehydration Not drinking enough water throughout the day or losing a large volume of fluid through sweating, living in a hot climate
- Family history
- Medications supplements high in calcium can increase your kidney stone risk
Also Check: Tea Good For Kidneys
Can You Tell If You Passed A Stone
Dr. De cautions people to be careful with the phrase passing a stone. Theres the passing the stone from the kidney to the bladder, which is the painful part, she says. Then theres the bladder out the urethra, which generally doesnt cause pain. Often, people only know they urinated out a stone if they are straining their urine or see it in the toilet. If you have severe pain or severe nausea or vomiting, head to the ER.
You may be given a urine mesh screen or a pee strainer, which you place on top of the toilet seat to collect any material in your urine. Your kidney stone may look like a grain of sand or a piece of gravel. You should keep any stones you collect in a cup with a lid or a plastic bag to keep them safe and dry until you can give them to your doctor for analysis. Your doctor will more than likely give you information on how to reduce your risk of kidney stones like:
- Drinking plenty of water.
- Eating fruits and vegetables with citrate like lemons, limes, oranges and melons.
- Limiting salt.
Can A Large Kidney Stone Cause An Injury
Your risk of injury from a kidney stone can go up based on the size and location of the stone. A larger stone could get stuck in a ureter, causing pressure to build up. This can lead to renal failure and, in the worst-case scenario, you could lose your kidney. The chance of passing a 1 cm stone is less than 10%, and stones larger than 1 cm typically dont pass.
Read Also: Seltzer Water Kidney Stones
Factors That Increase Your Risk Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones often have no single cause, and several factors may increase your risk for getting them. Some of these factors are listed below. They include:
Lack of water
You need to make enough pee to dilute the things that can turn into stones. If you donât drink enough or sweat too much, your pee may look dark. It should be pale yellow or clear.
If youâve had a stone before, you should make about 8 cups of urine a day. So aim to down about 10 cups of water daily, since you lose some fluids through sweat and breathing. Swap a glass of water for a citrus drink. The citrate in lemonade or orange juice can block stones from forming.
How Do You Get Kidney Stones
While we dont know what causes stones to form, we do know some stones form more easily than others. Dehydration, not consuming enough fluids, can contribute to stones forming, as there may not be enough urine to wash out the microscopic crystals.
Calcium stones, the most common kidney stones, seem to affect more men than women and they are most often in the twenties when it happens.
- Too much calcium in the urine caused by disease, such as hyperparathyroidism
- Having too much sodium, usually taken in through salt
Although food doesnt cause the stone formation, some people may be told to avoid high calcium foods if they are prone to developing stones.
Cystine stones are caused by a disorder that runs in families and affects both men and women.
Struvite stones are virtually always caused by a urinary tract infection as a result of an enzyme secreted by certain types of bacteria. Because more women than men have UTIs, more women than men develop struvite stones. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.
Uric acid stones affect more men than women and they can also occur in people who already get calcium stones. People who have high uric acid levels may have or develop gout.
Read Also: What Std Causes Kidney Pain
Is Drinking A Lot Of Water Good For Your Kidneys
Water helps the kidneys remove wastes from your blood in the form of urine. Water also helps keep your blood vessels open so that blood can travel freely to your kidneys, and deliver essential nutrients to them. But if you become dehydrated, then it is more difficult for this delivery system to work.
Also Check: How To Heal Chronic Fatigue
How Will I Know If I Have A Kidney Infection
To find out if you have a kidney infection, doctors may do tests such as:
- Urine tests to look for bacteria or other signs of infection, such as white blood cells, in your urine
- Blood tests
- Imaging tests to look at your kidneys, such as an X-ray, ultrasound or CT scan
- Rectal exam for men, where the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the anus to see if the prostate gland is enlarged and blocks the flow of urine
Don’t Miss: Are Almonds Bad For Your Kidneys
How Can I Prevent A Kidney Infection
You may be able to lower your chance of getting a kidney infection by:
- Drinking plenty of water
- Urinating as soon as you feel the need to
- Urinating after having sex
- Wiping from front to back after going to the bathroom, if you are a woman. This helps to keep bacteria from your vagina or anus from getting into your urethra.
- Avoiding the use of deodorant sprays or douches in your genital area
- Getting treatment for constipation . Constipation is not a symptom of kidney infection but it can increase your chance of having bacteria in your urinary tract because it can make it difficult to empty your bladder fully.
How Do Doctors Treat Kidney Stones
The treatment for a kidney stone depends on:
- The size of the stone
- The type of stone
- If the stone is causing you pain
- If the stone is blocking your urinary tract
If your kidney stone is small, your doctor may have you take pain medicine and drink fluids to help push the stone through your urinary tract and out through your urine .
If your kidney stone is large or if it is blocking your urinary tract, a different treatment may be needed. Treatment options include:
Also Check: Can Diet Coke Cause Kidney Stones
What Questions Should I Ask My Healthcare Provider
- Do I have a kidney stone or is there another reason for my symptoms?
- What type of kidney stone do I have?
- What size is my kidney stone?
- Where is my kidney stone located?
- How many kidney stones do I have?
- Do I need treatment or will I be able to pass the kidney stone?
- Should I be tested for kidney disease?
- What changes should I make to my diet?
- What type of procedure should I have to get rid of the stones?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Kidney stones can be frustrating at best and agonizingly painful at the worst. To stop your situation from getting worse, you should be evaluated by a healthcare provider as soon as possible. The pain can get severe, and surgery might be necessary. Remember: dont skip your prescriptions, drink lots of water and follow any dietary guidelines. Also, remember that kidney stones are a temporary condition. They wont bother you forever.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/03/2021.
How Are Kidney Infections Treated
A physician will treat the disease based on his or her examination. He or she may start the patient on the standard treatment of a course of antibiotics before the lab tests results are available. The medication may change once the exact strain of bacteria is revealed by the lab tests.
If the treatment is effective, the patient should feel better in two to three days. If not, your healthcare provider will start looking for additional problems. Most antibiotic treatments last for 14 days and it is essential that patients take the pills as recommended for the full 14 days even though symptoms may disappear after a few days. The disappearance of symptoms does not mean all bacteria are killed. Some may remain and the infection may reappear.
There is also a concern that those bacteria that remain may develop resistance to the medication. For some reason the disease is more difficult to treat in men and they may have to take medication for up to six weeks. Patients with severe illness, those that have significant nausea and vomiting, high fevers, significant pain and signs of dehydration may be hospitalized for a few days while the antibiotics are administered intravenously. Urine samples are taken after about six weeks of treatment and examined to insure the bacterial infection is eradicated.
Read Also: Acv For Kidneys
How Long Does It Take To Pass A Kidney Stone
The amount of time it can take for you to pass a kidney stone is different from anothers. A stone thats smaller than 4 mm may pass within one to two weeks. A stone thats larger than 4 mm could take about two to three weeks to completely pass.
Once the stone reaches the bladder, it typically passes within a few days, but may take longer, especially in an older man with a large prostate. However, pain may subside even if the stone is still in the ureter, so its important to follow up with your healthcare provider if you dont pass the stone within four to six weeks.
Signs And Symptoms Of Uti In The Elderly
Interestingly enough, the elderly with a UTI are often misdiagnosed with senior dementia or Alzheimers disease, because a UTI can mimic symptoms of such conditions. Also, according to Nursing magazine between 30% and 40% of elderly patients with serious infection dont exhibit the hallmark sign of fever due to the inability of the immune system to mount a response to infection due to the effects of aging. As the bacteria in the urine spread to the bloodstream and cross the blood-brain barrier, confusion and other cognitive difficulties can be the result. Sudden onset of these symptoms should lead one to investigate possible UTI. An elderly person who is experiencing signs of mental difficulties should also be closely monitored for other signs of a UTI such as:
- Urine that appears cloudy
You May Like: Grapes For Kidney Stones